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The work is published in Dutch also under the title of 




LEIDEN 1868. 

And in German under the title of 


LEIDKN 1876 

JAAI 2 8 B66 

^C 7 ? 



L. L. D. 



E F .A. O 


The Grammar of the Japanese language , which accompanied with this Preface , 
is simultaneously published in the English and in the Dutch languages, is an 
original work, not a remodelling or an imitation of any other works of that 
stamp at present existing. As the result of a many years' study of the Japanese 
literature, it describes the written or book language, as it really exists in 
its ancient, as well as in its modern forms. 

It also contains the author's own observations on the domain of the spoken 
language, which his intercourse with native Japanese in France, in Engeland 
and especially in the Netherlands has afforded him ample opportunities to make; 
opportunities, which have been the more valuable to him, in as much as that 
they brought him in contact with people belonging to the most civilized and the 
most learned, as well as with those of the inferior classes of Japanese society. 
Thence he derives the right, even though he has never actually trodden the soil 
of Japan, to embrace the spoken language in the range of his observations, 
and to treat it in connection with the written language. 

The author is convinced that, all he has quoted from Japanese writings, 
whatever their character, is genuine: he relies upon it himself, and trusts that 
the experience of others, unprejudiced, will find that it is so. 

With regard to the manner in which he has conceived the language, and 
in all its phenomena treated it analytically and synthetically, he believes it to 
be in consonance with the spirit of this language, simple and natural, and, 
his daily experience confirms this, thoroughly practical. 


This method of his, was made known in general outline ten years ago, when 
he published the Proeve eener Japansche Spraakkunst door Mr. J. H. DONKER CTJR- 
TIUS, and the seal of approbation was affixed to it by the judgment of scholars, 
whereas Mr. s. R. BROWN, who, in 1863, published the very important contribu- 
tion: Colloquial Japanese or conversational sentences and dialogues in English and 
Japanese, not only founded his Introductory remarks on the Grammar, on the 
Author's method, but with a few exceptions, followed it in its whole extent. 

The Grammar, now published, to lay claim to completeness, ought to be 
followed by a treatise on the Syntax, the materials for which are prepared. It 
will be published as a separate work, and be of small compass. 

By these aids, initiated in the treatment of the language, the student may, 
with profit, make use of the Japanese-Dutch-English Dictionary, for the publi- 
cation of which the author has prepared all the materials necessary, and by so 
doing he will have at his disposal the most important means of access to the 
Japanese literature. 




As the first edition of this Grammar published in 1867 by command of His 
Majesty's Minister for colonial affairs is out of print, the publisher E. J. BRILL, 
being now proprietor of the Chinese types, acquired by order of the Dutch 
Government, has resolved on a re-issue. 

The Author has found no inducement to alter or modify the matter of this 
work; only a few words have been occasionally inserted, others of less importance 
removed in order to get room for a new instance more fit to elucidate the 
grammatical rule. There are also some notices added, as on page 157 concerning 
the Introduction of the Western Calendar, and page 172 some words about the 
new Gold-currency. 


Some other additions are to be found in the ADDENDA to the book. The paging 
of both editions is the same; the second, however, is accompanied by a REGISTER 
of words treated on in the work, for which the Author is indebted to Mess* 8 - 
L. SERRURIER and w. VISSERING, who have used this Grammar as a basis for 
the study of the Japanese language. 

The Author, being now engaged in printing the Japanese-Dutch and Japa- 
nese-English Dictionary mentioned in the Preface to the first edition, is happy 
in recommending to the student the valuable Japanese-English Dictionary of 
J. C. HEPBURN, Shang-hai 1872, and the Dictionnaire Japonais-Fran^ais , public 
par LEON PAGES, Paris 1868. 

LEIDEN, 26 July 1876. 





1. Connection of the Japanese with the Chinese 
language. The necessity of uniting to the 
study of the Japanese, that of the Chinese 
language 1. 

2. On the writing of the Japanese 2. 

3. Introduction of the written and the spoken 
language of China into Japan 3. 

4. Application of the Chinese writing, to the 
writing of the Japanese language 4. 

5. The Japanese writing proper. 

a. The Kdta-kdna 6. 

b. The Fira-gdna 6. 

6. The Japanese phonetic system 7. 

A. Systematic arrangement of the 47 sounds , 
expressed by Chinese and Japanese Kdna- 
signs 7. 

B. The Irova in Chinese characters and in 
Kdta-kdtia signs 9. 

7. Repetition of syllables. Stenographic 
signs. Stops 11. 

8. Remarks on the Japanese system of sounds, 
and the expression of it with our letters . . 12. 

9. Doubling of consonants by assimilation ... 18. 

10. Accent and rhythm 18. 

11. The Japanese running-hand Fira-gdiM. 


a. The Irova in Fira-gdna 22. 

b. Synopsis of the Fira-ffdna-ch&mcters most 

in use 22. 

12. Written , or book language 29. 

A. Exclusively Chinese 29. 

Chinese dialects in Japan 30. 

Chinese text with Japanese translation. . 82. 

B. Books written in the Japanese language. 34. 

C. Style, a. Old Japanese 85. 

6. New Japanese 38. 

13. Language spoken. General conversational 

language and dialects 89. 

Epistolary style 42. 

14. On the parts of speech 42- 

15. Glance at the arrangement and connection of 
words in Japanese 44. 


Mil AS 

$ 1. The root 49. 

2. Radical or primitive word 49. 

;j. Radical in composition 49, 



A. Coordination 50. 

B. Subordination 50. 

I. Genitive subordination 50. 

II. Objective subordination. 

1. direct 50. 

2. indirect 50. 

III. The radical form, as definition before 

adjectives 50. 

Euphonic modification 50. 

$ 4. Gender 51. 

A. Gender logically included in particular 
names 51. 

B. 1. Gender indicated by the prefixes 

and Me 51. 

2. Gender expressed by Ono and Meno. 52. 

3. By Ko and Me, old-Japanese Ki 
and Mi 52. 

C. Application of the ideas of male and fe- 
male to objects without sex 53. 

D. Chinese expressions for the distinction 

of sex 53. 

$ 5. Number 53. 

A. Singular 53. 

B. I. Plural expressed by repetition of the 

noun 54. 

II. Plural expressed by nouns used ad- 
jectively which signify a quantity, 
generality 55. 

1. Japanese forms 55. 

2. Chinese forms 56. 

III. The plural expressed by collective 
words as Ra, Tomo (domo), Gara, 
Sara, Nami, Tatti, Siu, Gat a and 
Nado, used as suffixes 56. 

IV. Plural expressed by adverbs, which 
unite the idea of multitude to the pre- 
dicate verb, Mina, Nokordzu, Koto- 
gotoku 59. 

$ 6. Isolating of the noun by the suffix r\, va; 

J7, wa; rt, ba 60. 

$ 1. Declension 61. 

I. Nominative. Vocative 01. 

II. Accusative 62. 

III. Genitive 63. 

1. Ga, no index of the subject .... 64. 

2. Genitives suffixes No, Na and Tsu 66. 

IV. Dative and Terminative. The suffix 

Ve (ye). 67. 

The suffix, Ni, as sign of the 

a. Dative or Ablative. . . . 68. 

l- .;. 

b. Local 68, 

c. Modal 69. 

(1. Casual and Instrumental 69. 

e. Dative of the person 69. 

/ Dative of the thing 69. 

g. Terminative 70. 

V. To, Nite, De 70. 

VI. Ablative, characterized by Yori or by 
Kara. . . 71. 


8. I. Qualifying nouns, which serve as pro- 
nouns 74. 

A. For ,,I" 74. 

B. For the person spoken to 74. 

Particular names of human relations to 
distinguish the person concerned 77. 

II. Pronouns proper , formed from the adverbs 
of place Wa, A, Ka, Ko, To, So, 
Da (Do), Idzu 79. 

II. a. Immediate compounds with Wa ... 80. 

II. b. Immediate compounds of the other ad- 
verbs of place with Ko (ku), Tsi, 
Tsira and Isutsi 80. 

II. c. Da-ga, Wa-ga .82. 

II. d. Pronouns possessive, formed from ra- 
dical words indicating place, by suf- 
fixing No 83. 

II. e. Substantive pronouns , formed from ad- 
verbs of place, by suffixing Re . . . . 85. 
1) Ware, 2) Are, Ore, 3) Kare, 4) Kore. 86. 

5) Sore, 6) 87. 

7) Tare (Dare), Tore (Dore), Idzure. 88. 
III. Determinative and reflective pronouns. . 89. 

A. 1. Onore, onodzukdra 89. 

2. Mi, Midsukdra, Waga-mi .... 89. 

B. Expressions borrowed from the Chi- 
nese: 1. Sin, 2. Zi-sin, 3. Zi-bwi, 

4. Zi-zen 93. 

IV. Expressions of reciprocity: Tagaini, Ai. 95. 
V. Pronouns indefinite: Tito, Aru-fito, Mo- 
no. Dare mo and Nanimo followed by 

a verb negative 95. 

VI. Relative pronoun Tokoro 97. 

VII. Interrogative pronouns derived from Ta 

or To, vulgo Da or Do 97. 

1. Nani, what? 98. 



2. Ikd, how? 101. 

Interrogative pronouns with the suffix, 

mo 102. 

VIII. Arrangement of the personal pronouns in 

the conversational language 102. 



9. Distinction between the attributive and pre- 
dicate forms .' 105. 

I. The adjective in the written lan- 

A. Joined to a noun substantive 105. 

B. Adjectives in ki. 

1. a. Ki, termination of the adjective, 

used as attributive 105. 

b. Adjectives in ki, used as nouns 
concrete 106. 

2. The termination ku, as adverbial form. 

The same, isolated by the suffix va. 106. 

3. a. Si , form of the adjective , as pre- 

dicate 106. 

b. As such, superseded by Kari . . 107. 

4. Sa, forming nouns abstract 107. 

5. List of adjectives in ki 107. 

6. Examples showing the use of the forms 
cited 110. 

II. The adjective according tothe spo- 
ken language 112. 

Examples, showing the use of the forms. . . . 112. 

Derivative adjectives. 

10. Adjectives in karri and garu 113. 

11. aril 114. 

12. // ndrti, na and tarv. 114. 

$13. Derivative adjectives in ka 116. 

$ 14. , . yaka 117. 

15. H keki or koki. . . 119. 

16. , nki 119. 

17. kd-nki 124. 

18. // ,> ni-siki 12B. 

$ 19. . . beki 127. 

20. naki 127. 

21. Adjectives with the negative prefix Na, 

or the Chinese Fit 128. 

22. Adjectives with a previous definition. . . 129. 

28. Definition of adjectives by adverbs, which 
demote the presence of a quality in full 

degree 180. 



$ 26. 


Definition of adjectives by adverbs , which 
denote the presence of a quality in a 
higher degree. Absolute comparative . . 130. 
The relative or real comparative. 

1. Attribution of a quality in equal de- 
gree ................... 131. 

2. Attribution of a quality in a higher 
degree .................. 132. 

The absolute superlative .......... 134. 

The relative superlative .......... 135. 

Expression of the excess of a quality . 136. 

$ 36. 
< 37. 






$ 48. 
,< U) 
$ 50. 



The ancient Japanese cardinal numbers . 137. 

The Chinese cardinal numbers 141. 

The ordinal numerals 142. 

The iterative numerals 143. 

The doubling or multiplying numerals. . 144. 

The sort numbers 144. 

The distributive numbers 145. 

The fractional, or broken numbers . . . 146. 

Numeral substantives 147. 

I. Japanese numeratives 148. 

II. Chinese numeratives 149. 

Notation of time. 

Enumeration of years 154. 

Chronological notation of years 155. 

1. after the cycle 155. 

2. after the years of governments 156. 

Enumeration of years by year-names. . . 157. 
Introduction of the Western Calendar in 

Japan 157. 

Division of the solar year 158. 

Enumeration of months 159. 

Enumeration of the days 160. 

Notation of hours 162. 

Measures, weights and coins. 

Measures of length 166. 

Superficial measures 168. 

Measures of capacity 168. 

Weights 169. 

Iron , copper and bronze coins. 171. 

Silver coins 171. 

Gold coins 172. 

The new Japanese currency 172. 





$ 53. 
$ 54. 
$ 55. 
$ 56. 
$ 57. 
$ 58. 

I. Adverbs proper 173. 

II. Improper adverbs, or adverbial expres- 
sions 173. 

1. Nouns 173. 

2. Verbs in the gerund 173. 

Distribution of adverbs according to their 

signification 173. 

Adverbs of quality 173. 

degree 174. 

// // circumstance 176. 

,/ place and space 177. 

time 178. 

// // manner 181. 

connecting propositions 182. 

Alphabetical synopsis of the adverbs cited. 182. 



$ 60. Retrospect of the inflexions 185. 

61. Distinction of the words expressive of re- 
lation 185. 

62. Nouns, used as expressive of relation. . . 186. 

63. Verbs in the gerund, used as words ex- 
pressive of relation 192. 

A. With a previous accusative 192. 

B. With a previous local, or dative . . . 193. 
Alphabetical synopsis of the words expres- 
sive of relation treated. . . 195. 


$ 64. Voices of the verb 197. 

65. Moods 197. 

$ 66. Tenses 198. 

67. Person and number 198. 

68. The verbal root 198. 

$ 69. The imperative mood 199. 

70. Closing-form of the verb 200. 

71. The substantive and attributive form. . . 201. 
$ 72. Gexund. 

1. Origin of the form 202. 


2. Modifications introduced by the spoken 

, . . . 203. 

Examples of the use of the gerund. . . . 205. 

73. The verbal root in the Local (subjunc- 
tive form). . . 205. 

74. The concessive form expressed by mo or 

tomo 206. 

expressed by domo or iddomo 208. 

$ 75. The form of the Future 208. 


I. The simple Future 208. 

Etymology of this form 209. 

Examples of the use of the forms cited. 211. 
The certain Future of the written 

language 212. 

II. The periphrastic Future. 

A. of the written language, formed by 

1. . . aran, arame , ran 212. 

2. ..naramu, narame, naran. . . 213. 

3. . . aranan = arinan 213. 

4. . . swran 213. 

5. . . mast 213. 

B. The periphrastic Future of the spo- 
ken language 214. 

76. The suppositive form 215. 

77. The continuative verbal form (art, iri, 

ori, uri) 217. 

78. I. . . te ari, . . te ori, .. te iri 218. 

II. . . tari, . . taru 219. 

Forms of the past tense. 

$ 79. . . tari, . . taru, ..ta 220. 

$ 80. . . eri, . . esi, . . eru, . . ereba 222. 

81. . . ki, . . si, . . ken 224. 

82. . . ken, . . kesi, . . keru, . . keran 227. 

83. . . tari-ki, . . tari-st, . . tan-ken., 

. . te-ki , . . te-si , . . ten 228. 

84. [..],, ..nan; \_..nun\, ..nuru, 

. . nureba , . . nuran 229. 

85. ..tsu, ..tsutsii; ..tsur)i, u, eba, fut. an. 231. 

86. Synopsis of the inflected forms 233. 

87. Causative or Factive verbs in si or se. . 234. 

88. Causative verbs in sime 238. 

The passive form. 

89. Its derivation and signification 240. 

I. Passive verbs of the first class. . . . 240. 

II. i. second . . . 241. 

III. ,, third ... 242. 
90. On the government of the passive verb. . 245. 

Examples of the use of the passive forms. 245. 


The negative form of the Japanese verb. 

91. I. Theory of the Derivation 247. 

Examples of the formation of nega- 

Jive verbs 248. 

II. Inflection of the negative verbs. . . . 249. 

92. Continuative form of the negative verb. . 250. 

93. Form of the forbidding Imperative. . . . 251. 

94. Forms of the negative preterit 252. 

95. Forms of the negative future 253. 

Examples of the use of the negative forms. 254. 

Verbs expressing the being, the becoming 
and the causing to be. 

$ 96. Ar)i, w, to be 260. 

97. Or)i, u, to dwell 263. 

98. I, Ite, Iru, to be in 264. 

99. Conjugation of nondeflecting verbs in i. . 265. 

Synopsis of nondeflecting verbs in i. . . . 265. 

$ 100. I. Ni, Nite, Nan, to be. . . 269. 

II. Nar)i, u, to be 270. 

III. Nar)e, u, eru, uru, to become. . . 271. 

IV. Nas)i, u, to cause to be 273. 

$ 101. Mas)i, u, 1. to abide; 2. to be 274. 

102. Samurairi, Sorai, Soro 276. 

103. S)i, u, itru, to do 279. 

I. Use of the root-form si 279. 

II. Si, acting as verb 280. 

Synopsis of the conjugational forms 

of si 281. 

Compounds with si 282. 

III. On the government of S)i, u, uru, 

to do 285. 

$ 104. Besi, Beki, Beku, may, can, shall. . . 291. 

I. Derivation and signification 291. 

II. Inflectional forms of Ben 292. 

III. On the government of Besi 293. 

IV. 1. Tokus}i, u, uru, to be able. . . 294. 
2. Atavdz)i, u, not to be able. . . 295. 

V. Ahete, Aete, daring 295. 

VI. Too-sen tar)i, u, it should be ... 296. 
105. The desiderative verbs, formed by Ta, 

desirous 296. 

$ 106. Verbs expressing the leaving off of an 

action 297. 

I. formed by Maki 297. 

II. Tami 298. 

III. // Simavi 298. 

107. The adverbial form of a verb 299. 

$ 108. The derivative form meri 300. 

109. Nari, Naki, Naku, not to exist. . .301. 


I. The root Na 301. 

II. Nasi, b.Nai, there is not 302. 

III. Naki, &Nai, the adjective form. . 303. 

IV. Naku. the adverbial form 304. 

V. Verbs compounded with Naku . . . 305. 

1. NakU-si, Nakii-se, 2. Nakari, 
3. Nakeri, 4. Nakii-nari. 
Synopsis of the inflectional forms and 

derivatives of Na)si, In, leu 307. 

Remarks on the compound verbs. 

110. I. Verbs compounded with substantives. 309. 

II. Verbs compounded with verbs .... 309. 

Distinctive verbs and verbal forms 
expressive of courtesy. 

111. General observation 311. 

112. The honorary passive form 312. 

113. I. Tamavi, A Tamai 314. 

II. Tamavari, Uke-tamavari 315. 

114. Mdtsuri, to attend 316. 

Distinctive verbs expressing. 

115. Being. Famberi, Moosi 317. 

$ 116. Doing. Si, Ita&i, Asobasi 318. 

$ 117. Seeing, Showing. Mi, Mise, Hoi-ken etc. 319. 
5 118. Saying. Ivi, li-masi, Nori-tamai, Oose, 

Kikase, Moosi 319. 

119. Giving. Age, Sasdge, Kudasare, Tsuke, 

Tordsime, Tordse, Tan 321. 

$ 120. Going and Coming. Mairi, Mairare, 

Mairase, Mairasare, Ide, Agari, Ma- 

kdri, Tsika-dzuki 323. 



$ 121. Classification of the Jap. conjunctions. . 326. 

A. Coordinative conjunctions. 

$ 122. I. Copulative conjunctions 327. 

$ 123. II. Disjunctive conjunctions 329. 

124. III. Adversative conjunctions .'Wl. 

j 125. IV. Conclusive conjunctions 334. 

j 126. V. Explanatory conjunctions 335. 

B. Subordinativc conjunctions. 

j 127. I. Conjunctions of place and time. . . 336. 



$ 128. II. Conjunctions of quality and manner. 338. 
$ 129. III. Conj unctions of causality. 

a. Conjunctions of an actual cause. 339. 

b. Conjunctions of a possible cause 
(Conditional conjunctions) 341. 

130. IV. Congunctions of the purpose .... 343. 

131. V. Conjunctions of concession 344. 

132. The relative comparative of propositions. 346. 
Alphabetical synopsis of the conjunctions treated. 348. 


I. On arbitrary grammatical signs in Japanese 

books 349. 

II. On quotation 350. 

III. On Accent 351. 

IV. On the dialects of Han, U, and Tdng. . 351. 

V. Remark on Si 352. 

VI. Remark on Zari 352. 

VII. to kayo, 353. 

VIII. Masi in the epistolary style superseded tyMoosi 353. 




In its general character, it is true, the Japanese is cognate to the Mongolian 
and Mandju languages, but with regard to its development, it is quite original, 
and it has remained so notwithstanding the later admixture of Chinese words, 
since it rules these as a foreign element, and subjects them to its own con- 


In the Japanese language, as it is now spoken and written, two elements, 
the Japanese and Chinese alternate continually and, by so doing, form a mixed 
language which, in its formation, has followed the same course as, for instance, 
the English in which, the more lately adopted Romance element, which forms a 
woof only, in like manner, is governed grammatically by the Anglo-Saxon. 

(in the study of the Japanese language the distinction of the two elements, 
is of the greatest importance; and as the Chinese element is rooted in the Chi- 
nese language, both spoken and written, and thence is to be explained, the 
student of Japanese ought to know so much of the Chinese language, as shall 
enable him to read and unterstand a Chinese text. 

The Japanese learns Chinese by means of his mother tongue, thus one, who 


is not a Japanese and does not understand Japanese, but wishes to learn it, 
must make himself master of Chinese by another way; to do this, he will be 
obliged to make use of the resources which already exist in European languages. 
Whoever supposes that he can learn the Japanese language without, at the 
same time, studying the Chinese will totally fail of attaining his object either 
theoretically or practically. Even let him be so far master of the language spo- 
ken, as to be able to converse fluently with the natives, the simplest communi- 
cation from a Japanese functionary, the price-list of the tea-dealer, the tickets 
with which the haberdasher or mercer labels his parcels will remain unintelligible 
to him; because they contain Chinese, if, indeed; they are not wholly composed 
of Chinese. Thus , whoever wishes to learn Japanese thoroughly , by means of this 
grammar, is supposed to possess, in some degree, knowledge of the Chinese 
written language. 


The Japanese write Chinese but have, at the same time, their own native 
writing derived from the Chinese and which they, in imitation of the Chinese, 
write in perpendicular columns which follow one another, from the right hand 
to the left. Our alphabet, for that purpose would have to be written thus: 













If the words are written in a cross direction, they begin at the right hand, 

The circumstance, that the Japanese writting does not run in the same di- 
rection as ours, but crosses it, or takes an opposite course, causes difficulty as 
soon as we have to couple Japanese writting with our own. Since, the Japanese, 
adhering to the custom of writting their words under one another, have altered 
their perpendicular columns of letters to cross lines , which thus show <j pq o ; 
to bring their form of writing into some agreement with ours, I have, till 
now, thought it best to follow their example and, like them, placed the Japanese 
letters at the side. Now, however, some Japanese philologists, whenever their 


writing is coupled with ours have, in conformity with it, adopted the plan of 
writing perpendicularly, and from left to right, I likewise have relinquished the 
manner formerly adopted, and now have, together with the Chinese, reduced the 
Japanese writing to the rule of ours, and applied to it the modification in the 
order of the signs already generally in use for the Chinese writing. 

The Japanese running-hand, on the contrary, is too much confined to the 
columnar system to be susceptible of any modification in its direction. 



The first knowledge of Chinese-writing was carried to Japan by a prince of 
Corea in the year 284 of our era, and then, immediately after ,_ the tutor to 
that prince, a Chinese, named Wang tin (3Er), having been invited, the 
Japanese courtiers applied themselves to the study of the Chinese language and 
literature. According to the Japanese historians, Wang zin was the first teacher 
of the Chinese language in Japan '). 

In the sixth century, the study of the Chinese language and system of wri- 
ting first became generaUy spread, by the introduction of the doctrine of BUDDHA. 
Then every Japanese, in polished society, besides being instructed in his mother 
tongue, received instruction in Chinese also, consequently read Chinese books of 
morality, and aimed at being able to read and to write a letter in Chinese. 

The original pronunciation of the Chinese, it is true, degenerated early and 
that to such a degree, that new dialects of it sprung up, which were no longer 
intelligible to the Chinese of the continent; but notwithstanding that the Japa- 
nese, on account of their knowledge of the Chinese writing, and their proficiency 
in the Chinese style remained able, by means of the Chinese writing to inter- 
change ideas not only with Chinese, but with all the peoples of Asia that write 
Chinese. The Chinese written language has become the language of science in 
Japan. It, still, is such and will yet long remain such, notwithstanding the in- 
fluence which the civilization of the West will more and more exert there. The 

1 ) This historical fact is mentioned iu Japan's Beziigc mil der Koreischen Halbinsel und mit China. 
Nach Japanischen Quellen von j. HOFFMANN, Leyden, 1839, page 111. 


Chinese written language is , though , the palladium of Japanese nationality , and 
the natural tie which will once unite the East against the West! 

And, however slight be the influence till hitherto exerted on the Japanese 
language written as well as spoken, by the study of the Western languages 
and, to wit the Dutch, formerly the monopoly of the fraternity of interpreters 
and a few literary men, who used this knowledge as a bridge, over which the 
skill of the West was imported and spread over their country, by means of 
Chinese or Japanese translations, just as little will it be in future, even 
if the study of the Western languages should be ever so greatly extended, as 
the consequence, of Japan's being at last opened to the trade of the world. 



When, after the introduction of the Chinese written and spoken language 
into their country, the Japanese adopted it to write their native language, which 
is not in the least cognate to the Chinese , instead of resolving the sound of the 
words into its simplest elements, and expressing them by signs, like our let- 
ters, they took the sound in its whole, and expressed it syllable for syllable 
by Chinese characters. 

Every Chinese radical word, it is known, is expressed by a more or less com- 
posite monogram (character) which has its peculiar ideographic and phonetic 
value --its peculiar signification and pronunciation. To choose an instance, such 
is ^^ the Chinese word for a thousand. The Chinese says tsien, the Japanese 
pronounces it sen, and the Japanese word for a thousand is tsi. 

The Japanese considers the peculiar pronunciation of every Chinese character , 
i. e. the Chinese monosyllable, modified by the Japanese accent, as its SOUND, 
and calls it Koye or, by the Chinese name -^jj~ Yin, which he pronounces won; 
the Japanese word , on the other hand , which expresses the MEANING of the Chi- 
nese character, is called by him its Yomi, i. e. the READING or MEANING for which 
he also uses the Chinese terms q/jjf Kun and 'jjM h Toktt 1 ). The := +* , above 

1) The distinction between Koye en Tomi agrees with this, as it is made by the compiler and pu- 
blisher of the Siemens de la G'ammaire Japonaise par le p. EODKIGUEZ in $ 1 of that work, and it is, 
therefore, important to maintain the contents of this paragraph as quite correct against the misconception, 


quoted, may thus stand as an ideographic character, pronounced by the Japanese 
as sen or translated by tsi, or it is only used as a phonetic sign and expresses 
the syllable sen or the syllable tsi. That, by such a confusion of Koyd en 
Yomi, the whole writing-system of this people rests on an unfirm basis is evi- 
dent at a glance. 

Departing from the principle, to write Japanese with the Chinese writing, 


and to express the Japanese words syllable by syllable, by means of Chinese 
characters, some hundreds of the Chinese characters most in use were pitched 
upon and used for phonetic signs, Kdna. 

[The Japanese word Kdna, pronounced as Kdnna, has arisen from kai*- or 
kar e na by assimilation of the r, and means taken upon trust, or borrowed 
name, thus a phonetic sign without farther meaning, in distinction fron Ma-na 
(pC ^=t)i a real name. The word Kdna is generally expressed by the Chinese 
characters 'jUt ^j , kia tmng , borrowed name; the Kdna sign is called ^ * 
^1~~yT^^ ^ Kdna-monzi, and the Kdna writing j^ ^ ^ , Kdna-gdki.] 

These phonetic signs, just as the Chinese writing generally, were at first 
written in full, either in the standard-form, or in a running hand, which 
is produced of itself, whenever a Chinese character, composed of several strokes, 
is written in one continuous pencil-stroke , and gives rather a sketch of it , than 
a full draught. Running hand forms for ^ are e. g. Kt? *TP COD \Q) Ty 

The standard-form, written in full, commonly called "^.^^^ Sin-si or 
J^^;2> Sei-zi, the real, proper character, also ^ * ^jj> ^ Kai-sio , nor- 
mal writing, and ^T^'-flf ^ Gyoo-sw, text-hand, was used in the Japa- 
nese Chronicle fjj 2J f^ US Yamdto-bumi or Nippon-sw ki '), containing 
the oldest history of Japan, from 661 B. C. till 696 A. C. and published in 720 
A. C. as manuscript in thirty parts. 

The running-hand form was used in the old Japanese Bundle of Poems 

on the ground of which, R. AI.COCK, pp 9 and 10 of his Elements of Japanese Grammar, takes the field 
against KODRIGUEZ and his publisher. Yomi, nevertheless, means the same, as the Chinese word gfjl ^ Kun, 
the Rung of ALCOCK. 

1) The work is written in Chinese, and was one of the principal sources, in the elaboration of my 
treatise : Japan's Beziige mil der Koreuchen Hatbinsel und mil Schina ; published in VON SIEBOLD'S 
Nippon-Archief. 1839. 


IS ^ :| 3 4t| ^ Man-yov-siu or the Collection of the Ten Thousand Leaves, 

V ^X / " 

compiled about the middle of the eighth century. 

The first Kdna-iorm was, consequently, called Yamdto-kdna l ) (^ Jfa ^ ^ ), 

the other Man-yov-Kdna ( !j|| ^ 'jjjj. ^ ). 



An abbreviation of the two forms of Chinese writing led to the formation of 
another writing which, in opposition to the Chinese character writing, was 
styled, as the writing of the Japanese Empire, jj 2JS IH ^ ^C~^> 
Nippon goka no mon-zi. 

a. The Kdta-kdna. 

Abbreviation of the Chinese standard writing gave rise to the Kdta-kdna 
gdki. It was, originally, intended when placed side by side with the Chinese cha- 
racters, to express in remarkably smaller writing either their sound (koye), or their 
meaning (yomi) , and was therefore denominated Kdta-kdna-mon-zi ( fr * ^ * ^ * 


^^^!^), i. e. side-letter 2 ). According to the Japanese sources 3 ), the in- 
ventor of this writing is unknown , and the invention of it has been incorrectly , 
attributed to the Japanese statesman, KIBI DAIZIN, who died in 757. 

b. The Fira-gdna 4 ). 

The more or less abbreviated form of the Chinese running-hand or short 
hand (I^J^^ Sdo-zi) is caUed Fira-gdna-gdki (2f> $% ^g ^j* ) or the even 
letter-writing, or, according to another reading, Firo-gdna ( Jjf jjji ^ ), 
i. e. broad letters, since they take up the whole breadth of the writing-column. 
It is the running hand in which official documents, as well as letters and by 
far the greatest number of Japanese books are written and printed, and thus 
must be distinguished as the popular writing, proper. It has the advantage 

1) Tamdto, contracted from Tama ato, behind the mountains, properly jthe name of the Province, 
to which the Mikado's court was removed in 710, is at the same time applied to the Japanese Empire. See 
Fak-buts-zen , under Tamdto, and the Japanese Encyclopedia, Vol. 73 , p. 4 verso. 

2) The notion of some Japanese writers seems less correct , as by Kdta-kdna were meant half-letters. 

3) The Japanese Encyclopedia San-sai-dzu-e. Vol. 16, p. 35 v. 

4) People say and write too lira-kana and Hira-kana. 


over other forms of writing, that the letters of a word can be joined to one 


The number of sounds or syllables in Japanese was first, fixed at 47 and 
that in imitation of the Brahmanical- writing ( ^^ _3^ Bon-zi} , which distinguishes 
12 vowels and 35 consonants '). The fixing of the Japanese phonetic system is attri- 
buted to the Buddhist Priest KOO-BOO DAI-SI (^ $% ~fc fflj) wn 5 i n h* 8 31st 
year, went to China in 804 A. C. to study more closely the doctrine and insti- 
tutions of BUDDHA and who , during a stay of three years , acquired there , among 
other knowledge, that of the Brahmanical writing (Sanscrit) and the phonetic 
system, as it was understood by the Chinese Priesthood 2 ). 


The Japanese phonetic system with its Chinese and Japanese Kdna-signs 
systematically arranged according to the organs of speech , by which the sounds 
are produced, is as follows: ( jjL^"}"'^ }H ' ?; |=f f) \sir<x 

1. Palatal soundsS). |fcf f , a . ffi -f , i. ^ p , u. ft 2 , 6 ^ 3~ , <>. 

(ye). _ 

2. JfflJ # , ka. g| : ,ki. ^ $ ,ku. fj- - , ke. B 3 ,'ko. 

3. Lingual sounds 4) . ^ -ty- , sa . ^ ^/ , si. ^fj ^ , su. ^ -fc , se. ^ )/ , SO. 

(tsi). (tsu). 

5. -J- , na. ^ ~ , ni. ^J X , nu. j ^ , ne. TJr J , no. 

1) The Japanese Encyclopedia San-sai-dzu-e. Vol. 15, p. 85 v. 

2) The way in which the Chinese translators have copied, syllabically only, by means of Chinese 
characters, the Sanscrit words in the Buddhist writings imported from India, is placed in a clear light by 
the work: Method* pour dechiffrer et transcrire let noms sanserifs qvi se rencontrenl dans les livres chi- 
nois, inventee et demontree par M. STANISLAS JULIEN. Paris 1859. 


6. Labial sounds I). 

8. Palatal sounds. 

9. Lingual sounds. 
10. Labial sounds. 

, fa 

, ma. 

, ya. 

, ra. 

? ' wa 

, fl 

, mi. 

-f , i. 

)J , ri. 

^ , wi 

, fu 

, mu. 

, f e 

, me. 

, fo 

, mo. 

3. , yu. ]g I , ye. M ^ , yo. 

)ly,ru. ^l/,re. 
^7 , WU. /X 2 > we - ^ wo - 

We give this view from a Japanese source 2), -we must, however, remark 
that the Chinese signs of the sounds are not generally those, from which the 
Japanese Kdta-Mna sign placed next it, by way of abbreviation, is derived, for, 
properly, the Kdta-Mna sign: 

, a , answers to the Chinese character 


, tsi, 

, ne, 

, fa, 

, mi, 

, mu , 

, me, 

, ru, 

, wi, 

, vulgo "fa . 

, a thousand, Jap. tsi. 

, the cyclical sign for mo use, Jap. ne. 

, three, Jap. mi. 
. . 

i woman, Jap. me. 


, well, Jap. ivi. 

, wo, 

According to this system, some dictionaries, particularly those of the un- 
mixed old Japanese language have been arranged. 

2) Wa-kan SeU'yoo moe sau bukuro, p. 38, r., where the pronunciation of the Sanscrit phonetic 
system is given with Japanese Kdta-kdna. 

D=J.>J.JJo/'/7/t //i/, -Japanese Grammar 

-> j j 

J A-,- 






M <ys's/s/'SY 

/ '' '- 


/ < /S/Y //s/////s /r /// . ^' ss/s / 



This system of 47 sounds or syllables, however, and indeed with relation to 
the consonants, is incomplete. It is not -sufficient to express all the sounds of 
the Japanese language. Therefore, to supply the defect, recourse has been had to 
a modification of some Kdta-kdna signs, and for that purpose points, or a small 
ring, have been placed next them. Thus is placed 

opposite the row of sounds ~fl ;t ?7 A- ~^ the modification "if ^V }j* L* ~^f 
ka, ki, ku, ke, ko ga, gi, gu, ge, go. 

sa, si, su, se, so za, zi, zu, ze, zo. 

ta, tsi, tsu, to, to 

fa, fl, fu, fe, fo. 

da, dzi, dzu, de, do. 

ba, bi, bu, be, bo. 

pa, pi, pu, pe, po. 

The sounds, thus modified, are called Nigordru koyd (y||j "^) i- e - confused 
or impure sounds, the points used to indicate the modification Nigori, and 
the small ring Mdru. 

In the Yamdto- and Man-yov-kdna the modified sounds are expressed by proper 
Chinese characters chosen for that purpose. While, to give an instance, the 
syllable ka is expressed by one or another of the characters , JfjfJ . ^ . ^ . ^ . 

fe- RT fir- fr- ffi- ^r- m- m- * * BB- l- -t-. 

to express the syllable ga , one of the characters ^ . ^ . |l^ . ^ . $jjj . ^ 
may be chosen. 


To facilitate the learning of the Japanese sounds or syllables, they have 
been so arranged as to compose a couple of sentences, and as these begin with 
the word Irovd, that name has been given to the Japanese alphabet. The com- 
position of the Irovd is attributed to the Bonze, KOO-BOO DAISI, (who died in 834) 
already mentioned, the writing-form he used for it was, it is asserted, running- 
hand or Fira-gdna. 




Iro va nivovet6 tsirinuruwd. 

Waga-y6 dare zo tsune naram. 

U-wi no 6ku-yama kevii koyete , 

Asaki yumemisi, evi mo sczu. 


Color and smell (love and 
enjoyment) vanish! 

In our world who (or what) 
wil be enduring? 

If this day passes away into 
the deep mount of its existence, 

Then it was a faint vision; it 
does not even cause giddiness 
(it leaves you cold). 



? ft 

PS y 

% /~\- 


V* V ^ 

The Kdta-kdna signs of the Irovd, which stand in the place of our alphabet, 
and according to which the Japanese dictionaries are commonly arranged, are 
derived from Chinese characters, which are likewise used, and that by way of 
Capitals or large letters. They are: 


g , n , >. Jfjn , 

^>, )~\ , fa (ha), va. JJS , 

'j 7 , -^ , ni. ^r , 

^ , /Jl , f o (ho) , vo. /jiL , 

^ , ^s , fe (he) , ve. ^ , 

-^ , ^- , ti, tsi. * -y* , 

^1 , )) , ri. 


, ta. 
, re. 
, so. 

, tu, (tsu). 
, na. 
, ra. 

, mu, m. 
, n. 

wi, i. 



, ?? , ku. 

, "^ , ya. 

, T , ma. 

, ^r,ke. 

, y , fu. 

, 17 , ko. 

, X , ye. 

, 7 s , te. 

,. me. 
, mi. 
, si. 

, we, e. 
, fl(hi), vi. 
, mo. 
, se. 

The characters marked * stand for ideographic signs, answering to the Ja- 
panese word tsi (a thousand), ne (mouse), wi (well), ye (bay), yu (bow), me 
(woman), and mi (three). 

The sign 2^ , mu, which was also used in the old Japanese for the final 


sound m (at present n) has , in this quality, more lately acquired the sign 2S , n , 
as a variation. 


The repetition of a letter is expressed by A , of dis- or trisyllabic words by 
; thus, for instance, ^ stands for ^> y ay <*>'> Q for , iro-iro, 

As stenographic signs, for some Japanese words that frequently occur, in 
connection with the Kdta-Mna, the following are to be remarked: 

Hi f r i k to 5 sake. - for y* ^ 

J3^ y> ^: , fo&i, time. _y / ^T 

~\j Hs5f i *oH , time. ^ ^( ^ , tama. 


As stops, only the comma (^) and the point ( or .) occur in Japanese. 
The use of them , however, is left wholly to the option of the writer. Some use 
also at the beginning of a new period, and thus begin that with a point, 
while others with the same object place a somewhat larger ring, Q or a A 
there. The comma ( " ) stands on the right of the letter (for instance ^ ) , while 
the repetition sign is placed on the diameter of the column of letters (for in- 
stance ^, kuku). 

The principle of separating the words from one another in writing is , for the 
most part , quite lost sight of in writing with the Kdta-kdna , and the Kdna signs 
of a whole period are written at equal distances. The consequence of it is, 
that for an unpractised person , who is not already pretty well acquainted" with 
the Japanese, it is very doubtful how he has to divide some fifty or a hundred 
successive Kdna signs into words. With a view to perspicuity and not to require 
from the reader that he shall be already acquainted with the period which is 
offered him to read, to enable him to read and understand it, it is in the highest 
degree desirable that our method of separating the words should be applied to 
the Japanese, as it is done by the author of this grammar. If the method of 
separating word for word were adopted by the Japanese, it would be a great 
step in the improvement of their writing-system. 

Note. For the sign of quotation see Addenda p. 349. 




To promote the unity necessary in the reduction of the Japanese to Roman 
characters, we have adopted the Universal or Standard alphabet, by ROBERT 
LEPSIUS. As this alphabet enables people of various nations to reduce to their 
own graphic system , the words of a foreign language , in a manner systematic , 
uniform , and intelligible to every one ; and as it has been adopted by the prin- 
cipal philologists in all countries, as well as. by the most influential Missionary 
Societies, its application to the Japanese language will be welcomed by every one 
who prizes a sound , uniform and , at the same time , very simple system of writing. 

In reducing the Japanese text to Roman character the following signs borro- 
wed from the Standard alphabet have been adopted. 

a. a open as heard in the Dutch vader; English father, art; Jap. y . 
i. i pure as heard in the Dutch t'eder ; Eng. he , she ; Jap. -f . 
i. i long; Jap. $~ . 
1 i short. 

u. u pure , as oe heard in the Dutch , goeA ; Eng. oo in good , poor, o in lose ; - 
Jap. ^7 . At the beginning of a word it is frequently pronounced with a 
soft labial aspiration, as wu. 
ii, short, silent u. 

e. e close , e as heard in the Dutch bgzig , meer , geven ; Eng. a in face , no- 
tion ; German e in weh ; Jap. 2 

5. e short. 

e. e open as heard in the Dutch berg ; Eng. a in hat ; French e in mere , 

elre; German Bar, fett. 
o. o close as heard in the Dutch Jong, gehoor; Eng. borne; German 

Ton ; Jap. <J" . 

6. o short. 

a, a sound between a and o, leaning rather to the a than the o, as heard in 
the English water, all and oa in broad. 

p. When the sound a inclines rather to the o than a, it is expressed by o. 

an. In the dialect of Ye'do "j* "$? (flu) changes to ao, because the a, for ease 
in rapid pronunciation, inclining to the u changes to a, while the w, to ap- 
proach more nearly the a, changes to o. 


In some dialects of Western Japan , particularly that of Kiu-siu , au changes 

7 7 ~T 

to 60, and arau (7) is superseded by aroo (Q, n). 

The etymology considered, however the written form au or au is to be 

on. Etymologically ou () in the dialect of Yddo sounds oo, being the hard 

open o heard in the Dutch loopen, German mond, followed by the u incli- 
ning towards the soft o. By some Japanese , this diphthong is also pronounced 
as oo and is written so, as well. On the etymological principle we write ou, 
in distinction from au, or au ') 

o ' 

eu. (2 ^ ) i g pronounced eo. 

k, as in Dutch, German, and English. - ~J] , ^, ^7, - , ^7 = ^ a &i 
ku, ke, ko. 

g. In Western Japan, particularly in Kiu-siu, ~)f , ^, ??, ^ , If are 

pronounced as ga, gi, gu, ge, go, thus g as the medial of k, just as the g 
in the German </abe, French ^a^on, English <jrain, <jrive, go. 

In the dialects of Eastern Japan , on the other hand , particularly in that 

of Yedo , the g has the sound of the ng in the German la,ng , English singing 

thus a really impure sound, by no means the medial of k; and the series 

~ff , ^*, ^7*, ^r , If, are prononced nga,ngi, ngu nge, ngo according to 

the Standard-alphabet, na, ni, nu, ne, no. 

Eren might the pronunciation of Ytdo deserve preference above that of 
the other dialects, still we think we ought to retain the g for the representa- 
tion of the impure g, because this form of writing is as good as universally 
adopted, and also because the n does not appear with it, even in the Japanese 
writing. Therefore without wishing to dispute the freedom of others to write 
wanga for ^7 ~)f and Nangasaki for -j- ~Jf i}~ 4^ > because people in Ytdo 
speak so, we adhere to our already adopted written form waga and Naga- 
saki, and say wdnga and Ndngasdki. 

Te Dutch guttural g (#aan , #even) , = y of the Standard-alphabet is quite 
foreign to the Japanese organs of speech. 

s. s sharp, 1j" , ^ , ^ , -fe , }/ , = aa, si, su, se, so. Si and se, in the pro- 

1) LEON FAofes, also has kept this distinction in view, and expresses 7 by 6 and f by 6. - 
Dictionnaire Japonais- Franfais traduit du didionnaire Japonau-Portuyais compote par lex missionaires d* 
la compaynie de Jesus. Public par LEON PAGKS. Premiere livraisou. 1802. 


nunciation of Yddo have the sound of the German schi, sche, the English 
she, shay, and thus answer to the written forms si, se of the Standard-alphabet. 
Etymology, nevertheless, requires for / and -fc the written form si and se, 
leaving she and shay, and sometimes also tse, to the pronunciation. 

z, soft s impure, being heard, in the dialect of Yddo, as a combination of n 
and z or also of d and z. *))"*, ? , ^ , if, ]y = za, zi, zu, ze, zo (nza, 
nzi, nzu, nze, nzo or dza, dzi, dzu, dze, dzo), consequently y ^7 ^ oc- 
curs as ardnzti or arddzu. 

s, Dutch s;, German sch, English sh, French ch. As pronounced at Y4do this 
consonant is distinguished as a palatal variety of s which, as such, ought 
to be represented by s of the Standard-alphabet. 

The combination of this sound with a, u, o, so sa, su, so, is expressed 
by ^i *L, \ (siya, siyu, siyo), which, is pronounced by some Japanese of 
Yedo , as siya , siyu , siyo , with a scarcely audible y , whereas from the mouths 
of some others, a sound is heard which inclines rather to sa, su, so. Since 
the first pronunciation lets the etymological value of these combinations 
appear, we think to give the preference to the written forms siya, siyu, siyo, 
leaving it to the reader to pronounce them sa,,su, so or sya, syu, syo. 

z. The Dutch zj , French j , English s in measure , the softer pronunciation of s. 
V'^i ^n 2a, zu, zo. For the sake of etymology, we write ziya, ziyu, ziyo. 

t. ^( , ^- , y , ^r , y* = ta, tsi, tsu, te, to. Properly, -*f~ ,^?,ti and tu are ety- 
mological; but these combinations of sound are, at once, foreign to the 
Japanese organs of speech and are , whenever they have to be adopted from ano- 
ther language, expressed by ^ tei and tou. ^- (tsi), commonly pronounced 
tsi as in the English cheer. 

d- % i ^T i "9^1 ?*' Y , rfa, dzi, dzu, de, do, according to the dialect of 
Yddo nda, ndzi, ndzu, nde, ndo. The Coreans express the impure Japanese 
d by qi (nt.) 

ts. The Dutch tsj, English ch in chair. %, J, If, etymologically tsiya, tsiyu, tsiyo, 
according to the Ydo pronunciation tsya, tsyu, tsyo, the y being scarcely 
audible. Some are heard to pronounce it tsa, t$u, tso. 

dz. The Dutch dzj, English g in George, j in ,/udge. ^, *_, ^, etymologically 
dziya, dziyu, dziyo, according to the Ye'do pronunciation dzya, dzyu, dzyo, 
in the mouths of some also dza, dzu, dzo. 

n. -f- , , 5 , "? , J , na, ni, nu. ne, no. 


;V , n , final letter , serves as well for the dental , as the nasal final sound , 
which approaches the French faint n at the end of a syllable and is expres- 
sed by ng (n of the Standard-alphabet). 

Formerly, instead of the final letter 3/ , the JTana-sign 2^ , mu was used, 
and pronounced as a mute m. In Japanese words 3/ , stands for the faint 
nasal final sound , in Chinese words, on the contrary, for the clear dental 
final sound n as in our man, dan." 

In composition, the final sound n has a euphonic imfluence on the con- 
sonants following it and changes k, s, t and / into the impure sounds </, 
z, d, b, which are pronounced more or less like ny,nz,nd, nb. The combined 
sound nb, in pronunciation, changes to mb; Tanba ( % ;v )Y) is pronounced 
Tamba; Nanbok ( -j- / 3J? ty ), NamboTc; Kenbok ( %- ^ i$ ty ), Kembok. 

For the sake of unity in spelling, although in the dialect of Yedo it is 
pronounced as the French faint n , we retain for the final sound 3/ , the 
written form n, since long current, and continue to write Nippon, leaving 
it to the reader to pronounce it Nippong. 

f(h), v. )^ , \^ , ^7 , (X S, *]> ,/a, fi, fu, fe, fo or ha, hi, fu (not /*), he, ho. 
Originally the aspirated labial sound /, which has been retained in some 
dialects , in others , on the contrary , superseded by the soft h ; a phenomenon 
which occurs in the Spanish also , in which the / of the Old-Spanish language 
has, in later times, passed into the soft aspirated or scarcely audible h. 

In the dialect of the old imperial city of Miyako , and its dependent pro- 
vinces, the / is retained, and so far as we know, in Sanuki and Sendai, 
where commonly fdna, fit6, furii, feri, fokd, are heard. In the dialect of 
Yddo, on the contrary, the / has been quite driven out and there, hdna, 
hito, ftiru (fu remains fu), Mri, h6kd are said. 

This distinction of the two sounds, according to fixed dialects, rests on 
communications made to us orally by Japanese. 

That, in the language of Miyako, where Japanese is spoken the purest, 
as also in the dialect of Sanuki, the / occurs to the exclusion of A, I have 
been assured by a native of Yddo who has passed some years in Sanuki ), 
while another native of Yido a ) has mentioned to me the province of Sendai 

1) OHO-GAVA KITAROO, mechanician, resident in the Netherlands since 1863. 

2) ENOMOTO KAMADZIROO, un officer in the Japanese Navy, also resident in the Netherlands since 1863. 


and the North-eastern part of Japan as districts, in which the /, to the 
exclusion of A, is commonly in use. 

In the middle , or at the end of a word , the / or h in the pronunciation , 

passes over to v or a pure labial (not labio-dental) ?, and even in writing 

*7 (wa) supersedes )^ (ra): ~J] )^ , ^ A i ty A are heard kava, kiva, kucd, 

or also kawa, kiwa, ktiwd, for which ^/ *7 , 4~ >^ , ty *7 , is written. 

On the contrary the syllables \^ , n', ^7 , vu, ^\, ve, ifc , ro, whenever 
a vowel precedes reject the aspirate, and y ]^ is pronounced as at, y ^7 
as aw (aw), y *\ as ae -> T ^ as a i "f ll as ?l "? ^ as ?M > *? ^ as 
*> >jj" ^ as o e * c - 

The aspirated labial }^ , y? , in |^ }> , /^d , man , sounds like a ftii or fwi 
whistled with the mouth, and is easy to be pronounced. In the Yedo hi, 
on the contrary , the h often occurs as a palatal aspirate , which , whenever 
it is pressed through the closed teeth, forms a sound quite strange to Euro- 
pean ears, which it is not possible to express with our letters. What former 
travellers, GOLOWNIN, MEYLAN and others have said about this sound ') is 
now confirmed by our observation; and we have only to add that in the 
mouths of some from Yedo the word ]^ y* (fit6 or hit6, man) became 
even sto. 

Since for the syllables )^ , \^ , w/s v , ^JT two forms of writing have now 
come into existence, in proportion as one or the other pronunciation is fol- 
lowed, one with /, the other with h, the question becomes important, which 
of the two forms of spelling deserves the preference. If Japanese is to be 
written according to the accent of Ye"do, then, naturally, the h must be 
adopted, just as, to let the dialect of Zeeland enjoy its rights, Olland and 
oo fd must be written for Holland and hoofd, or, not to do injustice to the 
Berlin dialect, Jabe, Jott and jut must be written for Gabe, Gott and gut. 
If, however the pronunciation most generally in vogue, with the exception 

1) ,,No European," says GOLOWNIN, ,,will succeed in pronouncing the Japanese word for ,,fire," it 
is , Ji. I have practised at it two years, but in vain. As the Japanese pronounced it, it seemed to 
be fi , hi, psi, fsi, being pronounced through the teeth; however we might wring and twist our tongues 
into every bend, the Japanese still stuck to their-. ,,not right."" Begebenheiten des Capitains von der 
Riusisch-Kaiserlichen 'Marine GOLOWNIN , in der Gefangenschaft bei den Japanem in den Jahren 1811, 
1812 und 1813. Aus dem Russischen iibersetzt von Dr. c. J. SCHULTZ. 1818. Vol. II, p. 30. 


of Y6do , that of Miyako be preferred , then must the h be put aside and / 
adopted. We do the last, and that for the following reasons: 

1. The Japanese philologers themselves have, at all times, characterized 
the consonant of their series of sounds )^ , \^ , ^ , >"\, jfc as labial, and 
made it equivalent to the labials of the Sanscrit. 

2. The Chinese Kdna signs, fixed upon to represent this series of sounds , 
are all sounds which, after the Chinese pronunciation, begin with a p or 
an /, whereas the sharp aspirated h of the Chinese words, just as the h of 
the Sanscrit, is expressed by k, and ~)j -f , kai is written and spoken for 
the Chinese hai. 

3. In Japanese, as in Dutch and English, the sharp / between two 
vowels passes over into the soft v or w, and beside the older written form 

~J] A i ~}] "\i ~Jj *J? , for which we must write kava, kave, kavo, that of 
~)] ^ , ~}j 2 i ~Jj 17 i kawa, kawe, kawo, has gradually come into vogue. 

4. From the beginning Europeans, who had intercourse with the Japa- 
nese, generally wrote / and not h; thus the Portuguese missionaries, and 
their contemporary, FR. CARON (1639); also more lately, E. KAEMPFER (1691), 
p. THUNBERG (1775), J. TiTsiNGH l ) (1780), and others. All wrote Farima, 
Fauna, Firando, Fori. In this century the h first appeared, because then 
Europeans came more frequently in contact with interpreters and natives of 
Yddo. If now we adopt the 7i, then will all connection with what was for- 
merly done for the knowledge of the language, history and geography of 
Japan be broken off, a door opened for endless confusion, and for thousands 
of Japanese words we shall have a double spelling. 

b , impure , from the sound arisen from the blending of n with v , which the Co- 
reans, whenever they write Japanese words in their character, express by 

mp (nH).- )t, tf , 7i***> tf?> b ' bi ^ bu > be > bo - 

p- A% If i 7*1 "^i *K> P (I I pi P M p*i p- 

y. The Dutch j; English y in yard; French y. 

^ , 3. , HI , 3 j //" ? //" ? //<' i //" The pronunciation of ^ is not fixed , and 

fluctuates between wi, yi, ft', and L 
r. Soft guttural r, just as the English r in part, art, r of the Standard- 

1) In TITSINGH'S Bij zander heden whenever an h occurs in Japanese words, it has been placed there, 
from a mistake of either the writer, or compositor. 



alphabet. ^7 , 1) , )|^/, \/ , t? , m, rz, rw, re, ro. The Japanese r, comes 
from the root of the tongue, which is kept almost motionless. Our trilling 
dental r cannot be uttered by a thorough-bred Japanese of Ye"do. 

This is also the case with our I; this sound too is quite foreign to 
the Japanese mouth 1 ). Instead of adopting a proper letter for the I, the 
Japanese, whenever they have had to reduce words of European languages 
to Japanese writing, have made the foreign I equivalent to the r, and have 
used their r for both sounds; a mistake, by which they subjected themselves 
to a perpetual mutation of the letters r and I when writing a foreign lan- 
guage, and induced our philologers to suppose that the Japanese r was 
an intermediate sound between I and r which, as it now appears, is not 
the case. 

In combinations of sounds such as \/ "^ , ren, }) ^7 , riu, \) ^ "$? , 
riyau (ryoo), the guttural r so nearly approaches the lingual d, that, with 
the utmost attention , it remains doubtful , whether the r or the d is meant. 
This is to be remarked especially in words adopted from the Chinese, and 
which in that language begin with Z, which becomes r in Japanese, such 
as den for ren (Chinese lien), dyu for ryu (Chinese lung, dragon), dyoo-ri-nin 
and doo-sok for ryoo-ri-nin and roo-sok (Chinese liao-li-nin, cook, la tsu, 

It is worthy of remark, that with the Chinese just the opposite takes 
place, that they can pronounce the I easily, but the r not at all. 
w. The German pure labial w. ^7 , ^7 , ^ , wa , icu , wo. 


If the letter ^ tsti, which is mostly pronounced as the ts mute, occurs in a 
compound word before a k, s, t or p, then it passes over to the latter sound 
and is lately expressed by ^- . 

1) This has hecome quite evident to me, from the instruction in the Dutch language which several Ja- 
panese have received under my superintendence. After having first pronounced the I as the guttural r, they 
cequired long practice before being able to utter a sound, that in any degree resembled I. 

SPALDING also, has observed that thorough-bred Japanese of Tedo, with whom he met, could not pos- 
sibly pronounce his name. ,,They cannot say L" he adds, ,,they call it R. The word glove, which they 
rail grove, is too much for them." J. w. SPALDING, The Japanese expedition. Redfield, 1855. p. 233. 



itsit-ka written, is pronounced ikkd (one). 

y im "1 



_ 1" Ff* 

? /TV' 


5 Jit' 


-^ H^ 


-jf>* ^r* 

HU y >J> ^' 


5 w? 


* f^ 


.-r -^4-x 


> Rt' 


)> )^ 

-J t 


,y 1 V^ --** ' 


\^\ -*y 
c^^ w ' 


*^^y ,y 




&* ^3". 




(one pound). 

(a glance). 

(a whole empire). 
Fokkin (Peking). 
issdi (all). 

isso (one and the same place). 
issun (the tenth of a foot). 
kassen (battle, fight). 
issen (one cent). 
ittai (a whole life), 
wiott^ (with). 
kdtte (already). 
tattoki (worshipful). 

kappa (overcoat). 
Nippon (Japan). 

The \) ri also before t is sometimes subject to assimilation; of y \) -* 
the pronunciation becomes atfa, for which y ^ ^ is written. 

A rule to determine when, in pure Japanese words, the ^ shall retain its 
value, as in T ^ T X 3A//,v/-///////^, T ^ ^ 'f ^ M<itxit-ilnira^ where it 
is not thus assimilated, has not, so far as we know, yet been fixed. Certain it is, 
that the vowel of the syllable, which precedes a double consonant, is short, and 
that the doubling of the consonant is chiefly applied to compound words of 
Chinese origin, of which the first syllable contains a short vowel, which 
in some Chinese dialects is stopped by , represented in Japanese words, 

by y. 

Upon this principle the double consonants in words from foreign languages 
also are expressed in Japanese writing; in this case some place the ^ of the 
diameter a little to the right and write *? for dutch ridder" and \ for 

v- i ^ 7 




In Japanese distinction is made between accented and unaccented syl- 

To the unaccented belong chiefly those ending in i or u, in which these 
sounds are scarcely heard at all, and that especially at the end of the words. 
Thus, e. g., 

2/2 , sita (beneath) sounds as sta, 

^^ , sime (let) sounds as smd, 

Z/% , siki (like) sounds as ski, 

^ I/ , ^?^ , ^?3/% , masi, masu, masita sounds as masi, mas, masta, 

^ ? , tatsu (dragon) sounds as tats , 

5 A , yomu (to read) sounds as yom, 

IT >v, naru (to be) sounds as ndr, 

y *? ] ) , tsukuri (to make) sounds as tskurt, etc. 

The i has, moreover, the peculiarity, that as a final letter it is whispered. 

As in Japanese the i and u mute have not ceased to be real elements of 
the words, and to be necessary to the distinguishing of them, they ought 
to be expressed in all philological writings. Even \i L ^r (rnitsi , way) and y 
(mitsu, three) sound as mits, in our writing we must, because the Japanese 
do so in theirs, distinguish both words and write mitsi and mitsu, or cha- 
racterize the weak vowels, as weak and mute by writing mitsi and mitsii. The 
form of writing adopted by some, mits 1 and mits u , answers that purpose also. 

The accented vowel is pronounced either long or short-close. Thus is, 
e. g. the a long in ~' ? , mdtsti (pinetree) , short-close fy ? , sake (strong 

The consonant, following a short-close vowel is often doubled in pronun- 
ciation, though not in writing. Thus, e. g. ^^, fdna (flower) sounds as fauna; 
7 -$ , dsa (the morning) as dssa; ^ >" sake (strong drink) as sdkke. 

Since , with regard to the correct indication of the quantity of the syllables , 
the Japanese graphic system is defective, it behoves us to keep it in view the 
more carefully, because the accentuation, provided it be based on the pro- 
nunciation of Japanese, is an indispeiisible help in the acquiring of a correct 


Hitherto the only European , who has paid attention to the accent of Japanese 
words, and expressed it after a fixed principle, was E. KAEMPFEE. From his 
manner of writing it might be gathered , that 3 y , dragon , and ^ y , pine-tree , 
are pronounced as tats ands mats, thus with an a long, 'Y*?, S-l' l and ^f-'^-f 
as ydmma, mindto and tatsbdnna. Later travellers , who have visited Japan and writ- 
ten books about it, have been either unable or unwilling to follow his example, and 
thereby have left their readers in uncertainty with regard to the rhythm of Ja- 
panese. Only recently, since the arrival of natives of Japan in Europe, have 
our linguists had the opportunity to hear Japanese spoken by Japanese, and so 
to become acquainted with the rhythm peculiar to that language. Availing our- 
selves of this opportunity, we have already been able to publish the reading of a 
Japanese text 1 ) supplied with a continuous accentuation. See Addenda II p. 350. 

If we cast a hasty glance over what has previously been said, with regard to 
the Japanese phonetic system, the writing, the pronunciation, it will appear 
most clearly, that the Japanese phonetic system is very defective. It does not 
satisfy the requirement of being able, with it, to write the Japanese language 
itself, as it is spoken, let alone the possibility of its being applied to foreign 
languages. The Japanese , with all their attempts to write Dutch , French or En- 
glish, after their ^Tana-system, have been able to effect nothing else, than - 
caricatures of those languages. 

From their defective syllabic-writing are the Japanese behind not only the 
Western nations, but other Asiatic peoples also, and even the Coreans, their 
neighbours who rejoice in the possession of an original, and simple character- 
writing , not borrowed from the Chinese. With regard to the writing of foreign 
languages, the Chinese alone are worse off. 

The intricate, often equivocal writing with which Japanese is written , occa- 
sions more difficulty for those, who have not grown up with it, than the 
study of the language itself, witness the Japanese running-hand, whose 
turn comes next. 

l) Thf Grand Study (To, Hio or fiaigaku). Part. I, The Chinese text with an interlinfary Japanfte 
version. Part. IT, Reading of the Japanese text in Roman c/utracter, by J. HOFFMANN. Leiden, 1864. 



a. The Irovd in Fira-gdna. 

The Irovd in Fira-gdna- writing , as it is learned in schools and, in connection 
with Chinese running-hand, is generally in use, consists of the following 
signs, which are derived by abbreviation from the Chinese characters placed 
next them. 


ka 31$ ?J, wi ; , sa 

', fa(ha),va M J , yo TJr ^), no |J| ^ , ki 

^ 4^' & V9^' 3 

,fo(ho),vo ^L Jf i, re ^ { , ku ^ j^>, me 

t , fe (he), ve Ijf A , so -{j^ y^, ya ^^ /SL, mi 

jt ^ , to p 6 ] "^ , tsu ^ ^ , ma ^ , si 

ne g-j* / y, ke ^ ^*, e 

ri ^ J\ ', na ^> ^j, fu J;fc ^/\, fl (hi), vi 

B L, ko ^ 

V) , ri 

&. Synopsis of the /Ym-^a'na-characters most in use. 

Were the Fira-gdna- writing confined to the 47 or 48 signs cited, it would 
not, with a slight exercise in writing with the pencil, be more difficult to 
learn, than the Kdta-kdna. But the desire for fariety, change and ornament, has 
rendered this writing so abundantly rich, that to make learning to read Fira- 
gdna texts possible, a synopsis of these signs has become an absolute ne- 

With the synopsis, we give at once the Chinese character to which each sign 
owes its origin. 





B - 




it If 


KO..B c r T T T T 







TA. * 


t X ^ T 

TO. i-jfc t k k 



. * 

N0 - ^ 7) 7> 



NI - =t= 1 1 K R ;? 


^ T 





Jt 17? 




71 ft 

MI. *H 



MA V- 
_ i7 
>> V =< 



r r v 

> > 
x/> *^ 



KU - 

RE. w 

wo - ? 




The synopsis of Japanese running-hand characters, given on the preceding 
pages, collected by ourselves in reading Japanese books and manuscripts, is de- 
serving of remark on account of its correctness. As we appreciated its being 
submitted to the criticism of a clever Japanese, we, some years ago, sent a 
few proof impressions, to a respected friend in Japan 1 ), on whose invitation 
Mr. MATS MOTO was so kind as to undertake the revision and correction of 
one of them. This impression being returned to us, we were enabled to submit 
our synopsis to a strict revision, and if we have given it a place here, it is 
with the conviction that it will be a faithful guide in the deciphering of Fira- 
gdna texts. 

To become familiar with this .writing, the Chinese character should be taken 
for basis, and attempts made at learning to write with a pencil the more and 
more sketchy Fira-gdna forms derived from it. By following this practical way, 
the student will most quickly become so conversant with this writing, as to be 
able to read without hesitation a text written in it , provided the printing of it 
be not too bad. 

In the Fira-gdna writing the letters are more or less obviously attached to 
one another. The way in which this is done will be best learned by copying 
some Japanese texts 2), in which it will at once be discovered , that some pecu- 
liarities in the manner of attaching them are only the natural results of a quick 
handling of the pencil. 

The stops (*), and the sign , by which in the Kdta-kdna the change from 
pure to impure sounds is indicated, are used in the Fira-gdna also, e. g. ^T 
ya, I gu, "^ dzi, ^? dzu, J^l ba, ^ bu, etc. 

The point, which in the Kdta-Mna, placed under a letter shows that it is 

repeated, in the Fira-gdna runs together with the letter into one stroke. Opposed 

> ^ 2k 

to ^ laid and * tada, are the Fira-gdna forms <T and 

The repetition of two or three syllables is shown by / . 

1) w. j. c. HTJYSSEN VAN KATTENfiYKE, Knight, Commander of the Naval-detachment in Japan in 
1857, 1858 und 1859. 

2) The Japanese Treaties, concluded at Tedo in 1855 with the Netherlands, Russia, Great-Britain, 
the United States and France. Fac-simile of the Japanese text. The Hague, MARTINUS NIJHOFF. 1862. 


As stenographic abbreviations come under notice 

for l| 3 koto (sake). f) , /y for ||| * yori. 


Books among the Japanese are written either in the Chinese, or in the Ja- 
panese language. 

A. Exclusively Chinese are scientific works, intended for literate persons, 
who make use of the Chinese written language, just as formerly our learned 
men did of Latin. To this class of books belong , among others , the oldest Chro- 
nicle of Japan (Yamdto-bumi or Nippon-ki), in which the pure Japanese words, 
such as the names of persons and places, are expressed phonetically with Chi- 
nese characters, the Japanese Encyclopedia Wa-Kan san-sai dzu-e, the Chronicle 
Wa-Kan nen-kei, the Japanese Government- Almanac, etc., while furnishing the 
books, which are written for the general public and in Japanese, with at least 
a Preface in Chinese, is still considered to be in good taste. 

Among the pure Chinese texts must also be reckoned the Chinese transla- 
tions of Buddhist works, originally written in Sanscrit, which translations, 
chiefly imported from China, are hummed by Japanese Bonzes in a peculiar Chi- 
nese dialect. 

That a Chinese text can be read aloud with a Chinese pronunciation (koyd) 
by literate Japanese is a matter of course, for, with the Chinese character, they 
become acquainted with its pronunciation also, and this according to certain 
dialects; but that whole sentences, when read aloud, according to the pro- 
nunciation of the characters, are intelligible to listeners, we have constantly 
doubted and now, upon the authority of a learned Japanese ), dare deny. The 
Chinese text with its ideographic signs is there, to be apprehended according 
to its contents and, for the Japanese, the translation into his mother tongue 
is included in this apprehension. The apprehension and translation of a Chinese 



text is therefore very justly called its reading (Yomi) or Wa-kun (^fl j||l| ), the 
reading in Japanese. 

Respecting the Chinese dialects, which have been here mentioned, the 
following ought to be added. 

In Japan the pronunciation of three dialects of the Chinese written language 
have been adopted, which are called after the Chinese dynasties )^| Han, 
^ U and Jjtj 1 Tang (in the Japanese pronunciation Kan, Go and Too), Kan- 
won (g!* ^f), Go-won (^^D and Too-in (0*^) or Kara-koto, 
i. e. dialect of Han, U and T'dng. 

The dynasty of Han , which had its seat in the country of Ho-nan-fu , thus 
on the borders of the Hoang-lio, nourished from 202 B. C. till 220 A. C. The 
dynasty of U, settled on the Yang-tse-kiang , where at present Nan-king is si- 
tuated, existed from 222 till 280 A. C. The dominion of the dynasty of Tang 
embraced the period between 618 and 906. 

If with the Japanese it be accepted, that the said dialects were not local 
dialects existing next one another, but changes which the Chinese language has 
undergone in the lapse of ages, then the introduction and continued existence 
of those dialects in Japan would not be without importance in the knowledge 
of the old Chinese language. But since, with the defective Japanese Kdna- 
writing, it is impossible to represent any Chinese dialect faithfully, those dia- 
lects too, that have wandered to Japan lose all historical value, and we therefore 
confine ourselves to the question of their introduction into Japan, and the 
use to which they have been applied. 

On the first point the Japanese works at our command do not shed suffi- 
cient light. As the first teacher of the Kan-won, ^^ ^ Piao Sin-kung, a 
scholar from the country of Han is mentioned, with the addition, that he came 
to Fakdta in the country of Tsikuzen; but the time at which this happened we 
do not find recorded. Such also is the case with the introduction of the Go-won, 
which is attributed to * flj|| ^ , Kin Li-sin and another Bonze from the 
country of U. As both had settled on the island of Tsusima, the Go-won was 
at first also called Tsusima-won ( 2^ ~? jjfjj ^ -& ^) or the Tsimmanian pronun- 
ciation a ). 

With regard to the second point, it may be assumed as certain, that the 

1) The Japanese Encyclopedia XV, 33 verso. Fak-buis-zen under Kan-won and Go-won. 



Go-won was the dialect, in which the Bonzes read the Buddhist writings, im- 
ported from China, and that it still, with a few exceptions, is in vogue among 
them, whereas the Kan-won, the use of which was, in virtue of an edict pu- 
blished by the Mikado as early as 792, made obligatory in the study of the 
Chinese language 1 ), prevailed in the domain of science, and penetrated into the 
whole profane literature. See Addenda III. 

In the Chinese- Japanese dictionaries the pronunciation of each word is found, 
given in both dialects and that, first in Kan-won, and then in Go-won. In the 
instances ^ T or ^ -^ ^ and I$J * or ^ t$J *, ? and $ are placed as Kan- 

I i * 

1 * 

won , ^ and v as Go-won. 

The dialect of T'dng (Too-in), as it has been fixed by means of the Kana- 
writing approaches more nearly the ordinary Chinese official language (Kwan-hoa), 
than the two other dialects, but is just as unintelligible as they, to a Chinese. 
This dialect is found mostly in works about China, used in the description of 
the names of places, and it is also said to be used by the monastic order of the 
Five hills or convents" ( 3fl |_L| Go-san) at Miyako. 

We close this digression on the three dialects with a quotation of the spe- 
cimen by which the difference is shown in te Japanese Encyclopedia. 

Wa-Tcun. Too-in. Kan-won & Go-won. Wa-kun. Too-in. O Kan-won. Go-won. 

f ^ 

Japanese translation: Tatove va Flats no koeva ani otitono gotoku, mala, ivdlcu , fibiki no zivakomago no 
ffotosi, i. e. The two dialects, to use an example , are like brothers. It is also said: The assonances or finals 
are like sons and grandsons. 

I) Wa-nen kei oder GeschicMstabeUen von Japan, aus dent Originate iibersetst von i. HOFFMANN. 


Chinese text with Japanese translation. 

In Chinese there are books written, which contain a complete Japanese 
translation at the side of the text. 

There are also some, in which the Japanese translation is incomplete, and 
only here and there words or fragments of words are explained. In this case are 
found either only the principal ideas translated, or merely the terminational 
inflections given. It is supposed here, that the Japanese reader knows the 
signification of the Chinese character and the word corresponding to it in 
his mother tongue, or not being acquainted- with it, he resorts to a Chinese- 
Japanese dictionary, to supply all that, in which the translation is deficient. 

Were the construction of the two languages alike, it would suffice simply 
to represent the signification of each Chinese character by a Japanese word 
placed at the side of it, and to read Japanese in the same order as Chi- 
nese. But there is one point, from which the two languages diverge; to wit, 
the Chinese verb has its objective (complement, regime), whether a simple noun 
or a substantive phrase objective, after it, the Japanese has it before. To 
give an instance, the Chinese construction requires one to say: He reads a 
book: he desires to go home;" on the contrary, the Japanese: He a book reads; 
he homewards to go desires." 

Thus in the reading aloud of the Japanese translation of a Chinese sentence 
a transposition, a skipping over of the Japanese words is necessary, as often 
as the case in question occurs. This transposition is shown on the left-hand-side 
of the Chinese text the right-hand one being occupied by the Japanese 
translation - - by numbers or equivalent signs. This, transposition of the words 
is called ^jjftt'pjl? ^ IV Geki-toku-suru , i.e. against (the order) in reading, 
or also Kaytri, turning back, and the transposition-signs Kaydri-tenor marks 
of going backwards. 

These marks are 
1) the hook, ^, which indicates the transposition of two words following each 

05 * i 

other , as ^ 5 inotte korewo - korewo motte (thereby) ; 

2) the Chinese ciphers -, =,-(1,2,3) when the translation of a character 
skips over two or more characters; 

3) the signs J:, f, T (above, in the middle, beneath), whenever the parts of 
a sentence, that have been already marked, must be again skipped over; 



4) the cyclical signs , z,, Pa for a further skipping over. 

The ciphers and signs cited may occur in connection with the simple trans- 
position-sign , thus: c-, &, B] ife, &, it; ffi, &, &. 

A practical indication of the use of these signs will be found in our edition 
of the Grand Study (Ta-Aid), a few lines of which are subjoined as a specimen 
of Chinese text with a complete as well as a fragmentary translations in 


1 , with a complete translation in Japanese. 

jHhi ^ *5* & -/FT in r^\ 

"^T AE 2 ,,Tfc ' {J 






2, with a fragmentary translation in Japanese. 






ffij B5 BB -*. 

Reading of the translation in Japanese: 

Dai-Gaktino mitsiva mei tokuwo akirakani siirtiniari; tamiwo ardtftni su- 
rttni arl; si-sen ni todomarti ni ari. 

Todomartikoto wo sitte, slkauslte notsi sadamartikoto ari. Sadamatte, slkauslte 
notsi yoku sidzuka nari. Sidzuka ni site, slkausr^ notsi y6kti yasusi. Yastiu- 




site, sikauslte notsi yokti omdnbakaru. OmOnbakatte , slkaustte notsi yokti u 1 ). 

If, as here, the Chinese text is in the standard form written in full, then 
the Kdta-Mna is used for the interlinear translation in Japanese, whereas the 
Fira-gdna accompanies the Chinese running-hand. 

B. Books written in the Japanese language. 

In these, the national writing, whether Fira-gdna or Kdta-kdna, forms the 
chain, in which a larger or smaller number of Chinese .characters are inserted. 
In this style, the Chinese characters represent ideas, for which the reader, in 
case the meaning of the Chinese character has not been already expressed at the 
side of it in Japanese writing, must substitute Japanese words and connect 
them with the inflectional forms, which the writer has placed after the Chinese 
character. Here also the Kdta-kdna accompanies the Chinese standard- writing , 
and the Fira-gdna the Chinese running hand. In this style the whole Japanese 
literature proper is written. A Japanese text without an admixture of Chinese 
ideographic signs, women's letters excepted, has never yet come under our notice. 

To exemplify what has been said, we subjoin a few lines written in this 
style. In the one specimen the translation in Japanese will be found written 
next to each Chinese character, in the other it is left out; the latter happens 
chiefly in official documents. 









1) Translation. The way of the Grand Study consists in illustrating illustrious virtue, it consists in reno- 
vating the people, it consists in resting in the highest excellence. 

The point where to rest heing known , the object of pursuit is then determined : that being determined , 
a calm unperturbedness may be attained. To that there will succeed a tranquil repose. That being attained, 
there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment (of the desired 
end . J. LEGGE, Chinese classics. Vol. I. 220. 


Reading of the Japanese text. 

Nagasaki oyobi Hakodate no minato no foka, tsugini nosuru ba-slyo wo sano 
ki-gen yori akubesi 1 ). 

The frequent use made of Chinese ideographic signs in this style of writing 
has for consequence, that even people of the lower order are more or less ac- 
quainted with it and , appreciating a sort of knowledge , which pleads for a good 
education, make ample use of it. We possess written communications from Ja- 
panese work-people which, written in the prevalent epistolary stile, contain 
more Chinese characters than Japanese letters. 

It stands to reason that, to understand texts written in this style, in the 
first place, an acquaintance with the Japanese language is necessary, since the 
logical connection between the parts of the proposition and the ideas indicated 
by the Chinese characters is expressed in Japanese letters, thus in Japanese. 

C. Style. 

Just as every living language the Japanese too has , during the lapse of cen- 
turies, undergone change and had a gradual development, which is reflected in 
a litterature of more than a thousand years. This is not the place to investigate 
those changes or to indicate specimens of different periods. We desire merely to 
direct attention to the difference which exists between the old and new Japa- 
nese language, written as well as printed. 

a. Old Japanese. 

The old language, Ftiru-koto, is an idiom free from foreign ingredients, 
that has been developed freely and independently in the isolated Nippon. Origi- 
nally the language of the ancient Mikado-dynasty, that was settled in Yamdto 
660 years B. C., and therefore also called Yamdto-kotobd or the language of Ya- 
mdto, this idiom had, with the political, intellectual and spiritual power of that 
dynasty obtained supremacy over the other dialects of the empire and was, for 
ages long, the general written language, expressed at one time in Chinese, and 
then again in Japanese writing; but when at last the power of this dynasty 
declined, and lost its direct influence in the government of the empire, this old 
language shared its fate: it was superseded by a new idiom, and supplanted in 

1) That is: Besides the Ports of Nagasaki and Hakodate, the places mentioned beneath shall be opened 
at the following periods. Art. 2 of the Netherlands-Japanese Treaty of the 18^ August, 1868. 


the political life, but by no means driven from the mouths of the people, or 
forgotten. As the vehicle of an extensive literature, and chiefly by the power of 
its poetry and of the old religion, this language has kept its stand, and is still 
held in respect, since the literature founded on it, as the expression of an an- 
cient civilization , and as the witness of a past , glorious in the eyes of the nation , 
still finds its admirers ; and the old service of Kamis , which still lives on among 
the people, is rooted in this language. 

Considered from a philological point of view , the Yamdto-kotoba is the mirror 
which reflects most faithfully the being of the Japanese language, the most ex- 
poses its organic structure, and sheds a clear light on the grammatical forms 
also of the new idiom, now become prevalent. 

The student of the Japanese language, who is not satisfied with the mecha- 
nical learning of grammatical forms, but wishes to penetrate into the knowledge 
of their origin and being, must, in the etymological and grammatical treatment 
of that language, take the Yamdto-kotoba for basis, following, in this respect, 
the example of the Japanese themselves who, to be able to lay any claim to li- 
terary proficiency, apply themselves to the study of their old language and read 
the old authors and poets, and sometimes even imitate their versification. 

The Japanese literature is rich in works in the Ftiru-koto, but not less rich 
in philological resources , chiefly in dictionaries , in which the old or pure Japa- 
nese language is illustrated by citations of the sources. The principal sources 
are the works on mythology and history, the oldest of which are those which 
have been designated with the name of the three records" (^* ^n^ 7 ^f 
lg> ^ San-bu fon-siyo). 

*"* 3 

1. Original account of the old events of former times, ^Q^ "f^^ W^ 
ip^^^JCf ffit* Sen-dai ku-zi fon-ki" executed by SIYAU-TOK. DAI-SI and Sogano 
MUMAKONO STJKUNE, by order of Mikado SUI-KO, in 10 volumes, beginning with 
the god-dynasties, and extending to 620 (the 20th year of the said Mikado). 

2. The Book of antiquity, FUru-koto-bumi or ~^ 3 ^.^ jf^l* Ko-zi-ki," 
written by Oho-ason YASU-MARO and presented to the Mikado GEN-MEI in 711 or 
712, 3 volumes. It begins with the mythological times and reaches to 597 (the 
5th year of the Mikado SUI-KO). 

3. The Japanese book, Yamdto-bumi or J ^ 2Jf ^^^E* Nippon 
siyo-ki" completed by TONERI NO SIN-WOO and Oho-ason YASU-MARO, in 720, in 


20 volumes, beginning with the creation and ending with the year 697 l ). 
These works, executed before the introduction of the Japanese Kdta-Mna- 
writing, are, as appears from the copies, that we have of them, generally writ- 
ten with Chinese writing, partly ideogrophic, partly phonetic; at the side of 
which is found the reading in Japanese expressed with Kdta-kdna, but this is 
an addition of later time. As a specimen we here subjoin the first Unas of the 


0* 0* mi 45* ft* * 


Reading: ^OT^ tsutsino fazimeno toki taka-mano farani ndrimdseru k ami no mi-navd Ante no minaJka- 
nusino kami, isugini Taka-mi-musubi no kami, isugini Kami-musubi no kami, Kono mi fiuirano kami 
vd mina fitori garni ndrimdsite, mi-mi wo kdkmi-tamdviki. 

Translation: The three gods : Ame no mi-naka-nusi no kami , Taka-mi-musiibi no kami, and Kami-musubi no 
kami, at the time of the creation of Heaven and Earth existed in the high expanse of heaven, were solitary 
gods and hid themselves. 

As sources for obtaining acquaintance with the FUru-kotQ , the topographical , 
physical and historical descriptions (^.^ db ^ nB^ Fuu-to-ki) of Japan, col- 
lected as early as 713 come further under notice; the laws and precepts edited 

1) Of this work I have made ample use in the elaboration of an historical treatise, which appeared in 
1839 in TON SIEBOLD'S ,,Nippon-Archiv" under the title of Japan's Besiige mil der Korntehen Halbinsel 
tmd mil China. Nach Japanischen Quellen bearbeUet. 

It might be expected, that the style, in which these annals are written, would be characterized by una- 
dorned simplicity ; but the opposite is the case. The oldest Japanese prose is completely subservient to courtly 
manners; it is verbose and diffuse, and any one, unless he is penetrated, like the authors themselves , with 
the divine worship, which they display towards the prince and his house, will discover but too soon that 
behind the richness of courtlike expressions lies hid poverty of ideas. 


in three different periods (En* ^5 ^ Jy^^ San-dai kdku-siki} of 820, 869 
and 907; - - Historical narratives and romances ($fy^ Intfft Mono-gatdri}', - 
collections of Lyric poems ( ^ * titd) , as well as the Bundle of Ten thousand 
leaves; Epic poems and Melo-dramatic pieces (Jll^ Man, or mai) etc. 

As philological aids towards illustration of the Ftiru-koto deserving of men- 
tion are: 

^p ^ ^b Wa-mei-seo, or explanation of Japanese names, collected by 
MINA-MOTONO siTAGAVU ( ^ j||| ) , a famous poet, who died in 986. 20 volumes. 
There are editions of 1617, 1667 and 1851. 

u koto no bdsi, or Ladder to the old language." 1765. 

M n/ ; w*/ 

3M** W^" ^fl^ 18^ Ga-gen siyu-ran or Miydvi-koto-atsume , View of the 

'JP* PI \/ 7Iv 3. >>t* ^ 

correct language," by ISI-GAVA GA-BAU. 1812. 

fl~H #* =5* ^* -j|^ * ^i 2^ ^. * Ga-gen ka-zi kdku , Standard of the correct lan- 
guage" in JTa/za-writing, by ITSI-OKA TAKE-FIKO. 1814. 

O O . <_j * / 

H^ |l| ^ ^f^ TFa-^Mwwo siwori, or Guide to the Japanese language ," by 


6. New Japanese. 

Opposed to the FUru-koto is the New Japanese, as it has been in vogue 
since the 16 th century, for the newest type of which the style may pass, in 
which the diplomatic documents of our time, particularly the Treaties concluded 
with the Western Powers in 1855, are composed 1 ). 

The distinguishing characteristic of this style does not lie in the spelling , - 
for this , as the literature of this people , dating more than a thousand years ago , 
has undergone but few changes, - - but in the analytic character, by wich it 
forms an opposition to the antique-synthetic Japanese, and chiefly in the strong 
mixture of Chinese, or, properly, Japanized Chinese words, wich, it is true, 
are governed by the Japanese element, but play so important a part in it, that 
this style has been, not with injustice, called the Sinico- Japanese. 

Rising in the opinion of the Japanese, above the popular language proper, 
in dignity, conciseness and strength of expression, this style is more particu- 
larly a possession of the more civilized classes of society and , at one time more , 
at another less, impregnated with the foreign element, forms the book-language; 

1) See p. 28. note 2. 


as such, has penetrated to the lower classes of the people, and exercises its 
influence even on the polite conversational language and the epistolary 

It follows , as a matter of course , that in our treatment of the Japanese lan- 
guage this style occupies a prominent place, and if at the same time we look 
back upon the old as well, it is but to be able, from a grammatical point of 
view, to illustrate the new as it requires. 



Almost each province of the Japanese Empire has its peculiar dialect, and 
the difference of dialect becomes greater, in proportion as the provinces are more 
distant from one another. 

It is a fact confirmed by the testimony of different Japanese , whom we have 
questioned on the subject, that a native of the southern part of Japan and one 
from the northern cannot understand each other's dialect. The merchant or 
functionary passing from Yddo to Nagasaki, understands the dialect spoken there 
just as little as, on the other hand, a native of Nagasaki understands the lan- 
guage of the common people of Yddo. 

The case is just the same with dialects of Japan, as with the many dia- 
lects, which, e. g., exist next one another in Germany. But as amidst those 
many dialects one general polite written and spoken language, - - the 
High German, - - has gained the ascendancy there, so in Japan also, (instead of 
the old Yamdto-kotoba) a general polite spoken language has obtained ad- 
mittance. It is the spoken language, at present in general use in Miydko and, 
with slight modification at Yddo also, but here it is spoken by the polite clas- 
ses alone 1 ). Since the influence of Ytdo spreads to the most remote parts of 
the empire, and the instruction in the schools is everywhere given in that lan- 

1 ) In confirmation of this assertion, we here quote the very words of OHORAVA KITAROO as we noted them down, 
when uttered, ,,Miydkono st6 bu-menwo yomi-mds toorini handsi-mcu; tdn-Hffa-yubti yor 6sik" koimoa bakdri 
gozdrimas. Eddono kotoba wd, ki-ninica, yorosiki kotoba nite Adnari-mdnt, i.e. The inhabitants of Miyako 
speak as one reads in a book, and therefore have only good language. With regard to the language of Tedo, 
only the polite man speaks good language. 


guage, every well-bred person in the provinces makes use of it in his intercourse 
with the educated , and leaves the local dialect to the lower classes of the people. 
To foreigners, who wish to get some knowledge of the spoken language whether 
at Kandgava or at Nagasaki, it is not a matter of indifference to whom they 
apply for instruction. If they choose for language-master a servant taken from 
the street, he will sell them his patois for good Japanese, declares what really 
is good Japanese not good," and, although it may not be his intention, gives 
them the means to afford Japanese functionaries - - amusement. As in every 
language, so in the Japanese also, the dialects have their unquestionable right 
to existence, and knowledge of them is of importance, as well for the daily in- 
tercourse with that portion of the population that do not rise above their dialect, 
as for comparative philology; but to intercourse with the well educated part of 
the nation, with whom the foreigner will certainly wish to place himself on a 
level, he gains admittance only by means of the general polite spoken lan- 
guage, and for this he must look about him. To take an instance, he will then 
use the word watdk&si for I," just as the gentleman and merchant of Yddo, 
and not accept the porter's wdtski or wasi" or a servant-maid's watdsi" or 
watdi" instead, or please himself with the ataksa from the district of Yosihara. 

The ordinary conversational language differs from the book-language, both 
in respect of diction and pronunciation. If the book-language is succinct, and 
concise, the conversational is more circumstantial and diffuse; the natural con- 
sequence of the task laid on it of coming up to the rules of good-breeding, 
which prescribe the form of social intercourse in the different ranks of society. 

These rules require from every one respectful politeness to his superiors, 
strict courtesy to his equals. From a people that, like the Japanese, has 
obtained among the Western nations the reputation of being the most civilized 
and most courteous on the earth J ), it is to be expected that its conversational 
language should express that character, and this is the case: the language fami- 
liarly spoken is a concatenation of courtly expressions and goes even so far, that 
a person, who has not been brought up with it, will not, to use the mildest 
expression, acquit it of exaggeration. 

With regard to pronunciation, of which we have already spoken above 
(p. 21), the same phenomenon occurs as, among the Western languages, in the 

1) In 1862 in the Netherlands we became acquainted with some exceptions to this rule. 


French: the pronunciation deviates from the written form, and this deviation 
arises partly from the original inadequacy of the Japanese phonetic system , which 
cannot possibly express all the existant combinations of sound, partly from the 
development of the language, in which the pronunciation has undergone many 
a change, whilst the once adopted, old orthography, with but slight modifica- 
tions, has maintained its historical claim. 

Specimens of the Japanese conversational style in the form of dia- 
logues have only very lately reached us. 

It is true, about forty years ago, a Japanese translation of Dutch dialo- 
gues found its way into a Museum in the Netherlands, and later a place in a 
book about Japan *) , and every one who attached importance to the study of 
Japanese, in the supposition that that translation was also in the Japanese 
conversational style, had then to attach no small value to it; but, now that 
we have been able to become better acquainted with the familiar conversational 
style, it appears that people were misled: the translation of these dialogues is 
not written in the conversational, but in the book style, and therefore loses its 
supposed value. 

The first specimen of the genuine conversational language that reached us 
was a pocket- work published at Nagasaki for the use of Japanese merchants , 
which we, with a view to the wants of the non- Japanese , recast and published 
in 1861 with the title of Shopping-dialogues in Dutch, English and Japanese. The 
Japanese it contains, is the pure conversational style in use among the trades- 

This specimen was in 1863 followed by Familiar dialogues in Japanese with 
English and French translations for the use of students; a contribution with which 
the names of E. ALCOCK and LEON PAGES are connected. 

Now the want of aids to oral intercourse with Japan is daily becoming more 
prominent, and as yet it is not to be expected, that the Japanese, who re- 
luctantly see the attempt of the foreigner to become in any degree master of 
their language, will themselves cooperate therein and publish dialogues, from 
which the foreigner may draw profit, it may be hoped, that for that very 
reason the zeal of such Europeans, as apply themselves more particularly to the 
study of language in Japan, or do so in their intercourse with Japanese out 

1) Bydrage tot de kermis van het Japansche Rijk, by VAN OVBHMF.BR FISSCHKR. 1833. 


of Japan, for the Japanese language is not grown fast to the Japanese soil, - 
will succeed in collecting new series of dialogues and distinguishing in them the 
more or less polite style of speaking, the correct and the incorrect manner of 
expression *). 

Epistolary style. 

, _ .. ?/ 
The Japanese epistolary style ( ^ ; ^ y Bun siyau) is the conversational 

language purified; it is equally subject to stamped forms, and is a model of 
courtliness and deferential politeness. Knowledge of it is rendered easy, because 
every popular encyclopedia contains a series of model letters, in which, the 
difference in rank between the writer and the person to whom the letter is ad- 
dressed being considered, the choice of words and expressions is defined. 


The Japanese have of old distributed the words of their language in three classes : 

1. The Noun, ^tNa,i. e. name (nomen). To this category belong besides 
the noun substantive, the pronouns, the adjectives, the numerals, and the 
exponents of relation, which last, placed as postpositions, do the office 
of our so called prepositions, as well as, in part, of our conjunctions also. 

2. The Verb, |^j b Kotoba, i. e. the word (verbum) by eminence, and con- 
sidered as the living element (Fataraki-kotoba working word) of the sentence. 

3. Particles, formal or constituent words, generally suffixes (suffixa), which 
do the office of our terminational inflections (casus) such as the particles te, ra, 
iro, va, and therefore comprised under the name of Teniwova or Teniva. 

Remark 1. By the written form Jfj T fc= ^^ or jj^J T 3|P|^, used 
for the name Teniva by which the signification of opening leaves" is at- 
tributed to the word, one must not be misled into the supposition, that 
these particles might be actual shoots of words, or what are sometimes 
called organic terminational inflections, and not suffixes. The form of 
writing quoted is nothing else, than one of the frequently occurring re- 
buses, in which, to arrive at the truth, the meaning of the characters 
employed must be overlooked. 

Remark 2. In one European Grammar 3 ) these particles are also called 

1) When plubishintt the first edition of this grammar we were not acquainted with S. R. BROWN'S 
Colloquial Japanese, Shanghai 1863, which may be recommended to students of the Japanese. 

2) RODRIGUEZ, Mem. 67. 


Sutegana" and Wokiy ," names, which require a farther illustration. 
Sute-gana (^5 111* ^^t^)' * e - deserted, or foundling-letters (a 
foundling child is called sute-go) is the name given to the terminations 
of Japanese words expressed with Japanese -STana-writing between, or at 
the side of .Chinese characters , which words themselves are only indicated 
ideographically by Chinese characters l ). The marks J no and ? ku in 
^L Kou-siNO notamavaKU (= saying OF Confucius), or ^ vu in J^ 


omoVU are thus foundling-letters that must be taken up in the 
Oki-zi ( jlf :f ^ ^) the written form Wokiy appears to be an error 

TT ^ 

of impression is said of those characters of a Chinese sentence which, 
in the translation into Japanese, must not be translated separately, but 
passed over, as "ffi in _| San-tsiu-ni asobu (= walking among the 




mountains). The Oki-zi thus are characters to which, in translating into 
Japanese, the part of statists or mute players is assigned. 

_j. _^ ~f 
By more recent Japanese grammarians the name of ^< p^| : Taino kotoba 

corporal or bodily word (substantive) has been given to the noun, and that of 
}ff ^ P^) h Youno kotoba, or Fataraki-kotoba , - effective word to the verb, 
whereas for the particles the name of Teniwova has been retained. 

If the Japanese grammarians confine themselves to the distinction of three 
classes of words , we , to be able to fix the logical and grammatical value of the 
words properly, must apply our grammatical categories, our distinction of the 
parts of speech to the Japanese language. Consequently we distinguish 1. Nouns, 
(under which are included 2. Pronouns,) 3. Adjectives, 4. Numerals, 5. Adverbs, 
6. Verbs, 7. Suffixes (postpositions) simple, answering to our termi national in- 
flections, and such as answer to our prepositions and conjunctions, 8. Interjections. 

1) Compare pag. 34. 




The laws for the arrangement of words, which govern the Japanese syntax, 
also govern the formation of the words themselves, that is: the manner, in 

which that language, from its monosyllabic roots, has formed words, and from 

those existing words has formed, and is still forming new ones, is subject to 
the same laws, as the manner in which the elements of sentences standing in 
relation to one another are governed. A concise view of those laws should, there- 
fore, precede the theory of the grammatical forms of words. 

The Japanese construction of words is based on two principles , viz : that of 
Predicative Apposition, and that of Subordination or order of dependance. 

A. Predicative Apposition. 

The subject, if it is named, precedes, the predicate follows, the subject 
being mostly separated from the predicate by an isolating particle ( )^ ), whe- 
reas the predicate, in the absence of personal inflections of the verb, is not 
joined to the subject grammatically. As the subject too is left without a 
sign of the nominative, a congruency of predicate and subject properly so called 
does not exist. 

B. Subordination. 

Every modifying word precedes the word to which it belongs. - 
Application : 

1. The attributive definition, be it a genitive, or adjective, is thus placed be- 
fore the word to which it belongs. 

Thus Ydma-mori, mountain-wood, Mori-ydma, wood-mountain; Ame ga furu, rain-fall, raining; Nd- 
tsuno ante, summer-rain; Tsuyokiame, heavy rain; Toku , well ; Tokuwakdri, understanding well ; Hdna- 
hdda yorosiku , very well. Consequently the connectives answering to oar in , at , of, through , with, on , 
under, before, after, for, by etc. etc. become suffixes to the word, which is their attributive definition. 
This takes place also with the noun, which is to be considered as the attributive definition of the inflexion. 

2. The verb is placed before the connective (conjunctio), because it is governed by it. 

Instead of I go , because he goes ," an expression in used answering to he to yo because j j / 
going am." 

3. The adverb precedes the adjective or the verb, and the subordinate or de- 
pendent proposition , in quality of adverbial definition , precedes the principal 

E. g. ,,The tun brightly ohining is" instead of our ,,The sun is shining brightly." 


4. The predicate is placed before the copula, because the meaning included in 
the predicate adds a definition to the copula (be, is). 

E. g. ,,The flower in bloom is" for our ,,The flower is in blossom," or ,,the flower blooms.". 

5. The object direct, as well as the indirect, is placed before its verb; the sub- 
stantive phrase objective is placed before the principal proposition governing. 

Instead of ,,he sends a letter home; he knows that I shall come," expressions are used answering 
to ,,he (I home(wards) a, letter sends; he \\ I come shall that, knowing it." 

6. The verb is placed before the auxiliary verb, whether it be affirmative or, in 
consequence of the blending with a negative element (= not), negative. 

Instead of ,,he will go ; I will not go ;" expressions are used answering to ,Jie go vntt, or he \ \ (to) 
go willing is ; I \ \ (to) go willing not am 

7. The verb, by means of which a derivative verb is formed, has the root of 
this verb placed before it. 

The saying: ! let him go," is rendered by an expression equal to / him go let.'"' 
The interrogatives and certain exclamations (interjections), follow the word 
or proposition they characterize. 

Instead of ,,Understand you? Oh heavens!" we meet with expressions answering to You understand 
eh? Heavens, ohT"" 

When several definitions independent of one another belong to one predicate , 
then the less important precedes the more important: the definition of time is 
placed before the definition of place; the object indirect (Dative, Local, Instru- 
mental, Ablative) before the object direct (Accusative). 


In coordination of words, the last alone receives the characteristic of gram- 
matical relationship, while the preceding ones are left undefined. 

Thus if it be a series of nouns, which are linked together, the last only 
receives the terminational inflection, that refers to them all. 

Our saying: ,,The three lights OF sun, moon and stars" gets the Japanese form of ***, moon, tlart, 
OF three lightr ( Q & ^} ** j|| ^ ; EELf jfc * ** ** sei-NO tan kwoo\ 

In the saying: ,,Who has made heaven, earth, sun, moon, water, air, fire?" only the last of the noun* 
linked together gets the terminational inflection of the accusative, thus Daregaame, ttutti t fi t ttuti, mu/su, 
kaze,fi WO go-zdku nasareta ? Both examples, corrected, have been taken from RODRIGUEZ lem. $ 88. 

The case is just the same with propositions linked together, the verb only 
of the last proposition, in like manner, receiving the terminational inflection, 
while the verbs of the preceding propositions, left undefined, retain their ra- 
dical form. 

The Japanese and the Chinese order of words, with regard to the attributive 


definitions, agree, as in both these languages they precede the word to which 
they belong; but they differ from each other, in respect of the object (complement), 
which, as it has been shown on p. 32, in Japanese is placed before, in Chi- 
nese after the verb. 

Might it be objected that in Chinese there are prepositions also such as "fc^ , -T* , H , [-ft 
etc. which have the word they govern placed after them, we must observe that, in our opinion, those pre- 
positions are verbs, and therefore have the complement after them. 


Inversion or transposed order of words plays an important part in 
Japanese. The Syntax will show, how it can step out of the monotonous march 
of the regular order of words , and without violating its laws , set off the prin- 
cipal elements and the definitions of a sentence rhetorically. 



1. THE BOOT is the monosyllabic element of a word. Roots are, e. g. 

i, to go, kik, to hear, 

ki, to come, ag, to ascend, 

mi, to see, sag, to descend, 

tor, to take, tat, to stand. 

2. The verbal form, on which derivative or inflectional suffixes are grafted, 
is called the RADICAL or PRIMITIVE WORD. 

The Radicals are the names either of objects or qualities, or verbs, as: 

Kdva, river, Tdka, high, Itdri, gone, Kiki, hear, 

Ydma, mountain, JFikt, low, Kitdri, come, Age, raise, 

Kuni, land, Firo, broad, Miye, seem, Sdge, abate, 

Mitsi, way, Ndga, long, T6ri, hold, Tdte, fix, place. 


If a word in its radical form stands before a noun, then both words are either 
coordinate, or the first is to the second, as a definition, subordinate. In the latter 
case the rule is, that Japanese words are combined with Japanese, Chinese with 



A. Coordination takes place in expressions as: Ame-tsutsi, heaven-earth; 
Fi-tsuki, sun (and) moon; - - Kusa-ki, plant (and) tree. 

^^ Mb^ Ten-tsi, heaven (and) earth; J -^ JjJ ^ Zit-get, sun (and) moon; 

^ ^/ 

S 3 ^C * K6ku-ka, country (and) people; jp, ~fc ^ Sau-mok , plant (and) tree. 

B. Subordination. 

I. Subordination by way of genitive or adjective definition takes place in 
compositions, as: 

Kava-oso, river-otter; Oso-gava, otter-river. 

Kava-yeda, river-branch; Yedn-gava = branch-river. 
Ydma-mori, mountain- wold ; Mori-ydma, wold-mountain. 
Taka-ydma, high -mountain ; Yoko-hdma, cross-strand. 
Naga-sdki, long-cape; Firo-no, large field. 

^ 7, JIJJJJ ^ Ten-zin , heavenly gods ; 

Mb * JJlfp \/ Tsi-zin , earthly gods ; 

H ^ ^ ^ K6ku-zin , country-men , inhabitants ; 

^j^^J^^ 5 , K6ku-zi, country- writing , the Kdta-kdna. 

II. The object direct or indirect, if taken in a general sense, is placed in 
its radical form before the verb '). 

1. The radical form occurs as object direct (Accusative) in compounds as Ana- 
fori, the hole-digger; Kava-watdri, one who crosses a river; Srtnd-tori, sand-fetcher , 
sand-skipper; Midsu-kosi, water-filter; Ama-terd*u, heaven-lighting. 

2. The radical form occurs as object indirect in Ama-kuddri, (from) heaven 
descending; Te-tori, asi-tori, to seize (any one by the) hands, seize (by the) feet; 
Me-gake, (in the) eye hold; Me-sasi, (with the) eye show, give a wink; Ana-dori, 
(in) holes catch. 

m. The radical form as a definition before adjectives, e. g. Te-boya - hand- 
quick, handy, dextrous; Asi-foya, = foot-quick, swift of foot, fleet; Asi-taka = leg- 
high, high-legged; 0-naga, - tail-long, long-tailed. 

Remark. In composition rules of euphony are observed and bring about mo- 
difications of sound, as well with regard to vowels, as to consonants, whenever 

1; Comp. H. STEIXTHAL, Charakteristik der hauptsacUichsten Typen des SpracKbaues , p. 184, 185. 


their meeting is embarrassing to the pronunciation. From Asa -\-ake, dawn, is 
formed asdke; from Ydma -\-dto, - hill-behind, behind the hills, Yamdto; from 
T6yo + u ra i - rich-creek, the name of a place, Toy6ra; from Abura-miisi, 
cock-roach, Aburozi, etc. 

As we must draw up the rules of euphony from the grammatical phenomena 
we shall, to be able to refer to them, insert the rules at the end of the Ety- 


4. Grammatical gender does not exist. If the gender must be definitely ex- 
pressed of objects in which a distinction of sex exists, then this distinction is 
made, A. either by means of particular words or B. as in English, in which ma- 
le-servants and. female-servants, a he-animal" and a she-animal" are spoken of, 
by placing ;7 O, man, and ^ Me, woman, as attributive before the word. 

A. To the particular names belong: Mi-kddo, - the sublime port, the sove- 
reign, king or emperor. Kl-saM'. originally 3^| * ^p Kimi-sdki, princely 
fortune , the queen or empress ; thence in the Mythology which , under the name 
of Kami, Kan, = prince, chief, includes the gods, the expression Kisdki-gdmi^ 
i. e. higher being (kdrni) that is consort (kisdki), to indicate a goddess, who is 
the consort of a god. 

Tsitsi, kazo, father. Fava (haha), irova, mother. 

Mama-tsitsi, stepfather. Mama-fava, stepmother. 

0-dsi, uncle. 0-ba, aunt. 

Ani, eldest brother. Ane, eldest sister. 

Tsitsi-tori, - father-bird, cock. Fava-tori, = mother-bird, brood-hen. 

B. 1. By the prefixes ;? O and ?t Me the sex is determined in 

0-vi, o-i, nephew. Afe-vi, me-i, niece. 

0-ke-mono l ), male-mammal. Me-ke-mono, female-mammaL 

0-ust, ox. Me-ust, cow. 

0-mumd, stallion. Me-m%md, mare. 

0-inu, dog. Me-inu, bitch. 

1) Ke, hair, hairy, mono, being. 


0-in6-ko, boar. / Me-in6-ko, sow. 
0-fits%zi, he-goat. Me-Jite&gi. she-goat. 

0-sikd, stag. Me-slkd, hind. 

0-ndko, he-cat. Me-ndko, she-cat. 

0-kuzira, male-whale. Me-kuzlra, female-whale. 

2. Instead of the radical form and Me the genitive attributive Ono and 
Mono also occur. 

Ono-ko, male-child, boy. Meno-ko, female-child, girl. 

Ono-kami, a god. Meno-kami, goddess. 

Remark. When Ono and Meno are contracted to On and Men, then the pure 
sounds k, s, t if following, generally pass to the troubled g (n), z (nz), d (nd) 1). 

From ono -\-tori, male-bird, becomes successively J & K 9 ondori and ^ K 9 
o<7on (pronounce ondori); from wewo -|- fort, female bird, ^ ^ K 9 mendori, and 
71 K !) medori (pron. mendori); from meno -j- rw , female-monkey, ^ ^^/u men- 
zdru and ^^n/ mezdru (pron. menzdru); meno + <ora, female-tiger, ^ ^ S*> 
mendora and ^ K3* medora (pron. mendora); from mewo -J- kataki, female-enemy, 
2 tf 5* % me-gatdki (pron. mengatdki). 

3. There come under notice also Ko (-^ 3 ) and Me (jfc*), lad and lass, 
with antecedent attributive definition. 

Ot6-ko*), lad, man. Oto-md, virgin, maid. 

Musu-k6 = begotten son, (my) son. Musu-m6= begotten maid, (my) daughter. 

Ftk6, young nobleman. Ftm6, young lady. 

Kana-ydma fik6 no kami, the god of Kana-ydma flmdno kami, the goddess of 

the ore-mountain. the ore-mountain. 

Mi-koto, Sublimity, Highness. Fim4-gami, goddess. 

Ono mi-koto, His Highness. Flmd no mi-koto, Her Highness. 

The old- Japanese also has ki and mi instead of ko and me, probably with 
a view to the vocal-harmony; thence Izana-ki and Izana-mi, - male-goer to 
and fro, female-goer to and fro, name of the divine pair that first mingled 

1) Comp. Introduction, p. 15, line 8. 

2) Ota, old-Japanese for ono, genitive attributive of o (/ft ), small, young. 


C. The ideas of male and female are sometimes transferred to objects without 
sex, for the purpose of characterizing the one as big, strong, rough, the other 
as little, weak and mild, or to indicate other peculiarities of one or the other of 
the sexes ; e. g. 0-matsu , the masculine firtree , or Kurd-matsu , the black firtree l ) ; 
Me-mdtsu, the feminine firtree, also Aka-matsu, the red pinetree 8 ). 

Two islands being next each other, when they are of unequal size, are of- 
ten denominated 0-sima, man-island, and Me-sima, woman-island. 

Me-ikusa, a female-army, means a weak army (= Yowdki iktisa); me-nizi, a 
female-rainbow, is the name of the faint by -rainbow. Me-kavdra or feminine-tile 
is the name given to flat tile (Jira-kavdra) , on which the rollshaped (mdru-ka- 
vdra), as the masculine tile (0-kavdra), rests. 

D. The Chinese expressions , used in connection with Chinese names for female 
and male, are for quadrupeds 4b f ^fc^ fi n an d bo; for birds $fc^ tffcp w 
and yuu, e. g. 4b $&* fin-ba, mare; fljfc^ ]$* yuu-tsi, cock-pheasant. 


5. The grammatical distinction of singular and plural is wanting. The 
noun used in its radical form expresses the idea generally and leaves it undeter- 
mined, whether the said object is to be adopted in the singular or plural. 

Only when it is strictly necessary to make the general idea appear in a de- 
finite sense as something either singular or plural , such is expressed in one way 
or another. 

A. In Japanese words the singular is expressed by the numeral t K /Ifrf, one; 

Flt6 yo, one night. Ftt6 kddo^ one corner. 

tose, one year. > katamdri, one clog. 

tdbi, one time, once. > /ana, one flower. 

in Chinese words by JU*, ikka or ikkdno, as 

'* fSi* J9f^ ^ ka **y one p^ ace; 

,-r jgJ ; J-fk* ikkdno tsi, one piece of ground. 
More amply, when treating of the numerals. 

1) Pinu* motioni*** LAMB. ) * *w^" Sin. et Zuc. 



B. The plural is expressed: 

I. By a repetition of the noun, for so far as a distributive generality 1) 
indicated by the repetition includes the idea of a plural. Ydma, hill; Ydma-ydma, 
every hill. 

The number of such repetitions is determined by custom. In the pronun- 
ciation the accent lies on the first part of the compound , while the second occurs 
as a soft prolongation of the sound, and the consonant, with which it begins, 
undergoes a softening and becomes impure. Examples: 

^ kuni , country , province ; 

* kohori, ko6ri, district; 
*^ mura, village; 

^ sato , village ; 
'^f mdtsi, ward, street; 

X 2 hd, 3d, house, family; 

" fe , he , door , family ; 

y . i i 
^ yasiro , chapel ; 

5 ydma , hill , mountain ; 
3 tokoro , place ; 

? sumi, corner; 

ma, space, (place and time). 
#: i', space between; 
j ^ fdsi , hdsi , bridge ; 
/ or70, one; 
^ /?M , one , man ; 

= ^ r kuni-guni, each country , every 

* V ^* koh6ri-goli6ri , every district. 
^ ^ { murd-murd, each village. 
T V r sato-zato , each village. 
\ { matsi-matsi, every ward. 

V i y'h.4-'ih6, every house, each 

\ ^ f e ~f e i door for door, every 

^ V { yasiro-yasiro , every chapel. 

JJJ 5 V ^ ydma-ydma, every hill or moun- 

H^Q X T tok6ro-dok6ro, every place, eve- 

rp|! \ ^ sumi-zumi, every corner. 

^^ V ^ ma-ma, every space, every time. 

59 5 V i ai-a?, mean- while. 

'nij'x V ^ fdsi-bdsi, every bridge. 

ig-5 V { <W-J??tf, each. 

>\ h V r ftto-lVtd, every one. 

1) ,,Die Wiederhohmg der Substanzworter oezeichnet nicht den Plural, aueh nicht schlechthin Mehrheit, 
sondern distributive Allheit, die wir am besten dorch ,,jeder" wiedergeben." STEINTHAL, Typen det 
Sprachbaues , pag. 158. 


oya, old; 

ydk&, office; 

yo, age, time of life; 

tow'i year; 


/, day; 

fo&, time, hour; 

iro, 1) color, 2) sort; 

<> ft^-***! 1) degree, rank, 
2) quality. 

.s?yw, sort; 

sama , the look , the mien ; 
tafo', journey, turn; 
knsuri, medicine; 
, sound; 

TpLY \ \ oya-oya, both parents. 
& 7 \ \ y'tkfi.-yaku , every office. 
ift 3 V " yo-yo, every age. 
> i, ^ { tosi-tosi, each year. 
u V N * y*-^i every-day. 
B^p^ V f toki-doki, always, each hour. 
n V { iro-iro, every color or sort. 
jjp|^ V ^ tina-zina, every quality, every 

^jfflr \ T styu-zlyu, every sort. 

^| 5 V i* fama-zama no of every form. 

J^ Y i tabi-tabi, each turn. 

^x ^ f kusuri-gtsuri, every medicine. 

^x V f koyt-goy4, each sound. 

II. The plural is expressed by nouns used adjectively, which signify a quan- 
tity, generality. 

1. In composition with Japanese words (yomi) are used: 

^.^/, oh6kuno, odkiino, many. 06kuno flt6, many people. OokH no kane, 
much money, in opposition to sukost no kane, little money. 

-^c% ^jlb^s, tai-seino, in great power, in multitude. Tai-sei no /Wrf, 
people in multitude. 

, tai-sg,uno, tai-soono, exceedingly. 

oV/J? lilt/ t&ku-sanno, abundant. 

t^Lo V i x iro-irono, of every color or sort, of all sorts. Iro-irono 
fdna, all sorts of flowers. Iro-irono ytkn wi, functionaries of every rank. 

pp^ V ^' sina-zinano, of every quality. 

1jm% V ^' sama-zamano, of all sorts. Samn~;mano teak, all the difie- 
rent judgements. Sama-zamano mono, things of all sorts. 

E*. V {', kazii-kazuno, numerous. 
A ^ ' 

M IT V Pi siyu-ziyu no , su-zu no.ofeverysort. Slyti-zlyu no fUo, people 
of every sort. 

7 ill 



', is-saino, all. ~tj7J 

is-saino stu-zlyau, all 

liying beings. 

Moro-moro no , all. [from 3^n' woro, both]. Moro-morono /W, all people; 
moro-moro no mono, all things; moro-moro no tsutsi-rui, all sorts of earth. 
moro-moro no tori wo kdsumu , the falcon plunders all birds. 

2. In composition with Chinese words (koy) are used: 
jgjj^, su, number, many. 



, su-dai, many generations. 

su-nen, many years. 

su-get, many months. 
; su-zit, many days. 
-, su-zin, many people. 

siyo, every, all. 
, siyq-kdku, the countries. 
, siyo-fau^ the regions. 
, siyo-buts, the things. 
, gfyo-mn, mankind, the 

, siyo-si, the warriors. 

I W 

su-man , many tens of thou- 

su-sen, many thousands. 
^^ ,, su-bydku nin , many 
hundreds of men. 

slyo-ydku, the functions. 
L the arguments. 

^^, styo-kei, the arts. 
I ^1^' siyo-si,y6ku ^ every trade. 
^^, slyo-siu, the sects. 

III. The plural of a noun is also expressed by one or another suffix, which 
signifies a quantity or generality, and either must be considered as coordinate, 
as e. g. Co in / and Company for we, or with the preceding word forming a col- 
lective word, as e. g. man-kind for men. These suffixes are, ra, domo, gara, bara, 
nami, tatsi, siu, gata, nado. 

1. Ea ( T|^) signifies a class of persons or things without any distinctive, 
e. g. Ydtsukdre, subject or vassal; Ydts&kdrerd ( ffi ^), subject and class, all 
that belongs to the category of subjects, the subjects (or vasals). 

Otdko, man; Otdkord (^ T0, man and class, all that belongs to the ca* 
tegory of man, men. 

Ftyak-tfyo* rd ( W % j$- g ^jf ^), or Nou-min rd ( ;| ' ^ f ^ ^), country- 

s 7 -7 '^ 



Ware, the I; Warerd (^^), I and class, we. Nandsi, thou; Nandsird 

Kort, something that is here, this; Kordrd (f^^f), this and class, such. 
Korerdno nozomi, such a desire, a desire of that nature J ). Koto, matter; Korerd 
no koto, such a matter. Sono mono, such a /me; Sono monord (~& ^& ^fr), such 
a one and C. , such persons 2 ). 

Migi (pronounce mingi), on the right, in a writing referring to what prece- 
des. Migird, all that precedes, the aforesaid, yfr 5 - ^F ? ' B& ^ A = -IS* im- 

M ^r '* P" j X V , .^^ 

gird no sfyo niu-fi, the expenses of all the aforesaid 8 ). 

Atsi kotsi, there and here; Atsira kotsira, all that is included in there and here. 

Kova Wanino kimi, Kamono kimird ga oya nari, this is the father of the 
princes (princely houses) of Wani and Kamo. 

Remark. If we are at liberty to consider ra as a coordinate word, and then 
again as a suffix that forms collective words, logic will require the first, seeing 
that such an expression and / and Company really answers to we, which is not the 
case with the expression my company, by which I" may be excluded. 

2. Tomo, domo, mate, fellow, companion, particularly in the spoken lan- 
guage, for persons and things. 

Watdkusi no tomo , my mate or friend ; Watdkusi domo ( ^ ^t ) , I and mate , 
we; Watdkusi domo no hon, our book. Ko, child; Ko-domo, a mate who is a child, 
(my or his) child; Ko-domo ra or Ko-domo domo, (my or his) child and mate, 
(my or his) children. Ke-rai, attendant; Ke-raidomo, attendants, the suite of a 
prince. Sono mono domo ( lit y ^jr^ \*^), such persons 4 ). Ware, I; Ware domo, 

^ "^ / ^^ / 

we. Mi, I myself; Mi domo, we ourselves; Mtdomoffa kimi, the prince of us our- 
selves, our own prince. Oh6kuno taka domo , falcons in multitude. Yebisudomo wo 
tairakdsimu, he has the savages subjected. Taka no na tomo wo rirfot, to give up" 
the different names of the falcon. Neko, the cat; Nekodomo, the cats. .1/tfnuf, 
horse; Mumddomo, horses. 

3. Gara, series, row; division of objects distributed in classes. 

FM6, man; Fttd-gara (^ fa Affi)' series of mett - Ftto-gara no yaum, 
after the manner of men. Fi-gara ( Q ^.)i series of days. Koto, matter; Koto- 

1) The treaty between the Netherland* and Japan, concluded at Ttdo, IS* Anyutt. 1868, Art II. al. If. 

2) Ibid. Art. VI, al. 9. 3) Ibid. VIII, 2. 4) Ibid. VI, 10. 


gara, series of matters. Tomo ( o JfQ), fellow, mate; Tomo-gara 
W c W)' a row f companions, a series or class (of men or brutes). Waga-tomo- 
gara ( ^ ^ ) , the class of the I , we. Nandsi ga tomo-gara ( ||| Tjjj ) , the class 
of you, you. Ndzumi no tomo-gara (jj^ ^) *), the mouse-kind. 

4. Bara, group. 

Taka-bara ( ^ ^ ) , bamboo-wood. Mdtsu-bara ( ^ yjyjt ) , firtree- wood , a 
group of firtrees. Nandsi-bara ( fy ^jjj ) , your group , you. Tono-bara ( *& *jj ) , 
they there without. 

5. Nami ( ^ ) , series. 

Fi-nami, series of days. Tsuki-nami, series of months. Se-ken-nami, the com- 
mon people. Flt6-nami , the people. Wa-nami ( ^- ^j$^ ) , my series , we. 

6. Tatsi ( ^^;*) 3 ), row of persons who are, or may be, in an upright posture 
for, or at a given time, host. 

Ydku-nin , functionary ; Ydku-nin-tatsi ( *$? J^ ^^ ) , row of functionaries , 
functionaries. Kami, god; Kami-tatsi (j[j|j} s^ ), series of gods, gods. Kono mi- 
fasira-no Kamiva mina Wataravi-agatam masu .Kami-tatsi nari, these three gods 
are a series of gods residing in the district of Wataravi. Kono futd fasira no 
kamiva minasokd-ni narimasdru Kami-tatsi nari, both the gods are gods sprung 
from the bed of the river. Tomo, fellow, friend; Watdkusi no tomo-tatsi, my 

7. Siu, Siyn C^^^)? su, also su, in the written language A^^PJ-lf\ 
siu-dsyu, company, circle of persons. Samurai sin, band of warriors, warriors, 
Ondgo-siu, circle of women. 

Remark. Bot expressions, samurdi-siu and ondgo-siu, already given by COL- 
LADO as forms of the plural, are acknowledged by natives of Yddo, in answer 
to our personal inquiry , to be good Japanese , in colloquial style. Thus , when 
in Alcock's Japanese Grammar (page 19, line 6 from the bottom) it is remar- 
ked: RODRIGUEZ speaks of a fourth (particle expressing the plural), soo, but 
this appears to be always a prefix. It has reference to number, but is not in- 
dicative , as alleged , of rank , while the other three (5*^ K ^ JS ) undoub- 
tedly are," it appears that there the difference between ^^ su, number, 

1) Jap. Encycl. 39, 6, V. 

2) Instead of =Sy occurs i||| , but only as the phonetic representative of tatsi. 


multitude (see page 56), and the ^^ rfu, m, used elliptieally is not taken 
notice of. }H ^ P ?V ^^ |fc x the persons who put their seal (to this docu- 
ment and signed it). 

8. Grata, pronounced ngata, = no gata, side of. 

Mi-kata, the side or party of the Mikado. Tekino kata, the hostile party. To 
indicate the plural gata is used for high persons, and characterizes deep respect 
towards them. 

Dai-miyqu, - great name, nobleman; Dai-miyau-gata (^ ^ ^r ), the no- 
blemen, the nobility. - - Tono sama, young nobleman; Tono-sdma-gata , young 
noblemen. Te-mae-sdma, you, Sir; Te-mae-sdma-gata , you, Sirs or gentlemen. 
Ka-nai-sdma-gata , the gentlemen house-mates, your family. 0-ko gata, your 
Highness's children, your children. Dzyo tsiu gata ("fa* tjj * ^*0, women 
of quality, young gentlewomen. 

9. Nado , from nani-to , nando , whatever , and so forth , and such ( ^5 , vulgo 
-ffi o *\^)' lyt-nadoi house and so forth, house and such like, houses. Samirdi- 
nado, warriors. 

As the grammatical distinction of singular and plural is wanting, so the 
compound words, which express a plural, have no separate declension. 

Remark. With a view to courtesy, which particularly dominates the spoken 
language, it is not a matter of indifference which of the words given, is used 
to indicate the plural. Ra, domo and nado refer directly to a class of persons or 
things and therefore are used when one speaks of his own or of subordinate 
people, or in general of objects, to which no importance is attached. -- Oara 
and bara belong to the written language. - - Tatsi implies respect, and gata, 
side, the highest respect, which is analogous to our on the part of the King" 
for from the King." 

It is natural, that more or less elevated expressions, which from politeness 
are used to others, are not applied to oneself and one's own. 

IV. The plural is also expressed by adverbs, as Mina (f|f*), together, 
Nokorazu ( ^^^g), without exception, and Koto-gdtoku ( ;jjJ ). generally, 
which then precede the predicative verb to which they belong, for instance, Moto 
sinawa mina yordsil, the article itself is together good, the articles themselves 
are all good. San-kan nokordzu mitsvki-mono wo tntd-ntatsuru , the three empires 
offer without exception tribute. - Tane koto~g6tokH me wo iddtS nan, the seed 
shoots generally, all the seed shoots. 



6. The suffix )% va, *7 wa, )Y *>a. 

Every one, who for the first time hears a Japanese harangue, is struck by the 
continual repetition of the little word wa, which pronounced in a sharp and 
high tone and followed by a pause, breaks off the equable flow of words, in 
which the speaker then proceeds in his ordinary tone of speaking. On a hearer, not 
acquainted with the language, this little word with its resting point makes the 
impression, that the speaker would emphasize what he has just said, and sepa- 
rate it from what follows. And that impression is correct. Wa, *7 , in the book- 
language )\ , va, is an emphatic suffix or rather an interjection, intended to 
isolate some word or saying, and to separate it from what immediately follows. 
We do the same, when we raise the voice at some word and, after a pause, 
continue, speaking in our ordinary tone. 

Va or wa therefore is used, in the first place, to separate the subject from 
the predicate, as in Tdmavb ydmaydri idsu, = the jewels || mountain out come 
(jewels come out of mountains); and it may not cause surprise when, on that 
account, it is understood as characteristic of the subject and consequently as 
the sign of the nominative, which, strictly considered, it is not. It is indeed 
joined to the subject, but not exclusively, and serves to isolate every other re- 
lation, every dependent case. The isolating power of va finds its equivalent in 
expressions like as to, with regard to, .quant a Fr. , quoad, quod attinet 
ad , Lat. , wat . . . aangaat , Dutch. 

Whenever va isolates the subject, it answers to the Chinese ^ tse, which 
has the signification of a definite something" and passes for a relative pronoun. 
As a euphonic modification of va, )Y ba also occurs. 

The subject and the predicate are not always separated by va, but how ne- 
cessary this separation sometimes is, appears from the instance quoted, which, 
with the omission of va, may also signify: jewel-mountain from come," i. e. 
be produced from a jewel-mountain. 

Examples: >j|jj}j^ v" ^'^W H/t^^ ^pt: ^" 9 i Sisiva fdku-ziuno tslyau 
nari, the lion is the head of all brutes, or: as to the lion, he is the head etc. 
^f% ^ E0 ^ ^ isn'^t ^ lif ^ ^" 9 Usiva tawo tagavesu tsiku nari', as to the 
ox, he is a field-ploughing domestic animal. l^f ^ ^K^ ^P J ~ ^ ** > 

Oso va sui-tsiu ni sumu , = the otter in (the) water lives. 



7. The relations of one noun to another word, or its cases, are expressed 
by suffixes, by particles (Teniwova or Tsukd-zi) 1 ), which generally have a defi- 
nite signification, and, arranged, according to our declension, are limited to the 

Nominative (subject) and Vocative. . . 

Accusative (object direct) ^7 wo . 

Genitive Jf ga (pronounced nga, I'M), among in- 
exact writers often ~J] ka. 

Qualitative Genitive J no, old- Japanese also -}- na and y 

tsu, originally tu. 
S ve, he or X ye, e (wards). 

Dative and Terminative 

Index of the relation of the Place, 
Means and Instrument . 

ni, 7" te. 

^ nite, 7* de (pron. tide). 
Ablative 3 }) yori, ~ft y kara (out, from). 

;7 wo alone, which indicates an object direct is characterized as a real form 
of declension, the other inflections belong to the suffixes, that have their own 
signification. If, notwithstanding, they are here already cited and illustrated, 
it is for the behalf of those, who do not willingly dispense with the ordinary 


I. NOMINATIVE. The primitive form of a noun is at the same time that of the 
nominative, which thus has no inflectional termination. In imitation of former 
grammarians the suffix )^ va, vulgo *7 wa, has been considered as a characte- 
ristic of the Nominative, but as this suffix is merely an isolating particle, which 
may also be of use with other cases, it must not be longer considered aa a 
definite characteristic of the Nominative (subject) *). 

1) See Introduction, $ 14. 3. pag. 42. 

2) ,,Keine altaische Sprache hat einen Nominativ." H. STEINTHAL, Ckanuitrutik itr ha*pU*f)ditktit* 
Typen det Sprach bauet , I860, pag. 186. 


VOCATIVE. The poet sometimes stretches or doubles the final sound of a noun , 
to make known, that his feelings are thereby affected, or that he invokes the 
object. This emphatic prolongation of sound, by which the vocal-harmony comes 
into play, belongs properly to the interjections, and has the same effect as our 
exclamation ! or Oh! 

Hdna, flower; Mnaa! (^f ^ 7 ) o flower! oh the flower! 
Tori, bird; torii! ( ,(^ J ^} o bird! 
Mi, three; mii! (lEl 
To, four; y6o! yowo! ( 

. . . u; ... uwo! 

As exclamation ^, wo occurs, e. g. in Irova nivoveto tsirm%ru'w6 , = the colour 
with the smell corruption o! i. e. oh! that the colour with the smell should 

Besides, 37 Yi just as in German: Feuerio! Mordio! is used as an emphatic 
suffix and , added to the simple root of a verb , strengthens the Imperative , e. g. 
To wo akdyo, open the door! 

n. ACCUSATIVE. If the object direct of a transitive verb is indefinite, it is 
placed before the verb in the primitive form and the logical accent falls upon 
the verb' e. g. Kusd kari,= grass to mow. If the object is definite (Accusa- 
tivus definitus), it is characterized by wo and at the same time is accentuated, 
e. g. Kusdwd karu, = grass (or the grass) to mow. If it is to be brought out 
with emphasis as the subject of conversation, then the accusative is isolated 
by the particle va besides, and the form wova is obtained, which for euphony 
passes over into woba, and is frequently pronounced oba. 

Examples. Tori-odosivd tori kedamonowd oddsu mono ndri, the scarecrow || is 
something that frightens birds and beasts. -- Uw6 tdru amivd uwow6 toru gu 
nari, = the fish catching-net, is a fish catching-net. - - Midzu kumi, water 
scooper. Ikdno midsuwo kumu, to scoop the water from a pond. Kefurino 
nobdruwo miru, to see the mounting of the smoke. Kamird mkumu tokdro o ba 
mdtte simowo ts&kgu koto nakdre J ), with that which people disapprove of in their 
chief, they must not charge their inferiors. 

In the book on the Middle- Way ( f|l ^ Cap. IX) after what a man may un- 

J) The Grand Study (Dai Gaku), X, 8. 


dertake of what is great has been summed up, there follows as antithesis: but 
he cannot keep the Middle-Way," which the Japanese translation very cor- 
rectly expresses >^*K*. Iff* *'**/$* v/*Tf B | ife Tsiu-you wdb* yo- 
kusu bekardzu. It would have the same effect, if it were: >7Vm-youwfr, kortwo 
yokusu bekardzu - but the Middle- Way - - that can one not keep." The form 
Tsiu-you wa cannot, it is plain, pass for an accusative. On the other hand the 

saying: Muma sar^woba rtava nite korewo sibdru, = the horse and the ape 

with a rope (one) binds them fast," contains an unnecessary repetition of the 
object, characterized as accusative. If the wo ba is perserved, the kordwo is super- 
fluous; if the kordwo remains, Muma sdruva must remain, the wo being superfluous. 

The use of ivo in Kai-henwo isi-kabewo tsuku, to build a wall on (or along) 
the seaside, deserves notice. Nipponno bu-naiwo riyo-kau-suru men-g!yo ( H 
$^^R ft^SlctT^^^S^)' permission to travel through the inland of 
Japan 1 ). The Accusative employed here indicates a continuous motion which we 
express by means of along, through. 

III. GENITIVE. 1, ~}f ga, nga, na(^), in pronunciation sharp toned, cha- 
racteristic of the genitive relation, sets forth the object as something taken in 
a definite sense , and has the effect of of the. The genitive subordination by means 
of ga is considered disrespectful; thence the speaker applies it only to himself 
and to persons and things of which, having higher persons in view, he makes 
no case. One says, indeed, Wdregd or Watdkusigd, = of the I, of me, and Are go, 
of him ; but ga is not used with those nouns and pronouns , with which respected 
persons are addressed or indicated 2 ). 

Examples. Ko va Misima-agata-nusi gd oya nari, this is the progenitor of the 
bailiff of the district of Misima. Kono kamivd N. N.ra gd oya wart, this god 
is the progenitor of the N. N.s. 

Flt6 mina Sukunegd kau-rikiwozo kan-zi keri, each admired Submit* strength. 

1) Netherlands and Japanese Treaty I. al. 3. 

2) This RODKIGUEZ also must have meant, when he, according to the French edition f 7, sy: ,/ 
s'emploie cotnme proiiom de la troisieme persoiine, pour les inferienr*, et comme prouom de la praniirc, 
par humilite." Let the misprint coin me pronom" be altered to ,,apre$" or ,,pour le pronom," and the 
agreement with our assertion will be found. A pronoun, ga , does not exut. The ame mistake is met with 
in Alcock's Japanese Grammar of 1861 p. 18, where we read: ,,f y, n of the genitive in noons, is 
used aa a pronoun in the third person for inferiors, and in the first person u a term of humility." 


Kai-mongd dake, the peak of the sea-port (Kai-mon is the name of the entrence 
to the bay between the provinces of Odsumi and Sdtsuma). 

Sagdmino Miura gd sdki, the cape of the Sagdmian Miura , the cape of Miura 
in the province of SagdmL Amegd sitd ( ^ ~~J\ ) , under the heavens , the 
sublunary world. FU6wo nai gd sironi su, to estimate others at the value of 
nothing, te consider others of no value. Kdru, being so, Kdrugd yuejii, = for 
the reason of the being so, on account of the state of affairs. Watdkusigd ki- 
mono, the dress of me. 

~Jf Ga, no index of the subject. 

The particle ga is also considered as an emphatic definite characteristic of 
the subject. Now the question arises, if a particle, which, as it most evidently 
appears from the instances cited, is an emphatic definitive characteristic of the 
genitive, can also be one of the nominative. The answer is negative. The cases, 
in which ga is considered as an emphatic nominative termination, are capable of 
a conception, which leaves to this particle its value of a characteristic of the 
genitive, and besides places in a clear light the reasons, why ga has that 
effect, which is.> ascribed to it as an emphatic characteristic of the subject. 
An instance will make this clear. Speaking of an undertaking the question is 
proposed: Is there MONEY for it?" and which is answered by: There is money 
for it." Now in the question money is the subject, which after the Japanese 
arrangement, is placed first and, as a subject first brought into conversation, 
isolated by va or wa. In the answer, on the contrary, the predicate there is" lo- 
gically has the greater weight, and the subject money," as subordinate attributive 
definition, precedes the predicate, as genitive, emphatically characterized by ga. 
The answer: There is money" changes to: of money the presence (is)" *). The 
question sounds in Japanese: Kanew& drimdmkd? the answer: Kanegb, drimdsu. 

Another instance consisting of the words y?, day, and kuretd, become dark. 
To the question: /7wa kuretakd? = the day (as to the day) || has become dark? 
i. e. has the day approached the end? as answer, follows: Fig& kuretd = the 
day's having become dark is, i. e. the day has become dark 3 ). 

1) It must be kept in view that in Japanese no congruency, properly 80 called, of the predicative defi- 
nition with the snbject exists. See Introduction 15 A. p. 44. 

2) This instance is taken from the ,,Japansch en Hollandsch Woordenboek van den Vorst van Nakats" 
1810, letter/. 


The Shopping-Dialogues are rich in instances, which plead for this conception. 
E. g. pp. 1 and 2: 

The buyer. I have come to buy something = WatdkusiTrb kai mononi maitta. 

The seller. What whill you buy ? = Naniwo kdi ndsdrft h-<i ' 

The buyer. What is there? = Ndni ga dri-mdsuka? 

The seller. There are lacquered goods inlaid with mother of pearl = Awo-gdi 
mono ga dri-mdsu. 

The buyer. Are there any gold-lacquered goods? = Mdki-ye mom>wa dri- 

The seller. Yes, gold-lacquered goods are at hand = Hei. Maki-ye monoga 

Question: ko samagatavra, ikdga de irasertire mdsuka?, your children, 
how do they do? - - Answer: S&dno ko ga sugure mas fan 1 ), the youngest child 
is not quite well. 

Therefore is said rightly for it snows" Yukigo, furn or furi-mdsu, = of snow 
come down is, whereas Yukiwa, furu - with respect to the snow, it is coming 
down, would be a definition which attributes come down," the predicate, to the 
snow. The same is the case with Fokdno fundg& tsuki-mosta 9 ), there is another 
ship arrived, properly the arrival of another ship has happened, whereas Fokd 
no fund-w& tsuki-mdsta, would signify: another ship --is arrived," the sub- 
ject now being another ship" the idea to. which the most importance is attached, 
and on which the attention is first fixed. The degrading of the subject to attri- 
butive genitive of the predicate is a phenomenon, that commonly occurs in the 
Altaic languages 3 ) , and in the Chinese also , plays an important part. Thus, to 
choose a classical expression, the saying [gj ^ ^ fy Hoei tee! :in y\ means 
Hoei is (or was) a man, Japanese KwaivB, flto to nari. Hoei is here the subject 
brought under consideration, of which something is said. On the contrary the 

9 -*+ .*, *\ +. | U 

saying of CONFUCIUS: ficfl^ ^** l^s \ A - -{{^ *), Japanese JTwoi'fft/ttrftd <r, 

i \/J } ** 

- Hoei's a man to be (is), lays the accent emphatically on the predicate >to 
be a man," which we might express by Hoei was eminently a man." 

1) Copied, with correction, from R. ALCOCK, Familiar diatoytut, pp. I, 

2) R. BROWN , Colloquial Japanese t p. I , n. 6. 

3) STEINTHAI, Characteristik etc., p. 186. 

4) Tschung-yuny , Cap. VIII. 


Still worthy of a place here, is R. BROWN'S remark in his Colloquial Japanese , pp. XXXIII and XXXIV, 
his opinion concerning; the power of both particles being fully confirmed by our illustration. 

,,Wa, which is merely an isolative particle, serving to separate a word or clause, from the words that 
follow it , is not a sign of the nominative , though it frequently stands between the subject and its predicate . . . 
Wa is a sort of vinculum around a collection of words, and serves to give definiteness to this group of 
words, distinguishing it from the other elements of the propositions.... Nga or ga (ff) is used for the same 
purpose, except that it seems to be more emphatically definitive. The difference between wa and nga is 
scarcely translatable, but is to be expressed by the tone of the speaker's voice, rather than by any cor- 
responding word in English. The native ear at once perceives the difference , and a foreigner can acquire the 
use of these particles only by practice and much familiarity with the Japanese usage. The native teachers say 
that wa is a kind of cordon drawn around a word or words, as if to isolate it or them, as a distinct subject 
of thought, and that nga is used when one or more objects are. singled out, being present or conceived to be 
present, spoken of specifically. Thus, if a Japanese should say of a certain lot of teas; Here are the 
musters, his expression for the musters, would be Mihon wa, i. e. the musters, as separated from 
the original packages, but, if a buyer, taking one of the samples should say he liked it, his expression 
would be Kono mihongi kini irimas". The idea would then be, that that particular sample suited him." - 
Thus here a difference is made between Mi-AonVfA. (properly Te-honwa) kokoni arimdsu, samples are 
here at hand, and Kono te-honga kini irimdsu, these samples please me. 

2. No, J , cognate to ni, to be, is used for the attributive subordination of 
one substantive to another, and gives to the subordinated the character of an 
adjective. As the use of ga is limited by etiquette, no distinction of person is 
intended by no; it is used for high and low. 

Examples : Kousi no i-siyo ( ^\ -f* ~ r ^ ^^ ) , a writing left by Kung tse. 
Dai-gdku no mitsi ( ^ ij^ ^ ^ ) , the way of the Grand Study. Ama no gava , 
the river of heaven, the milky- way. Fosi no fikdri, starlight. Tosino fdzimd, 
beginning of a year. Fazimtno tosi , a beginning year , New year. - - Kobe no 
fima, a split in a wall. Nisikino bousi, cap of colored silk. Akaganeno deru 
tok6ro,-of copper the birth place, i. e. the place whence copper comes. Wa- 
tdkmin6 kimono, my garment. 

Remark. By way of elision the o of no is suppressed as in ^ ^ K 9 ondori, 
for 6no tori, male bird; j> & K 9 mendori 1 ), for meno tori, female bird. The 
n also is dissolved in the following consonant, which in the writing then is 
marked as impure (nigori), so, Fito-yo-nosake, Sake of one night, becomes u 
^ 3 V@Ti Fito-yo-nzake. 

|^V ! A- v 

That no frequently has still another particle (case) after it, is the consequence 
of an ellipsis, e. g.: ^t Jf.y ? ^0 < $j|> JJft^y ? ^ #|> 

1) Compare 4 , A. 2. Remark p. 52. 


Usivo, dsttdnowo dsasivoto ivi, kurdnowd yuuxico to /Vw 1 ), tide, that of the mor- 
ning is called the morning-tide, that of the evening the evening-tide. Kore 
wa amari tsiisai; mo sukosi ookiinowo mise*), this (case) is too small; let me 
see a larger one. 

3. Na, -)- (abbreviation of ndru, being" vid. 12), old, and in the popular lan- 
guage, still used variation of no, in the mouths of the vulgar at Yedo da ( f) also 
(pronounced nda) 3 ) , which , however , is to be considered as a syncope of de-aru. 

Simozamana koto (^ ^.) , baseness, vulgarity, from simo, beneath, taina, 
manner, and koto, thing. Kova na-bakdri nari, that is only a name. 
bakdrina, mono, something (mono) that exists only in name. AVoma yawa, for 
kaneno gawa (^ )\\ ), metal-brook, or kamino gawa ( j(j|jj ^ jfpj" ), god's-river. - 
Taizid& (for Tai-zi de-aru) koto wd gozdrimasdni'i , there is nothing of consequence. 

4. Tsu, y (^f) ? old- Japanese characteristic of attributive relation, appears 
still only in old compounds, instead of no; sometimes, for the sake of euphony, 
after m or n it passes over to du, dzu ( ^*). The oldest records sometimes have, 
instead of y and ^, X su and X zu also. 

Examples. Amatsu kami, = of heaven khan, heavenly god. Amat#u sora, 
the expanse of heaven , the firmament. Ama tsu miko , the son of heaven (the 
Emperor). Amatsu fitsuki, the heavenly (imperial) crown. Kunitsu kami, 
the country god. Kunitm or kunizu (>? %) 4 ) mono, country objects, coun- 
try products. - - Ivdtsu imo, house potato 5 ). Ira tsu kok6ro, = prickle heart, 
shrewdness. Nivatsu dori, the court-bird, the cock. Aki, 1. glitter, 2. au- 
tumn. Akitsu musi, the glittering insect (Liln'Unln}. Akitsu Wi, glittering 
islands (a name of Japan). Sita, beneath, under. Sltatm i/itV#i, an under- 
ground way. Kibitsu 6 ) take/lkd, the hero of Kiln'. 

Instead of ty* ^ y J J L:7 , Otsuko, bachelor, and ty* ^ y &*, Otmmt, 
spinster, occur in old writings otoko and otome also. 

IV. DATIVE and TERMINATIVE. -^ve (he) or X (L) ye, e properly signifies 

1) Jap. Encycl. 57, 2 verso. 

2) Shopping-dialogues, p. 3. 3) From oral communication by 0. Y. from T4o. 

4) In the Nipponki, XXII, 20, both forms (7^-9 and 7=7) occur alternately. 

5) Caladium esculenium. 

6) It must seem strange, that the writer of the Japanese Encyclopedia (78. 8. r.J baa thought it necet- 

sary to subjoin to this name the note: l" ' ^b >< 57 ' T8t7r * 

NO to ondzi, i. e. TSU, an auxiliary word, the same as NO. 


side or direction, e. g. : Yamanove, the mountainous side, the side of, the 
direction of (towards) the mountains. -- Yukuv4, the side, by which one goes 
away. Mav6, ma yd, vulgo mai = look- wards , i. e. forwards, before. Atove 
or ato ye , = spur-side , backwards , behind. 

As suffix ve or ye answers in all respects to our wards and indicates the direc- 
tion in which any thing proceeds , e. g. Y6do-ve (or Yddo-he) , Yedo-*waxds , as distinc- 
tion from Yddoni, in or at Yedo, Yddoni dite", being in Yedo; YMoveno mitsi, = 
Yedo-waxds road, the road to Yedo. Nippon ve no miydke, presents for Japan. 

Examples: Siyok'-motsu wo fit6ve" okuru, to send victuals to others. Kariva 
mindmivd sdrita, the geese have gone away towards the south. Tovoki kunive 
yuku, to go to distant countries. Ten-lei vd simove" kuddri, tsi-kivd kamive no- 
boru , the mists of the sky sink towards beneath (to the earth) , the mists of the 
earth rise towards above. Motove moddru, to return to the source. Kara- 
fune 1 itsu sou (tteotf) Sagdmino Miurdga sakive feu-tsiyaku-su, a Chinese junk ran 
aground on the cape of Miurd, in the province of Sagdmi. 

Instances from the treaty between the Netherlands and Japan. Art. II, 
17. Koku-daive furi-watasu, to make known into every part of the realm. - 

Gun-youno siyo-butsva Nippon-yak' -siyono fokdve uru-be'kardzu , munitions of war 
may not be sold to any other than the Japanese government. V, 1. Olanda- 
zin ve (or ni) taisi ( ^j" ^ ) fau wo ( J^ ^ ^ ) okdsu , to transgress the law against 
the Dutch. --VI, 9. 2 & 2/3.1^^. ^ ^' ^ communicate to the Con- 

sul. V, 1. ^* ^T^"^' ^ n ever J direction, towards every side. 

Ni (^ o "f), with relation to, in general points out the relation of an 
indirect object, and is therefore used to indicate the place at which, as well 
as into which and answers to our in, at, unto, by and by means of, 
according as the verb, to which it belongs, indicates that the place has been 
reached, or that the object makes movement towards it. Thence one says Yddoye 
yuku and Yddoni 6ru, to go to Yedo and to reside in Yedo. 

The relation expressed by Ni may be understood as: 

a. Dative or Ablative, by which, in general, a collateral relation to the 
predicate verb is expressed. E. g. Fitdni tsikdki mitsi, a road, which with relation 
to people is near. F^t6ni tovdki mitsi, a road which with relation to (for) 
people, is remote. F'itoni fandruru, separated from people. Kdvi ko kuvdni 
fdnardnu, the silkworm does not remove from the foliage. 


b. Local, to the question where or when. E. g. Kono toktroni, at this 
place. Nusubitd tok6ro-dok6roni ok6ru, robbers rise at every place (every- 
where). -- Figa figdsini nob6ri, nisini im, the sun rises in the east, and goes 
in (down) in the west. -- Ytdoni kiyo-riu-suru yaku-t,'in, functionaries residing 

in Yddo. - - Ydmani iri ki wo kiru, = to go into the mountains and chop wood. 

Fnndni n6ru, to be load in a ship (to navigate). -- Yunui-n^'urn tfinim tarn, 

kazdni sardsu , to hang up mountain-herbs on a rope and dry (them) in the air. 

Kavikoni yamavi dekiru, by (among) the silk worms exists sickness. Iruni 
todokovoru, to stick fast in speaking. Kono tosini, in this year. /Vrui/i, at 
noon. -- Yuvuni, in the evening. Firu-garo dsani ake, yArublni *//;////, the 
face of noon" 1 ) opens in the morning, and closes in the evening. 

Ni va , the relation indicated by ni isolated by va. Nan-ltu , Txfikdrlt-ben no 
tsi-meiniva fan-mei ohosi, among (ni va) the names of places (J^Jj* : -f *) f ^ e 
country of Nan-bu and Tsukdru strange names are manifold. 

Ni va sometimes elliptically changes into nva ( i/ )~^ ). - - Aru tokinird or 
dru tokinvd, at any time. 

c. Modal, to the question how. E. g. Dai-sini tatsi-tamavu^ he appears as (in 
the quality of) hereditary Prince. Ikdni, vulgo ikdn (-f ^ ^), how, in what 
manner. Ikd-sdmani, in what (or which) manner. Saka~^cmtani % perversely. 
Kotoni, particularly. Makotoni, in truth, indeed. -- Tadani, mere, only. - 
Ookini, often, very. Sttmiyakani, suddenly, quickly. 

d. Casual and Instrumental, to the question of whom, by which or by 
what, with which, with what, although here also the original signification, 
with relation to, is preserved. E.g. Yani atardta, struck with an arrow. - 
Fltoni damasareta, deceived by people (others). - - Dai-Minno eiva fai-yuani 
korite susumi tsikd-dzukdzu , Til-Ming's army, confounded by the defeat, doea not 

e. Dative of the person, to the question to whom. E.g. Oyani m'ru, with 
relation to the parents, to be like, to resemble the parents. Fltoni taisu, to 
stand opposite others. -- Flto-ni mono wo atavuru (prou. a/^iura), to concede or 
give anything to others. 

/. Dative of the thing, to the question to what or to which, for which 

I) The flower of Phurbiiis Nil CHOIS, or Ipomoea Nil 


the suffix to is used also. E. g. Kuvdno miwo taneni (or taneto) tdru, to take 
mulberries for seed. - - Mdyu wo wdta id tdru , to use cocoons for wadding. - 
Yumini tsukuruki, wood worked into bows. Wdravd musironi oru bdsi, ndvani 
ndvu bdsi, fdki-mononi tsukuru bdsi, with regard to straw (waravd), it can be 
woven into mats, it can be twisted into rope, it can be worked up into shoes. - 
Nami kaze mo tawoyakani nari, wind and waves become smoother. Asiwo kirite 
siyoku-motsuni atavu besi, he will cut off his feet and give (them) for food. 

g. Terminative, the direction whither, signifying to which (to what, 
to whom), provided the movement directed towards an object extends to within 
its limits or reach, distinguished from < ve which properly answers rather to 
our wards. E. g. Kaz<[vd nisi-katani kavdru, = i}ie wind changes to (veers to- 
wards) the west side. -- To wo fini tsugu, to continue the night to the day. - 
KazJ_ ydmite (yande) fun& kisini tsuku, the wind lulls and the ship comes to the 
shore. Fdknsai yon Nippon ni watdrn, he passes from Fakusai to Japan. Isini 
ndru, to turn to stone. 

V. To, ^ , to, Dutch tot, ter, German zu, a particle that denotes the inherency 
of a substantive in a predicate verb, which expresses a becoming or a making 
to, in general a working, which has an object for its apposition. Of such sort 
are the verbs nari, to become; nasi, to make; ivu, to be called, to name; nddsu- 
kuru, to name; miyu, to seem; kaku, to write, etc. E.g. Midsukdra toravare-fito 
to nari, he becomes, of his own accord (to) a prisoner. Mdjuwo ma-wata to 
nasu, people make (work up) cocoons to silk wadding. N. va tori to ke'site tobi- 
yuku , N. changes himself to a bird and flies away. Fttd to ivu , to be called 
man; Ftto to ivu va (by syncope Fttd to va), that which is called man, the so 
called man. To, serves as a sign of quotation. Vide Addenda I. V. Tote page 343, 
190. n. 20. 

Nite , ~^" , in the spoken language , passing into nde , for which ^r* (de) 
is written, characterises alike the Local and the Instrumental and is used, 
especially, when the predicate- verb does not follow it immediately, but is sepa- 
rated from it by the interposition of the subject or of the object direct. E. g. 
Kono sedonite sivo faydsi, - in this strait the tide is rapid. Kari-bdsinite kava 
wo watdru, to cross the river by means of a temporary bridge. Komewo kdra- 
usii nite komakdni kuddku , to stamp rice fine in a mortar. Kuvd nite kdviko 
wo ydsindvu, to rear silk- worms with leaves. Tamagonite siyau-zuru mono 
beings proceeding from eggs. - - Fdku-sai-k6kuniteva takawo Kutsin t6 ivu, in 


the country of Fdku-sai, the hawk is called Kutsin. Aru kuniniteva kariko-ami 
wo tsukavu nan, in a certain country the silk-worm net is used. Morogosinite 
va, in China. pff J Hj^T^, in the Middleland. Kuni-guninite, in each 
country. -- Te nite, with hands; Teniteno si-kata, gestures with hands. Fast 
nite fasdmu, to take hold of with eating-sticks. 

De, y*, contraction of ni-\-te and pronounced as nde, characterizes alike 
the relation of a. the Local and b. the Instrumental, but is only peculiar to 
the easy, spoken and written styles. Examples: 

a. Miyakode, at Miyako. Tsilkino motode avu, to meet under the moon (here 
below). Yumino utsi de dvu, to meet with in a dream. Mftmdno uyfde Ica- 
tamukeru, to sit awry on horseback. - - Fdnano sitdde maydvu, wander among 
flowers. TsUbamega yanagino fotoride mayovu, the swallow roams around wil- 
lows. Kusa nakade naku musi, insects chirping in the grass. -- Ikkadt dtki- 
mdsu ka, in how many days can it happen, is it possible? 

b. Fudede kdku, to write with the pencil. Iside ganwo teukitrK, to build a 
temple of (with) stone. - Tsiwo tside ardvu, to wash off blood with (or in) 
blood. Yotsu mumdde fikaseru kuruma, a waggon drawn with four horses. - 
Sononede wa kaye mase'nu *), with (for) that price it is not to sell. The spoken 
language of Yedo Changes de wa into dza ( ^ "V ) according to the English 
writing ja french. gia V. 109. II. 5. 

Remark. 1. The book language generally expresses the Instrumental by . . . wo 
motte ( Jj[ -2 ?), and uses for to wash off blood with blood," the expression 
^.J^l ^ lutt J$^ Ifllt Tsiwo m6tte tsiwo araru, = folding or using blood 
(with blood) to wash off blood. 

Remark. 2. For the explanation of expressions belonging to the book-language, 
in schools and school-books the spoken-language is used, and this, whenever 
ni occurs in the book-language as a characteristic of the Local or of the Instru- 
mental, generally substitutes de for it. 

VI. ABLATIVE. Yori, 3 >J and kara, # y ( gj g | ), out of, from, 
indicate a movement in a direction from a place, in opposition to *^s, rv, to- 
wards, or ^ 7 s *, made, to, till. If the point of departure is a period of time, 
or an action, then yori and kara answer to our from . . to, from, since; after, 

I) Shopping-Dialogues t p. 8. 


Examples. Firatoyori Nagasaki made san ziyu fdtsi ri dri, from Firato to Na- 
gasaki it is 38 ri (Japanese miles). - - Inisive" yori ( ^ f ^ = -^) , from old 
times. Fdztmd yori, from the beginning. Ima yori ( ||| f ^^)> from now. 
Y y ^ 3 9 , Kunini tau-tsiyakuno fi yori, from the day of 

the arrival in the country J ). Fusi-yamava Wun-zenga take yori takdsi, Fusi- 
mountain is out of the peak of the warm springs high, i. e. the ^wsz-mountain 
in higher than the peak of the Wunzen. Korewd sore-yori takdku drimdsu *), 
- this from that out high is, i. e. this is higher, than that. 

Yori, subordinated by means of no to another substantive: Kono misakiva 
oki yori no mmte nari, this cape is a mark (medte) out of sea. 

Kara, indicating rather the direction, from which any thing comes 3 ), as 
the German her, occurs in the written language seldom, and only in old com- 
pounds, as in Oki kara, out of sea, and is, rather peculiar to the spoken lan- 
guage. Kore kara ( fj|j ^), thence, also therefore, for that reason (= koreni 
yotte). -- Sore kara, so with. - ^ jfc^ ifl^ $ ^? v% % ? H^ ? 
mj 3 * fil f "t"1f ^> Tehon-girega drimdsu kara, korewo Goran-nasare 4 ) , since 
(kara) there are patterns at hand (drimdsu), please see this. Age-masu kara uke- 
tori-gakiw6 kudasare 5 ), after (kara) delivery (agemasu) please, give a receipt. 
Kon-nitsiwa yohodo 6s6i kara G ), miyau-nitsi kaheri masiyoo, as (kara) to day it is 
too late (yohodo-6s6i) , I will come back to morrow. 

Remark. Yori, verb continuative, derived from yi (#), to shoot, from which, 
among others ya, arrow, and yumi, bow, derive. (Kara seems to belong to the 
root, ki, come). Preceded by a local ni, yori, means to have its point of de- 
parture in; Kore-ni yoreri, from that flows forth. Koreni ytiriti or yotte, in 
consequence of, therefore. 

1) The Treaty between the Netherlands and Japan, I, 5. 2) Shopping- Dialogues , p. 35. 

3) pn" ;fjjj -^j^ -Hi . Wa-gun siwori , under Kara. 

4) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 23. 5) Ibid. p. 14. 6) Ibid. p. 41. 




8. The Pronouns in Japanese are: 
I. Nouns which express a quality. 

II. Pronouns demonstrative, which point out something, either a person 
or thing according to its relation to the speaker. 

They are all subject to the ordinary declension, and which the genitive suffix, 
no, are used as pronouns possessive. 

The distinction of three grammatical persons (I, Thou, He) has re- 
mained foreign to the Japanese language 1 ). All the persons, that of the speaker 
(the I), as well as that to which or of which he speaks- (Thou, He), are on- 
sidered as contents of the proposition and thus, according to our peculiarity of 
language, in the third person, and etiquette, having in view the meaning of 
words expressive of quality, has to determine, which person, by one or another 
of these words is intended. Etiquette distinguishes only between the I," and 
the not-I," it abases the one, and exalts the other. Thus, it is the meaning. 
which in this sort of words comes first under notice, Mon* the us.-, that i-ti- 
quette makes of it, is indicated. 

1) Therefore, as it will be seen hereafter, the verb has no ronjiigational snfnxc*, which tend to the 

expression of this distinction. 


With respect to the use of the qualifying pronouns especially, the written or 
book language and the conversational differ from each other. 
I. Qualifying nouns, which are used as pronouns, are, 

A. For the I": 


Yatsu-k6 ( fjf?), pron. Yakko, = house-boy, valet, servant; belongs to the old 
written language. -- Yatsii-kare (^^^i^), valet, your servant. 
Yatsu-bara (^Jj} ^j^'l), the valets, we subjects. 
The Chinese j^ yfi, Jap. gu, unintelligent, in compounds, as: 

j^* ^ ^ ^ , Gu-nin , the unintelligent man , I. 
ppt^ 7 * ^- ^ Gu-sa. the unintelligent. 

' CX t~l .v* ' 

Jj?k^ -^-^' Gu-sau, the unintelligent herb 1 ), the I" of the Bonzes. 
j^ ^* Tgr ^ , Gu-rau , the unintelligent old man. 
jeB^" A^^? Gu-sin, my heart. 


B. For the person spoken to, THOU: 

1. Nandzi (|^^), formerly Ndmiidzi, originally Na-motsi, having a name, 
name-having , name bearing , renowned , honoured ; plural nandzira , nandziga-tomo- 
gara. It belongs to the written language and to the solemn style, Nobles, and 
literate persons address one another with Nandzi. f^ . ^fc . ^ . ffi> . 

Tdmi tomoni ndndziwo miru, the people look up to you together, or every one looks up to you. 
Nandzi fitoga me wo tsukete oru, you have attracted the eyes of the people. 

2. Imasi ( ^ ^ ) , shortened m&si , = present , leaves it uncertain , whether a 
person speaks to his betters or inferiors. J|5 ~f . 

3. Sanaa (^^^ ^j||^ ^9l^)> vulgo San, = the look, appearance, shape, e. g. 
Mindtono sdma yosi, the shape of the harbour is beautiful, the harbour looks 
well, was, originally, as a characteristic of modesty, applied by the speaker 
to himself; since the middle ages, however, conceded to a person beyond the 
speaker, it is now generally used as an expression of respect and at present 
answers to our Sir, Mister." It is subjoined to nouns and pronouns. 

4. "gimi ( ^" *J~) , Sir , Mister ; Kimi-sama ( ^" ^ ^| *") , vulgo Kimi-san ho- 
nour, lordship. N. N. kimi-samaye, to Mr. NN. 

5. Te-maye (-=f*^ ^0 "'), vulgo Te-mai, Te-mee, = at hand, indicates the per- 

1) Corporal, only to vegetate from the example of the Lotusplant, but to make the spirit free, is the 
duty of the Buddhist's life; thence the clerical (Bonze) considers himself as an herb. 


son spoken to. Plural Te-maye-Wsi, vulgo Te-maird, Te-mee-tatsi. Te-mdye-sdnm . 
vulgo Te-mdye-sdn, the gentleman at hand (present), you, Sir; plur. Te-maye- 

On, O ($P**"), Ki ( J|*), Son (1p honorary adjectives, used in the 
conversational language and in the epistolary style as pronouns possessive, of 
the person, to whom or of whom spoken. 

6. On, O ($P**, abbreviated J^J. |^ . f^. /. (^. tj . v^), as given by 
Japanese authors , an abbreviation of ~fc * 60 , 6ond , great , sublime , answers to 
our His or Her Highness" referring to a prince; it is, however, prefixed to the 
names of things or matters that have reference to any person in honour, and 
applied by the speaker to all beyond himself, for which he wishes to make his 
respect known. Thus the presence of on or o before substantives and verbs, makes 
known, without the help of another pronoun, that the things or matters have 
reference to a person beyond the speaker. As a Japanese element on or o is 
compounded with Japanese words, e, g. 0-Y4do, the princely Yeilo. D-kola, 
the honoured side, Your honour. 0-mi, the honoured body, Your-self 0-iw, 
Your eye. 0-meni kaMri-matfyoo , I shall appear before your eyes. - "- . 
your name. 0-ide, your rise. -- Y6ku 0-ide nasard, may your rise happen = be 
welcome! -- 0-agdri, your rise. 0-agdri nasard, = may your rise happen, come 
on! 0-negdi, your wish. , may you wish, the common expression 
for if you plase." -- 0-mise, let me see! -- On-tdd&unt, your inquiry. - "> - 
bumi, your letter, etc. 

In old- Japanese the place of On, is filled by Mi, thence J//-XWo, sublime 
port; Mi-koto, Highness; Mi-ydma, chief mountain. 

7. fjlp 3 Go, the koye of O, is generally prefixed to Chinese words. It means 
princely," but from politeness is also used towards other persons beyond the 

Go-won, your favour. 
Go-yon, your use. 

-,.--? ~ ... feelings. 

at ^ n~ *.,,-, ^ y 0ur wntmg. 


5 > Go-sen , before you , in your 



Go-za, sublime seat. 

i y ur permission. 

-r,ii>, your look. 

, t;,,-k,ni-i. your friendly 

*" ^1 ? ' Go-'Qu-**"' * y ur con ~ 


' G " **"* 




8. O-maye, 6-mae (fjljj^ ~jjft ^), vulgo 6-mai , from the honorary o aiid ma-ye 
or ma-ve, - look-wards, that is before, thus something that is present before the 
speaker, or as by him imagined present and honoured, = Your Honour. The 
lower classes of functionaries and small people call one another omae and omde- 

sdrna , omdesan. 

Formerly by 0-mae was meant the place before tbe prince; thence; Omaeve maim, to step before the 
Emperor. Npn II, 4, r. 

9. lH'*, Ki, noble, honourable, = you" in genuine Chinese compounds, as: 


^ ' Ki-kokn ! your country. 


7 ' -K"'-/ M i y ur t wn - 

f ' Ki-ken ? your district. 


T' -Ki-<J un , y ur canton. 

^' Ki-MyOi ki-so, your place, 

your Excellency. 
^ , Ki-tf'd-ff , your house, 
f' Ki-<J an i your face. 
f Ki-men, your countenance. 
f , Ki-ran, your look, 
f , Ki-kan, your pencil, your pen. 
S' Ki-zat, your letter. 
^ , j7 s/j/o, ki-so, your writing. 

^, Ki-mei, your command. 

your care. 
^lz2Jr Ki-fau, ki-foo, your an- 

I I* ^>>>^ 7 ^o ^ ' J 


^ ^ ' Ki-too , your answer. 

^> ^, Ki-koo, ki-koo-sama, the no- 
ble Lord, your Lordship. 

^ ^ ' -Ki-deni your Excellency. jfiTz- 
den sa,ma. 

ji^^ Ki-fen,ki-hen, your side, your 
Excellency. Ki-fen-sama. 

~)j'+,'> Ki-fyu, ki-hoo, your side. 

Ki-foo sama. 

^ * HI ^ ' Ki-sama , your Honour. 
^ , Son, worshipful, reverend, = your" in Chinese compounds, as: 

^ ^"f, Son-kun, the worshipful gen- 
tleman, Sir. 

^ ^ 3 i Son-kou, the worshipful gen- 
tleman, your father. 

^ ^ 7 , Son-fu, the worshipful father, 
your father. 

y ^- ^ Son-bo , your mother. 

i-kdk, the worshipful guest, 


my guest. 

,"%, Son-sau, the worshipful herb, 
you, Bonze. 

^, Son-tai, your body, your per- 

**, Son-gaiy your limbs. 


f ^^ >y ' S n ~y u i your appearance. 

IH f ' Son-ran, your look. 
' ~Jj , Son-fgu, the worshipful side, 
f ^LS' Son-zat, your letter. 
' ^| ^ Son-sfyo, sort-so, your writing. 
' ttfj f ' Son-kan , your letter. 

f ^i$$ *' $ cw -^ vm ?y our pencil? your pen. 


^tS Y ' &<-', your will. 

fir ' i L- >) o 

P- v i"v 3' bon-nyo, your care. 

fr y ^t^" ?? c 

|L ^ -^ p , oon-foo , your answer. 

1-^^^' S' Jli ~l ! '. tu * y ur ^ e - 

I! y "R * , Son-k<i , that which is below 

*^ > 

the worshipful; the I" of the modest 


In proportion as any thing belongs to the speaker or to a person beyond 
him, it is frequently mentioned under different denominations, to express mo- 
desty on the one side, and respectful politeness on the other. As much is pre- 
sumed on this abundance of names, and ample use is made of them, we may 
not entirely overlook them here. They occur in popular books under the title of 
Particular names of human relations 

One's own father 

is: Another's father 


, Ka-ku. 
A *> Ka 

One's own mother 
^^-^r^, Zi-bo. 

H 7 .to. x Rau-lo. 

/Li ^ V 

One's own eldest brother 

. Gen-knn. 

is: Another's mother A ^ ^ 


Another's eldest broil n-r 

> ****** 


One's own youngest brother Another's youngest brother. 

J, Ka-tei. 

?, A-tei. 

%, A-slyuk. 

' A-tsiu. 

One's own son 

m /? -y. ?, /-, 

S* X HP ' X , (jrU-Sl. 

lK / 

One's own wife 

I i- t l A. -4-i: #. TV- . . 

m. lit. Kei-sai. 

is : Another's son ( J^ ^ ^ 

^yj" ^ -f' ^, Rei-si. 
^y ^ ~j ^ Siu-si. 
Htj ^ -j\ 3 , Ran-giyok. 

is : Another's wife ( ^ u ^ 
^ ^ Sit Rei-sits. 

, Sen-sai. 
, Nai-dziyo. 
, Sen-sits. 

>yc v ^ -y 
One's own concubine ( 

, Seo-seo. 
, Kei-seo. 

/ f0l| ^ ^^ ^ Soku-sits. 

17"J ^7 . ^y 

One's own country and town 


1 1 San-ken. 


LI) o 

' , ben-ri. 

'' , Fei-ri. 

t", Ri-ken. 

\ ^ , Kan-kiyqu. 

^, Sai-kun. 

#) is: Another's concubine 

. .- . . 

^Y fl|' Rei-tsnjou. 
&* Hf ' Sei-tslyou. 
Another's country and town 

3 , Ki-koku. 

* JHf , ^'-^w. 

* 5B^ ^'-^- 

it prf I) T7-- 

r M ' , Kin-n. 




One's own dwelling place Another's dwelling place 

$S^ I^Y' Kiiva-siya. 
!^l^ Ht^> Kuva-sits. 

/T ^ >QE/7' 

iM Jj8[ D ' Toku-ro. 
l^f ^> Kan-siya. 

One's own letter 

"\T ^ ^^ ? i Sun-kau. 
^" ^ B'a ^ 5 Siyu-t6ku. 

^, Kau-tei. 
> ^, Kftra-tei. 
>'*, Ran-bau. 


Another's letter 

* , Da-un. 
f ' ASati-^an. 

? ft*. /. 


3 ' 

* , Gu-kan. 

it ^ f 

\_ ^M ' ^ " c <i~k<i' 

II. Pronouns proper, which point out objects with distinction of the place 
they occupy in space. They are formed from adverbs of place. They are: 

1. Wa ( ^7 ), pointing to the centre of space, therefore to the person spea- 
king, to his I." 

2. A ( y ), anywhere, elsewhere, indicates a place not sufficiently known 
beyond the speaker. 

3. Ka ( ~f] ), there, indicates a definite, more distant place. 

4. Ko ( I? ), here, indicates a definite place in the neighbourhood. 

5. Yo(jj7), yonder, indicates a place, which is beyond a place already 
defined, and serves to suggest the idea of other, Dutch </W<rr, < ionium /rr 
andere, dussere. 

6. So ()/), so, indicates a place already mentioned or imagined as men- 
tioned, and serves to form the reflective pronoun. 

7. The interrogative elements Ta ( ^? ) or To ( ]^ ), vulgo Da ( ^) or Do ( }< ), 
and Itsu ( -^ y ) or Idzu ( ^f ^*), answering to r// in who? which ? what? whe- 
re?" and to the Latin qu in quis? quid?" - j% and "^ is the written form occur- 
ring in old books, that now, in accordance with the pronunciation of the people, 


is more generally superseded by ^ and ^ J ). The first form may perhaps be 
attributed to the inaccurary of writers and engravers. 

a. To the immediate compounds with the root Wa (own, proper) belong: 
Wa-nusi ( -^ ^ 3E f ) > proper master , the master , the master of the work- 

Wa-dono ( ^ ^ jjjz 1 *), my or our master. 

Wa-nami ( ^jj- ^ ^jjfr t) , the proper row, we. 

Watakusi (^ ^), the I," plural Watdkfai-ddmo, we, among people of 
fashion, and in the familiar language the ordinary pronoun for the first person. 
It is commonly abbreviated to Watdksi or Watdks, and Watakusi vd to Watdksd, 
whereas the porter at Yedo says Wdtski. Wdsi or Wdsi, and the servant-girl 
Watdsi, Watdi. Whoever does not wish to put himself on a footing with the 
last mentioned should, thus, use Watakusi. 

About the meaning of tdkusi , the second element of this compound , the Ja- 
panese etymologists keep silence; likewise, our question directly proposed on 
.that subject always remained unanswered. Referred to our private judgement, we 
now recognize this word as the tdki (^^, vulgo J|)i greedy, desirous, in use 
in the popular language, adv. tdkn, whence the verb tdkusi to desire, to be 
greedy, is derived. Thus Wa-tdkusi means self-love, egotism, and is tan- 
tamount to the ordinary Chinese compound ^ ^ $fa 3 ', self-love, egotism. 

b. The remaining adverbs of place enter into immediate composition with 
words as 1) Ko ( j|| 3 j^p J ), place, region, 2) Tsi ( =f- ), plural tsira ( ^- J ), 
way, tract , in the popular language also Tsutsi ( ^ ^- ) , province , etc. These 
compounds indicate a place or places, and are, as nouns, declinable. 

1) Compounds with Ko (^^o ffi ^ 

Doko (^rf F j|| :7 ), what place? Dokono tsurugizo, whence this sword? - 
Dokoni or Dokode, at which place? at what place? Dokovd or Doko yd, to- 
wards which place? whither? Doko ye ydkuka, where is it going to? whither 
is it going? 

Koko (llfc 3 JH^ itt^j^f^o ^% S!')' this P lace ' tere ' Koko or 
Kokode wakdru, herein lies the difference. Kokoni oitd, herein. 

S6k6 (^ y ^ 3 ^ y j^lf a }i pron. sko, such a place, the place of which is 

1) Wa-gun siwori, under Tare. 


spoken, or the place of something, pointed out, serving formerly to indi- 
cate the person spoken to; plural sokora (jt y ffi 3 ^f ? ). S6ko-m6to, for 
dsok6-moto = the seat there, serves as pronoun for the person spoken to: Thou, 
You. S6ko-m6to naniwo kurdsu zo? in the spoken language: S6ko-m6to Ikdga 
kurdsi nasdru, how do you do? literally: how do you let (the time) go round, how 
do you wind round? - - Asoko, pron. dsko - of some where the quarter, any 
where. Kdsdkd, vulgo kdsiko ( $ j| ) , = the place of there, that or yon place. 
Doko kdsikd, which quarter? Koko kdsiko ni, at this and yon place, here and 
there yonder. - - Kono yamayoii kasikono yamave utmru, to remove from this 
mountain to yonder mountain. 

Yoko, because it means cross" is superseded by Yoso ( l> 3 J$ f), another 
place, elsewhere. Yosoye litsuru, to remove to elsewhere. Yotoye ugok'mu, 
not to remove to elsewhere, i. e. to stay firm at (or in) one's place. 

Idzuku ('ffif 1. ||*^)> old- Japanese Idzuko, which place? Some consider uas 


an abbreviation of kuni, country, and consequently write ft'* Q *, which 
country? kuniwd idzukude gozdrimdsu, your country which country is it? 
what is your country? Idzuku no fitdzo, from what country is the man? - 
Idzukuyd, whither? Idzukuye m6, whithersoever, to every-where. Idztku 
ydri kitazo, whence has he come? -- Idzuku yori m6, whencesoever, from every 
place whatever. - - Idzuku ni driizo, where is he? Iy4ni aru, he is at home. 
Idzwkunikd, or Idzukunkd, where? whither? *). - ^ ft? ^7 *), Uri 
idzukunkd yuku, whither is the ox going? 

Idzukunzd, -\ "J "^ ^X, originally Idzuku nizo, -f 7*^=X, old-Japanese 
Idzukonizo, -\y*i ^X, from the elements, of which it is composed, has the 
meaning of at what place? where?", answers nevertheless to our >on what 
ground? why?" also, and with this meaning is ranked with A T an to rtte and 
Doittite*). The force of Idzukunzd appears most plainly in the Japanese transla- 
tion of the Chinese expression following: 

Kare idzukunz6 korewo sirdnt *) = he there on what ground (why) 

fj? ^ 

* ^ shall he know this? 



The speaker's object here is, not to draw out an answer, but 

1) See p. 68, line 8 from the bottom. 8) MINCIVS (LIOOE, Ctimtir Cbftic*, Vol. II, p. l). 

3) See p. 85. 4; VoL I. Book I. Pt. I. Ch. VH.f 7). 



he will have it understood that he not only doubts the assertion, but even is 
convinced of the contrary: one does not known it," 

If the question proposed by Idzukunzd is affirmative, as in the instance quo- 
ted, the speaker has the negative contrary in view, if however it is negative, 
then the positive, as in the phrase: 

O Kau-mtyau idznkunzo Imdda firokardzu? Why should his fame not 

pJ^ be spread everywhere? 

>g v The affirmative question Jjjf f fr ^f t ^ ^ i Idsukunzo ka- 
. * nardn? - why shall that be" possible? implies that the speaker is 
, convinced, that it is impossible; the negative form: Idznkunzo 
kanarazdranf = why shall that not be possible?, is a consequence of the con- 
viction, that it must indeed be done. 

The Chinese characters, which are used to represent Idznkunzo are * j| 

_^ _, ^ 3 . /p JOg* # J=L ^ -ii 3 Jjlf 3 Ijlf ^flE ' ^ ^ ne J a P aneSe 

word 'only the termination mo is mostly found added. These characters have 
the force indicated only, when they occupy a place before the verb of the pre- 
dicate; at the end of a sentence, where some occur likewise, they imply a direct 


2) Compounds with Tsi (^^ %&*} , way, place. 

Do-tsi, which place? where? - Dottira, which places? - Dotsiye, whither? - 
Dotrirayemt, whithersoever, to everywhere. - - Dottira karamd mukdi-dvn, to meet 
each other from whatever places it may be (from all sides). 

A-tsi (%\> 7 J^), Atsvra, elsewhere. - - Ko-tsi (^ a 3&^), here. - 
kotsi or Otsi kotsi, Atsi kotsi to, plural Atsira kotsira, elsewhere and here, here and 


So-tsi (: y 3f*), old-Jap., his place, plural Sotsira, serves to indicate the 
person, of whom it is spoken. -- SoUira kotsira, those (the persons) there, and 

those here. 

3) Compounds with Tsutsi. 

Do-tsutsi, which place? - Do-tsutsive, whither? - 

c. The adverbs of place Ta (vulgo Da) and Wa with the genitive possessive 
termination #, ga (pron. nga), which is mostly, but improperly , written fj , ka. 

Taga, vulgo Daga, (pron. Da-nga), arisen, perhaps by syncope, from Tarega 
or Darega, whose. - Ddga ^ka, whose house (is this) ? - Ddga awarM-koto 
arau (or aroo), whose compassion will there be? who will have compassion? 


_ . pron. Wanga, own, mv or his nw -j- 

n, according as the subject of dis- 

course^o wh lc h W^ -fers, is the speaker or another person, -for diatineti., 

from Waka, vounsr. W/inn i^i^-f 

5 j v Aug. ruga, Kimi , own countrv mv rr K' 

^^iv \. _i.w. _ ^ j udtive countrv ~"^ 

^o (or Waoa tsoo). own 

r^f, also contracted Wqiyt, wn house. - 

turn home.-JTa,, M W,,a ^^ % , ra , he return8 home _ 

own beloved, my wife. - Wdgim6ko, old-Jap, for Wtga 1m a o( m* 

my little wife. - TF<% a (S- JZ. ^ own .... 

* ft & J /it son. - JPilfa mt ( SK ^ t 

m body, one's own person, ray person, -- * e >I" in a woman's * _' 
Wdgatdtsi, one's own station, we. ~ Wdga t6mo , o^. - Wdga ttmo de nai they 
are not of ours.- Wtga t6mo-gdra, one's own relations or clan, we. - *+*** 
*n authority, arbitrarily. - Wdga m^ni- (or de) w d ndi, it is not arbitrary. - 
Wdga rikntsuw6 tattnu, not to persist in one's perverse view.- Wd<# t*m<n< 
for own behoof; I for my own sake, or he for his own sake. - Ware WuJ 
dg* mtntni sKd, I have made that my own property. - Kare sorM 6ga 
mononi ^a, he has made it his own property, he has appropriated it. - W<u,a 
mavent, = before the I" of the subject of discourse, whether the speaker, or a 
being beyond him. - Kavilco *6n6 stJdwd sardzu, wit*, k*vd mo nya ma*ni toa- 
rtbd, Mvu, the silkworm does not leave its mat, sitting still it eats, whenerw 
food comes before it. - Wdga de ni, with one's own hand*. 

In the old-Japanese, which used A for Wa, we meet with Aya for Wag* 
also; thence Agakimi (|$ J. ff:*), abbreviated Agimi and Agi, Sir. - Aya Fo- 
^ (WJ W J)i our Buddha. - Ago (^ ^> abbreviated for Ay*b,to? 
son. Adzuma, abbreviated for Agatsuma, my beloved, my husband ( r db *), 
my wife (fp j|^). 

d. Pronouns possessive. 

By suffixing no, the adverbs of place become pronouns possessive; that w 
have, Ano, Kano, Kono, Yono, Sono, Dono, Idzuno. 

And fltd (TS C S), after the Ytdo pronunciation: Ant kt6 and A*6*6t man 
of elsewhere, any one, he. - - Ano onna ()V 9 * \ ), a woman of elsewhere, 
she. Ano f1,t6 tatsi, Ano fttd gata, the men there, those people, they. Ano 
kdta (7S% 2), contracted Andta (7t*), the side of elsewhere, is Used at a 
polite indication of the second person, thou (you); plural AndtA pfta. An&* 
dewd gozdri-mastnu; watdkwi zi-sinni <i'-ma*a, = it is not yon; I hare done 
it myself, 


Ada (7*), Pron. Anda, is used with the signification of other, opposed to 
Ware I Mino, own and MidzuMra, self. 

K^okisi (*; * *), the bank (or shore) yonder, the other world. - 
kata, yon side. - Kano fttd, that man. 

Konoyo (3 ; 3), this world, this life. - Kono tott, this time, this 
Kono kata, this side, - with relation to time, since. - Kono aida, between t 
meanwhile. -Konoyntni, for this cause, therefore.- ft ]J *" 


Tono (3 S ), without, on the outeide, other, with reference to son 

that has been already mentioned.- Yono ^6 (^ ^, *^ , *- 
one else; the same as FMno /<! ( ^f A ?> or *-)* (M* A^ 
rono %, another physician than he, of whom it is option. - 8M* %, 
an additional physician. 

S6n6 (:?), his, its. 

,4no /W MM) *** ^ !**. ^ arrives at his place, h 
ohject - fV6 btt6 titoO sdsidsfontwt fM^sdnu, each one misses not his aim, = 
one misses his aim. - K un -si *M Ur,Uni so-M oh***, sono fttdwt xM, 
the nobleman acts according to his station, what is beyond that, he do, 
long for -SMmi, his body, himself. - AyamcrtsM sono mini motomu, 
men must seek for the fault in or with themselves. - 
( * " B* b j| ^ || ?) , its time , such a period , the period of the act that 
ju^been lenfened, tin, there. - Sono fi (ff flj- ^ ^ ~ J "^ 
(3t $0), that point of time. Sono fen (iB^ ^^ ^ ^.^2^' 

nAttf (-#s&' ^ y ^ y ) 5 thereafter. Sono vyi(^^ _t ^ o 
abouts. ooTio notsi ^ J. ^ ^ ^ y ; T&. +> ' 

B ) or after the YMo pronunciation: S *w|, moreover, besides, also. - 
M , behind that, thereafter, there upon.-Soo yi, for that cause, so, ti 
fore -Sono to . (^^ ffi* )i else, otherwise. - &mo toMni, thus 

Sbno to, contracted: Sonata, his (or its) side, yon side, the familiar 
for Nad*i, your Honour, you; vulgo SMI /*., SM ho (JtJ #3>. P k 
- to tM-^Kro' F , undertake it! = Nandn ka,M,. 



" 6 ), at this place. - moto, seat of gods. 


Sono moto ( ff*) = yon domicile or seat, for you, ye.' 

at t ace where someone dwells. - r^-^o^too mo- 
nor uk&e KMri-M Tsuini VMsivo ka m ino m otoni ( ftp ) *** 
the god of the moon-bow receives the divine charge and descends. At length 


comes to the seat of the goddess of the harvest. Sono moto motsi-kita , you 
have brought. Kuni-gum nite iro-iro no i-fau art; ono-ono sono ydr6Akin{ Ata- 
gavu besi, in every country different ways of acting exist; people ought to keep 
to the best (yordsiki) of each (ono-ono-sono). Ono-ono-sono bun teo u, = each gets 
his share. Sono i ni makdse ( _fi:^ ijt ^ _S^) ka^e it to his pleasure. 

Ta no or T6 no , commonly Da no or D6 no ( fa * o *) , or Donna ( fa t ) , 
the interrogative which? what? 

D6no fttd, which (what) man? who? - - D6no tokdroni, at which place? 
where? - - D6no kdta, or contracted D6nat&, which (what) side? where? --is 
at the same time used as the who?", polite interrogative Donatdye yuk* zo, 
whither, or to whom, are you going? D6natd ga anatani kortwo 6*iyr-mdAta 
kd, who has taught you this? Donna kotozo (fa t ^^y), which matter? 

D6no yau ( fa * Htp> P f on. dono ydo, - which way? how? Yort dono 
yau na, how is the night? 

In the popular language Dono yau or D6yau resolves into Doo, which is 
written or also |~'. Thence: Doukd (-^-*), pron. ddokd, Douz6(fa f 2^^, 
how? D6u m6, however. V. page 326. I. 122. 1. Ano koto ted doundttaJcd, = 
the matter how is (it) become? what has become of the matter? Ano flt6no 
nd wd dou iukd, = his name how is it called? what is his name? -- Kortwa 
dou tsuknriti ydkardo kd, - what concerns this, by what making will it be good, 
i. e. how will people have to make this? 

Dou-si, = how to do? Ka-yau-si ( $ * ^ 2^), contracted Kqu-si, Koo-ti, 
so to do. - - D6u-sit6 ( fa c fa ]% o Jj^j ), = how doing? Dou-At4 mak6to dt 
ndi to iwareu ^o,-how could people say, that it is not true? -- War4 </ou-*W 
sdmukqu z6, how should I be against it? 

Dou-sit& (an abbreviation (apocope) of Ddusltdr*), - how done? how? is 
used adjectively. D6usttd koto gd dr&, what sort of matter is there? Dotuttti 
kotozo, - what sort of matter? what matter? 

e. Substantive pronouns. 

By suffixing re the adverbs of place become substantive pronouns, which 
refer to something (whether person or thing, remains undetermined) as being 
present in a place. The termination re is indeed an abbreviation of are, which, 
by a mutation of sound, has arisen from or, to be. The pronouns thus formed 
are declinable as every other noun, with the genitive termination no, are used 
as attributive adjectives, and, in this form, answer to our pronouns possessive 


(mine, thine"), they are, however, used as substantives also, in which case 
they, as every other noun, are declinable. 

The substantive pronouns are: 

1) Ware, *7 I/ , the I," understood as that which is in the midst, in the 
circle (wa), by which the person thinking or speaking supposes himself surroun- 
ded. The characters used for it are **5& ^^ ^ ^ ^^Si # ftl ^& ^T- 

_^ We Ft o tt o 3, V& o ^ >H o v ^ o 1 o 

^ . The Mikado uses for I" JJ} Tsm, for which formerly Maro (jjfc- g D ) 
was used, which word however has at present become an appellative of youth. 
The Tai-kun generally uses for I" ^ O r ^ (not to be confounded with 
%*)- Ware fit6 (^ t A bo ^ S * ) , the I and another. Ware icarewd 
wasuru (^ ^|||^, I forget the I, - - I forget myself. - Kono kdsava 
wareno nari ($ tj ^ j*, t ,,), this hat is mine 1 ). 

Plural: Ware-ware, Wdre-ware-dznrt, Wdrerd(^^^}^ Ware domo, we; 
Warerdgd, ours. 

Ware properly belongs to the book-language, nevertheless it is used in the 
conversational, when the speaker exalts his I." Then it answers to our WE. 

2) Are, Y \^ (ffi j), something that is some where, he, she, it, 
German er; plural Are-are, Arera, Being short in matter it, just as he or it," 
refers to something (person or thing) of which no case is made. 

Arega hon, that one's book, his book. Areva tare? = something what? i. e. 
what is it? who there? Arewd mi-tdi, I long to see him (or it). 

In old- Japanese Are occurs, as a variation of Ware, I. 

Aremd, = that there, also A-itsu and Ko-itsu , - that there and this here, or 
A-itsume", Ko-itsume" are opprobrious terms. 

Ore (S* iSL^)' variation of Are, in the mouth of a plebeian of Yedo 6ra, 
refers with derogation to another person, whereas from humility, the speaker, 
with it, also designates himself. 

Oreva fitowo iydsimete ivu kotoba nari; kou-sei midzukdramo i. Ore is a word, with which one 
mentions another disrespectfully; in later times persons have applied it to themselves. - Fu^.koiono basi. 

3) Kare, >(/ I/ ( ^c ^ o |g), something that is there, he, she, it, that. 

4) Kore, I? I/, something that is here, this, (^iff* ^M 2x*A- ^s*). 

1) Here an eUips takes place, as the word E^a, which belongs to Wareno also, is expressed 
but once. Comp. pag. 66, line 4 from the bottom. 


Kortwa amari tsiisai (ft^*7 ^5 /JN|^), this is too small a ). Kortuo 
motowd siru to iu, this is called knowing the foundation. Are kore, that and 
this, those and these. -- Kortkara innrii, to go from here. - Kortni yotte 

?)' therefore. Kordde ym, so far well, good so! 

Plural: Kore-kore, Korera. - The isolated Korerd is often superseded \>j 
Kova (itfc 3 ^f"")' and tne attributive Koreno continually, by Kono. - Kova 
ao-flt6-kusdno fazimtno oya nari, this is the progenitor of the human race. - 
Kono nedanwa ikura si-mdsiikd, the price (nedan) of this (article), how much 
is it? 2 ). 

5) Sore, y V (5fe c IU = j)> sometm ' n g taat so 8Ucn - ^ ura l *or6*on, 
so or such. -- Sore kore ( I& ^ |Jf ^), = such ones. Sfirtwd deln-mdrtka, can 
such happen? Sorevd ndnidt, gozdrii, what is such?-- Ware *ort\c6 wAganumo 
ni sitd, I have made such (or that) my property. S&reno tokin6 fan yrfn trf- 
gln6 toUm itdru made, = from the half of such an hour till it comes to the next 
hour (till the next hour). - Soreni tsuitt ( jjjfc| ^^), concerning that - 
niwd oytbi-mastnn, = it comes not to such, such is unnecessary. - Sored4m6 y<K, 
also so it is good, also that is good. -- Soredhca, kai-maloo, so (this being so 
or then) I will buy it. Sort kard vyi, = from there upwards; in relation to 
time, earlier than, before. - Sore y6ri m ayt, = proceeding from there forwards, 
i. e. earlier than. ... - SoreyM simo, = proceeding from there downwards, i. e. 
afterwards, there upon ( J# ^ ). - Soreyori kono kata (ffi ft), = proceeding 
from there on this side, i. e. since. - Sort-soren6 m^rd, things which are . 
or so. - Sore-sore^ sitagdlte, = according to the so or such, in proportion as it is so or 
so. The poet employs So wo for Sore-wo, e. g. Sowo mireba, seing such. 

If Sort happens to be at the beginning of a sentence as attributive definition 
(such) of a noun immediately following, then it reflects on that, which has pre- 
viously been said of the same subject already; e.g.: Mention has been nude 
the historical commencement of Japan; after some general remark* 
continues: &rtf Nippon-gokuva Tsiu-kvano to^HF / 
too so M, what concerns SUCH country Japan, as it lies towards the east 
Central Blooming country (China), so it is ,,ll,,l th, N ^ 

eastward of the sun. Evidently Sore is here, not as a mere eipl 
but is of the same value, as the Latin relative ,/u/ at ti beginning , 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, pp. 2, 23, 24. 


sentence such as: Quae contumelia non fregit eum sed erexit. (C. Nep. Themistocl- 
I. 3). In cases such as this, we supply the place of the reflective pronoun with 
the demonstrative, and the Japanese Sard Nippon goku is equal to: this coun- 
try Japan. 

Soregasi = such a man, formerly used only by princes as a modest indication 
of their own persons towards higher J ), latterly it has come into vogue with 
inferior persons , and is used by them to speak modestly of themselves. It is taken 
for a amalgamation of Sorega nusi , Mister such a one , and is placed on a footing 
with tbe Chinese ^ or J^ , = somebody, quidam 8 ). 

6) Yore is not in use. 

7) Tare, % lx/ , old language, now usually Dare, ^ \/ (g|| o ^b), = who? 
Lat. quis? Dore, y^ \/ , which of many? By suffixing the emphatic particle 
y zo, is formed Dardzo, abbreviated Dazo, who? -- Darega, whose? (cujus?), 
is often superseded by Daga. 

Kavd (= karevd) dare (^* pfl*')' wno i g there? Kavd-dar4-t6ki (= the 
who is there ?-hour), the hour at which objects are still too faintly lighted, to be 
recognized well , the morning twilight. Kavd-dard-bosi , the morning-star. Sore 
wa dare no ko de gozarimdsuka , what boy is that? vulgo: Arewa dare no ko dakd 
(dakd - de drukd). Sumire darega tamdni nivdvu, = the violet for whom does 
it smell? Sdkdni darfya druzdj who is there? Dardga yoku sirite 6ru, who 
knows it well? Kono ftt6wa dardde dri-mdsuka , = this man who is he? = vulgo 
Ano fitdwa (or Arewa) dare da kd (properly: dardde drukd) , who is he. Nandzi 
va darede druzd, who are you? Dare to ondzi koto, with what identity? - 
Dar6t6 fandsi suru, with whom to talk? Daret6 tomoni druzd, with whom to 
dwell together? Dareni yordzu, indifferent who. Korerano siyono nakade 
dorega nandzi ni ydkizd ( yfc ^jjf ; ^^ y Fp ^ ^ ^ ^ *$ - 3 3. y ) , which of these 
books pleases you? - - Dore mo, whatever, each. Dore-fodo ('(of ^ ^*) 5 h w 
much? Kokoyori tsugind matsi made dore-hodo arimdsu, =. from here to the 
next town how many (miles) is it? 

Remark 1. The Japanese does not distinguish the interrogative sentence 

1) In the Nippon woo dai itsi ran ("39th Mikado, 10th year, I Oth month), the Emperor's brother, 
addressed by him as Nandzi, calls himself Soregasi, whereas now every one speaks of Soregdsigdkditafumi, 
the letter written by me. 

2) Wa-gun siwori, under Soregati. 


from the affirmative by an altered order of words; the sentence who is it?" 
must, therefore, as it" is the subject of discourse, be expressed by SWwa 
dardde arimasukd, and not, as in the Ban-go zen J ), II, 39 r. is the case, 
by Darega sorede arimasukd. 

Remark 2. The question, whether Dare, just as the Latin gut*, with the 
signification of drufitt, = somebody, is used as an indefinite pronoun, 
has been answered negatively by a literate Japanese *). 

Idzure,-f y*lX (fJ fb fa), mostly -f ^ I/ Itsure, who?, what?, 
which? used rather in poetry and in the epistolary style, is superseded in 
the ordinary conversational language by dore, doko, dotsira or dou. 

Idzurega masdru (^fcT ^ )|&*)i wno surpasses? which is the better? 
Imdda idzurdkd s ) kore (Fou-rai-san) ndru yd tsiimdbirdka nardzv, it has not yet 
been settled, which (of the mountains mentioned) this (the Pung-lai-.c/i<m) is. - 
Idzurdno tokdronikd 3 ) tewo kuddsan (fa ]| ~f\ -^-) at which place will one 
lay hands on? where to begin? = Dordkara fozlmeu zof *). -- Idztreno fu6, 
which man? - - Idzureno yo, which age? - Idziireno ton, which year? - 
Idzweno kata, which side? which province? Idziirdmo, V. pag. 326. Idztrdtomo, 
whoever, whichever, = Dordmo, dotsiramo. Idzureto (or Idztiretomo) niX*u, = 
without whatever, i. e. without anything whatever, = Dorito {pti koto naku. - 
Idzuremo idzuremo, plural, whichever, all. - Idziirt nari fomo, whoeyer it 
may be. Idzurdno utsuva nitemo, in somewhere a vessel. In ^f ^ J jl| * 
7 9 i which no doubt means: it is to be met with in every river," mo is left out. 

III. Determinative and reflective pronouns. 

Self, determinative pronoun in I myself, he himself, reflective pronoun in 
myself, himself, herself, is expressed by 

A. 1. Ondre , = Individual ; 6n6dziikar& , apart, by oneself. 

2. Mi, = body, person; Midziikara, personal; Waga-mi, = own body. 

1. Ondre, ^r J I/ (l!; (vulgo Q) |f e |g), from on6, = single, and 
ore, = are (being), thus something that is single, single being, indivi- 
dual, allied in sense to fltdri (=fit6 + ori, being alone, single, alone); plur. 
ondredomo, ondrera, also ondra ( tl ^) i n W Japanese. 

l\ $|ift 3-H. 3 11 Mr. TKJDA rWIIOO. 

3) Ka, an interrogative suflBx. 


As the subject of a proposition Ondre answers to he, German er, einer, and, 
just as these words, indicates a person , without any compliment. Therefore, when 
the speaker applies it to himself it betrays modesty, whereas applied as a de- 
monstrative pronoun to any one beyond the speaker it shows a want of respect 
and, just as the variation Oddre (X K L^), is understood as a epithet expressive 
of contempt. The Princes of the Empire call themselves, on6re, to the Emperor, 
and make this word equal to the Chinese expression J|^ ^ J^ ^ kiva-zin , Japa- 
nese suknndki /fid, i. e. an insignificant man '). 

Ondre, used attributively (genitively) , or objectively, refers to the subject as 
being itself the object of its action, and answers to; his own, himself. 
Examples : 

~fo^L O A.^ O Ondre f Mono oydwo uydmavebd, FVtd mata ond- 

A ^ fay }.- j F1 "^ read oiidwi 

j^-X * JF jl j \ -< \ t / v t7 

T? 3* i^RA A /ll> . *-^ i^ 

Onoregd mi wo tassento hossurebd, Mddzn ta-zin 

t. _-^v ^ - ^ WO 


. ^ II If an individual honors the parents of others , 

L_^ ^M |^ 

At? ^> ft* Then others honor the parents of the individual. 

5^ tft ' -fta ~>f $@ V 

&* 5^v -T^^ Will you improve yourself, First improve 

"* s "* / 

^ rt ^^ others. 

'I M 

Any one may now substitute for the word individual," in the first saying 
I myself, thou thyself (you yourself), or he himself," and say: If I honor 
another's parents, then the other also honors mine." In the second saying, 
however, ondre, in consequence of the Imperative there used, may be referred 
to the second person (thou, you). Onoregd kok6ro-sdsiwo okonqu (^~f 2i ^. 
^k ) , to do his own will. - - Onore wo okonau ( ^f F^ ), to behave oneself, 
one's own conduct. - - Ondre w6 sutete, fit6no tamdni su (^ 2t ^ y\)' ^ 
set oneself aside and to act for the advantage of others , = Wdga koto ivo bd sast- 
6iti, fitono kotoniwd sewayaku, to give up one's own business and serve the 
interests of others. On6rew6 taddsm sitd, fVtoni mdtdmdzdrebd , sunavdtsi urdmi 
ndsi, when one rules himself (his individual) and seeks nothing of others, 
then one experiences no hatred. Onore ni katsu r self- victory. Onore-yori 
(I B ), = from oneself. 


Remark. If we have derived ondre from on6 and attributed to this tile signi- 
fication of one, the word on6-ono pleads for this conception, for ono-ono, 
as a repetition of ono, has the signification of one and one," i.e. each 
one, answers to the Chinese & kd, and is equal to Fltt-toto, = man and 
man, i. e. each man, everyone. As derivatives from this ono, which, sin- 
gly, is no longer in use, comes under notice: Onazlki ( ^J ^), not in- 
dividual, i. e. identical. 

On6re is frequently superseded by Ore ( Q *) l ), which some Japanese phi- 

lologers consider an abbreviation of On6re. 

2. Mi (Jfp 3 -), body, person, understood as the concrete self, whereas the 
idea of self, when it is taken in opposition to all that does not belong to self, 
is indicated by Ware or Ondre Mi wo tatsuru mono, - one (mono) who makes 
his body stand, is one who makes the most of his person; Ware wo tdtsuru mono 
on the contrary, is one who places his I, his will, his interests on the foreground, 
and by which is, in general, understood a self-willed person. Sono miiro itri- 
navdzu mono, is one who does not throw himself away, does not lose sight of 

his personal dignity; on the contrary Ware ware wo wasur&tti, I do not forget 

my I, do not lose sight of my own interest. Kare ondrewo icasurtni, he does 

not forget himself (his individual in opposition to others). -- Onoretcd hointru, 
= to praise oneself as an individual; mi wo homeru, to praise one's own person. 

Examples: Mi ten-kano ken-meiw6 usinavdzit ( Jf' ^ ^ * _^ * ^ * "fC * 
^ 7 iHv _^ 1 ') ne hi mse tf (y hi 8 personal conduct) does not lose his bril- 
liant name in the Empire 2 ). Kun-si sono miwd fmlztikaslme:* , the noble man 
brings no disgrace upon himself. Mi wo dmimiiru yudnwo sirtba, tunanitfi /W 
w6 osdmuru yudnwo siru, if one knows the way to rule oneself, then one 
knows the way to rule others. -- Miw6 mmdni makdsttt hlgd-gtirinu , yielding 
himself to the horse, he escapes. 

Waga-miwo uru, to sell his own body (himself); said of girls who prosti- 
tute themselves for hire. - Wdga-miwo ydstimdru, to let one's own body rest, 
to allow oneself rest. Wdga deni wdga-nuwo wdruu siiri mono, one who de- 
forms himself with his own hand. 

t, Sw p. 80. J) t***9-y*i. Cap. XVIII, f 


Women use Waga-mi and Mi, plural Midomo, for I. Midomoga mditta toki, 
when we have come at the thime of our coming l ). 

Mi-mi (^P 5 " ^(*~}i = Highness' self, in old Japanese the self of illustrious 
persons, e. g. Kono futd fasirano kami mo . . . mi-mi wo kdkusi-tamaviki , also both 
these gods kept their sublime persons (themselves) concealed. 

Midzukara, ^ y^ ~)] 37 , compounded of mi (body), dzu (piece, i. e. so- 
mething that, as a part of a whole, exists apart for itself, so that mi-dzu, 
means a separate something that is body) and kara (from), answers to our 
of itself, from itself. It is expressed by the Chinese characters [fj e g 

Remark. As the Japanese etymologists do not satisfactorily explain this word, as they leave the 
dzu unnoticed, we must explain the derivation given here. We acknowledge now, and that for the 
first time, dzu, to be distinguished from the genitive termination tsu, to be the same suffix, 
that, added to the radical numbers (fito, futd, ^= one, two;, forms of them proportional numerals, 
(thus: fito-dzu, futd-dzu, = single, double, simplus , duplus), and which, by means of repetition, 
used in the form of dzu-dzu, gives to these numbers the character of distributives: fito-dzu-dzu , 
futd-dzu-dzu , = singuli, bini, one at a time, in couples. Whereas now in mi kara (= from a body) 
the idea of body is taken quite generally, and only opposed to something else, midzu-kara, refers to 
a separate body, to a separate person (opposed to all other persons). 

By means of the same derivative elements (f'ft >), from Te (7), hand, and 
Kokdro (3 > n), heart, will, are formed the words Te-dzu-kara (^- ^ 
^ ^), = from a separate hand, i. e. with one's own hand, and Kok6ro-dzii 

kara (A^^ /^*#>)i from a separate heart, i. e. spontaneous (from one's own 

free movement). 

According to its form Midznkara is originally an adverbial definition (- of it- 
self) , and as such not susceptible of declension ; e. g. Midzukara toravdre fit6 t6 
ndri, he becomes a prisoner of himself, he surrenders himself a prisoner. Tddzu- 
kdra kuvdwo toru, to pluck feeding leaves of mulberry trees with one's own hands. 

1) The words given in RODRIGUEZ Siemens , pp. 11 and 80 ought, for the correction of typical errors, 
to be reduced to the forms: Sui =. Mino, Waga-mino, Ware-tomono 

Sibi =. Mini, ni, ni 

Se = Miioo, wo, wo. 

Midzukara also occurs there with the inflectional terminations no, ni and wo, although in original texts 
it is always nndeclined. 


However it is also used (in the quality of subject or of object), for I my- 
self or he himself, and for they themselves. 

Midsukara is used as subject, whenever another object is mentioned before 
the verb of the predicate; e. g.: Midzukara omovdkuva fakdri-kotowo yetdri, he 
has himself, as he thinks, attained what he intended. Afidzikara is also cha- 
racterized as the subject in the proverb: 

HH ^ O Ta-ninno urtiwd mitevd, sunavdtsi midztikara tomoni ur/r* Mm, 
* a If one sees another's grief, then one must oneself be grieved 
[|j r ~ with him. 

"*-* As object (= himself), on the contrary, Midzukara is used, 

s^*- J\^f/ whenever it is immediately followed by a transitive verb; e. g. 

"fltr. _L, , Mina midzukara akirdkani siirft luiri ( {? TO {ft ) '), 
^ /^ 

g,v sayings) mean: to enlighten oneself. Midzukara 

< UA 7 5fiiJt V' .. 

_^> ^ ( g m^ ) 8) ? to deceive oneself, self-deception. - 


(Q f^) 3 ), to cultivate oneself, self-culture. - I/, om, to 
stand on oneself (to rely on oneself). M. kokoromit , to take the proof of one- 
self. Jl/. yomin-suru mono ( Jf ^ ) , one who is fond of himself. - 
mu, self-torture. 

On6dzukara ($T J *P ~ft ^oQoS^S.B^^^.flS^)^ ** 
individual, from oneself, of self, Lat. sponte. What has been said of Jftfefr- 
kara, is, with regard to its adverbial character, applicable to Onod&tnra also. 

Onodzukdrd kuru-kuru to mavdrti mono, things turning themselves, having their 
own revolution. 0. mauktrft fit6, one who, of his own accord, immigrates. - 
0. ndru kotowdriwo miyo! behold reasons, which are self-evid.-nt ' 

B. As Chinese expressions of the determinative and reflective pronoun self 
are in use: 

1. ^v> Sin bod y' self ' PP sed to At' -'" others. 

2. S ^ ^^' Zi-sin, often prououncetl as </ri-'w, own body or person. 
Zi-sinwo aisurn f1i6, one who loves his own body, i. e. who i* fond of oa.e. the 
same as Sono miwo aMrtf ,/W. - !Tafttt* .--*,' i.,' .MWoM 

in my own person (myself). Anit Go-d^inm ( ffi * g y % \ 
mrftta, = You have done it in your Honor's own person. 

1) JW 

. I. 4. t) Ibid. VI, 1. )!!. 111. 4- 


3- [=1 ^ ffi?/i Zi-bun, = own part, his part. Zi-bun wo mi-suUru mono, 
one, who loses sight of himself, his interest. Zi-bun ni suwdtte 6ru, - midzu- 
kara 6ru, to be substantive. Zi-bunno sai-kuwo suru, to do one's own work. 
Zi-bun no mono to naru, to become property. 

4. ||| ^ $^ t>, Zi-zen (by some pronounced as dzi-zen), also zi-nen , = being 
of self, original, natural, un worked. Zi-zenni, or zi-zento, = Lat. sponte. 
Sore f'ttono tsi-druvd zi-zen nari, that this human understanding is there, is a 
something natural. Ydmano uy6m zi-zen no fo dri, on the mountain there is a 
natural fire. Yumdni zi-zen ni mirn, to see something in a dream, of oneself 
(involuntarily). [=} ^ ^ f, $1 % X', to exist of itself (spontaneous existence). 

Besides these, there occur many more expressions compounded with |f| ^, zi 
(self), in which zi, at one time, has the meaning of own," then of self." In 
the former case it stands adjectively before a substantive, in the latter objectively 
before a transitive verb. 

EJ ^j zi, enters adjectively into compounds, as: 

^, own country. 
* , own house. 
^ own body, self. 
^ 5 owu person. 
" S5' own clan. 
?' own person. 
^ > own strength. 

' own disposition. 
^ own whim. 

v>^ ' 

own trade, 
own fabric, 
own pencil, 
own drawing, 

own answer. 


own Boiling. 

own interest. 

Zi is objective to the verb in standard compounds as: 

, self-love. 
, self-praise. 
, self-existence. 
, self-confidence. 
, self-bondage. 
, self-nomination. 

^' self-prostitution. 

* IP 

^, self-injury. 

r^ l_f* 1 

5, self-sale. 


5, self-murder. 
^ self-destruction. 

. JX? 


These compounds by suffixing the verb si, era, suru (to do), can be changed 
to verbs, as Zi-fits-suru , to write with one's own hand; Zi-san-tmru, to praise 


IV. Expressions of reciprocity. 

The reciprocity of an action is expressed in Japanese not by pronouns, but 
by the adverbial (modal) definition Tagavini (*#;=, pronounced fa-nyatm, 
5*T= *o S)' or Ai-tagaini (J \L$$\L~), = reciprocal, or also by the 
verb Am (7 t), vulgo Ai (71). The last means meet each other" and signi- 
fies, whenever it is prefixed to another verb, that the action takes place reci- 
procally or mutually. The meaning of Tagai, is generally explained by Kart tore. 
this and that; At si kotsi, here and there; Ware fito, self and another. 

Remark. Japanese etymologists ') ascribe to Tdydn the meaning of 
-^^ IH *> Ta-kavi, - changing of hands, by which nevertheless the change 
of the k to the troubled g (- ng) is not explained. To be able to give a 
reason for this, we think we must consider Tagavi as a fusion of ta -\- mfi&fri, 
= meeting of (or with) the hands, as this takes place in weaving when the 
shuttle is thrown with one hand and caught up with the other. We, thus, 
see in g (ng) a fusion of the m with the k', a phenomenon that frequently takes 
place. In Figdsi (pron. fi-ngdsl), - East, likewise the troubled g in gdsi 
is called into existence by a fusion of mitkdsi to ngdri. /Y-wiHw, originaDy 
Fi-mulcdisi kdta, means: the side (kata), whence the sun (/) has come to 
meet (mukdisi}. 

Examples: Tf= Jt ?? -i*-' Tt 'i" i! "'./"-'//" /<: "">" 1 ). by turns 
he becomes guest and host. - T&gdvlni mkn //*/?, hate each other. - 
mini, see each other, meet. Kwan-nin litt'-mi/biri. FoMin yoritio oturi-flti t6 
t&gdmni ai-sdtsu tamdvikf, Mandarins came out of (the town) to meet, and ex- 
changed welcome-greetings with the people sent from Pekking. 

Avi-nitaru mono ( ffl \ $[ | ^/^), things resembling one another. An- 
iitsn, strike each other, come to blows. - .lri-.v/n/, know one another. 
katdrti., converse (speak together). - Ari-ttitmini ( Jg J 5f =). reciprocal. 

V. Pronouns Indefinite. 

In Japanese, if the subject of a proposition is indefinite, it remains unex- 

I) Wa-gun tiwori. 2) MMCiua (tioot, CMmf tUui*, Bock V. Pt II. Ck. III. f .) 


pressed; there, propositions without subjects are something very common. Our 
idioms do not permit this, and having to represent the subject of a proposition 
by a pronoun indifinite, in such sentences we make use of our one" (people) 
or it." 

Besides, for our one," in a more definite sense are also found Fito, man, 
and Aru-fit6, = some person, e. g. Fitdga druyd (J^^J^^^^}, is there 
anybody? Fft6ga nandziwo tovu, someone asks for you. -- Fitoga drtte (or 
atte) meni kakdri tdsi, there is somebody, who wishes to appear before you. 

^Something" or anything" is expressed by Mono, which thing," means, 
however it is also applied to living beings. Korewo kdku mono ( ^ * ^ ^ ^f" ^) 
is a this- writing-individual," some one who writes this, distinguished from 
Kaki-mono, - a written something, a writing ( ~y ){$!) an d from Mono-kaki, - 
a something writing, a writer, - Fumi-bito (Ji*)- In Kaki-mono, mono, has 
the signification of thing or something and is defined by the verbal root Kaki 
as, something written; in Mono-kaki, mono is the objective definition to the 
same verbal root. 

Nani, = what? is also used as our somewhat," with the signification of 

If by nothing" is intended something without contents or substance, it is 
expressed by the noun-substantive Mai, = something of no value; e. g. Fito wo 
naiga sironisu, to consider anyone as worth nothing. 

Our nobody," when no particular accent falls upon it, is superseded by 
somebody" with the negative form of the verb connected with it, the negative 
(not") being thus taken from the noun or pronoun and incorporated in the 
termination of the verb. Fitdga ari-mdsu, there is somebody. Fltoga dri- 
masenu, in the written language Fito nasi ( fiE , ^ ^), somebody is-there-not , 
= there is nobody. 

If, however, it is wished to bring out nobody" and nothing" with em- 
phasis, the expressions which signify whoever, whatever," are used in con- 
nection with a negative verb. 

Dare korewo sirdnu means: who does not know this? (sirdnu, verb negative 
= not know). Darem.6 korewo sirdnu, whoever (who it may be) knows not 
this, nobody knows it. Kare naniwo senu, - what does he not? Kare 
nanimo stnu, = he does not whatever it may be, i. e. he does nothing. - 
Dokonimo ardzu, wherever not to be, = to be no where. 


Consequently the instance, cited in the Elements of Japanese Grammar, 
Shaug-hai 1861, page. 23, Dare mo kokoni kimasinanda, will mean: whoever has 
not come here," and not nobody here come (honorific) has not" We are not at 
liberty to assign to Dare mo the meaning of Nobody, and to overlook, that in 
Japanese the negation of a negation is equal to a confirmed assertion. 

VI. Relative pronouns are wanting, because the Japanese, having no 
relative clauses, substitute for them adjective clauses, which precede the word, 
to which they refer. Instead of the man, who is present," an expression is 
used, answering to the present man" (Arii fit6)\ instead of the town, which 
the enemy has sacked," - of the enemy-to have-sacked-town." 

In such cases, moreover, the substantive Tok6ro 
is also used to intimate the passive something. 

TsUkuru koto is the fabricating, the fabrication; 

TsUkuru mono, a fabricating being; 

Tsttkuru ftt6, a fabricating man, one who fabricates; 

Tsftkuru tokdro, the place of fabrication; 

Fit6no tstikuru tokorono mono is something (mono) of a man's (/JMno) fabri- 
cating- (tsUkurtt-) place (toMrono), i. e. something that somebody fabricates. - 
Initfye ydri motsi^Uru tokdrono nen-g$u is a year-name (uen-gau) of a place, where 
(not which) one from ancient times has used, i. e. a year-name used from an- 
cient times. 

Thus we, although the Japanese philologers do not do so, give to ToMro, in 
that position also, in which it seems to do the work of a pronoun relative, its 
proper signification, namely that of pi ace." 

In the Syntax this construction will be treated again. 

VII. Interrogative pronouns. 

In the previous pages, treating of the formation of the pronouns, those, of 
which the interrogative elements Ta or To, vulgo Da or Do, and Itro, rulgo 
Idzu are the foundation, have already been explained. To embrace them in one 

glance, they are: 



Da wo, which? p. 85. Doko, where? p. 80. Idzttku, where? p. 81. 

Dare, who? 88. Dotsi, 82. IdzUkunkd, 

Darega, whose? Dotsira, Idzukunzd*), on what ground? 

Daga, Dotsutsi, how? 

Dazo, who? Done, which? 85. Idzure, who, which? 89. 

Dare no ka, whose? Donna, Idz&rend, whose? 

Darenozo*), D6nata, who? *) Zo is an emphatic suffix. 

Donoyau, how? 

Doyou, dou, 


Dore, which? 87. 

Besides these are still Nani, what? and Ika, how?, which from the im- 
portant part they play, deserve an acquaintance more than superficial 1 ), whereas 
Iku, how much?, as being related to the numerals, will be treated of with 

1. Nani, -J- ('ffif ), abbreviated Nan, *j- ^ , obsolete Nam, -f A, plural 
Nanra ('ffiif ^), what? which? Lat. quid? quod? It is used both substantively, 
and adjectively, and very often strengthened by an interrogative suffix, ka or 
by the emphatic zo. 

Substantively, with the meaning of what?", Nani occurs in expressions as: 
Nani wo yerabi mdstikd?, what do you choose? Nani wo t6vu kd?, after what 
do you ask? Nani wo nandziga motomuru yd?, what do you seek? Nani wo 
kai nasdru kd?, what do you buy? 2 ). Naniwo motte?, wherewith? whereby? - 
fipif = Jj[ "2 _^J^ ^f^ _H ^ 3 )' Naniwo motte waga kunitvo' ri-sen, wherewith 
shall I advantage my empire? Nanigd dri-mdsitkd?, what is there at hand? 4 ). - 
Korewa nanini motsii-mastika?, what is the use of this? Soreva nanini yoikat, 
for what is such good? 

1) The greatest stumbling-blocks in oral intercourse with the Japanese, are the interrogatives (we under- 
stand by the term every word, by which inquiry after anything is made), and the ways of using them. 
Uncertainty in that respect brings about misunderstanding on both sides; one answers to what the other has 
not asked; and the speakers, weary of the continual deviating answers, probably end by thinking each other 
reserved, if not by suspecting each other of a want of understanding. With a view to this, the interroga- 
tive pronouns . and the combinations formed with them are here treated of with the diffusiveness required. 

2) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 2. 3) MENCIUS (LEGGE , Chinese Classics, II. Book I. Pt. I. Ch. I. $ 4). 
4; p. 2. 


Nani to, = to what, whereto, as appositive definition ') Andtano na 
va nanito ii-mastikaf, - your name what (how) is it called?, what is your name? *). 

Nani to ivu (fa = ~j^^), in the popular language contracted to -) 7* ^7 , 
pronounced Na-ndeo, for which fa , ^7* is written, = what to call? how? 
called. Nanito ivu koto, = a what calling matter? i. e. what sort of or which 
matter? Nanito mousi-mdsukd?, what do you say? - - Nanito ndku, without 
anything ( $S ^ /J> ). 

Nanito zo (fa = ^ y ) f r Nanito ivu zo, what says it?, supersedes, 
like doozo, our if your please." 

Nanito te, also -J- ^ ^ , Na-ndote, from Nanit6 *#4, = to what?, tending, 
whereto? wherefore? - - Nanito te kordwo itdsimdsitaka , to what end have you 
done this? Nande, t ^7% fa $ , why? 

Nani yori (^fj fat), Nani kara (^g * fat), = of what?, whereof? 

Nanini y6tte (fa = ^5 J^l JSSf)' = on what ground?, whence? - 

fii 3 )' Nanini y6tte waga 

T*F - Ed T =^ v FJ #' - '"J ,v 

on what ground, (how) do you know that I am able for that? 

Nazeni, from nan-se-ni, = for what? to do, why? Nazeni sorevo entm 
drukaf, why does not one such? Nazeni agdri nasardn&ka* = why does not 
your rise happen?, i. e. why do you refuse? 4 ). 

Nani-sini, Nani-sini kd, variation of Nazeni, why? - - Nan sore o, pro- 
perly Nan sure zo, how doing, on account of which, why? fa J$ . 
I x -> 3f Wau mosi korewo yositoseba, sunavatri namure zo okoitaoa- 

Irb ^ ^~ ^ ~^ 

^ ^ *ni ^.,*, 5^ if fVifi Vincr fonsidftra this as crood. whv does not 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ e Can 7 ^ ou ^ 
^ ^ ^ ' ^ Nanizo (f = X o fa ), abbreviated Nanso (t d^X), also 

Na-nzo (tX), how? in what way, for what reason? -- occurs also as a mere 
characteristic of a direct question. - 3i fa^. V 0'; ^J'i')' ^V 1 
riwo tan. - the king, why does he mention the word advantage? - 

"Sf? S ? ife 7 ) Nanzo faiau beken, how can one abolish (such)? *$-, 2f.\ 
fatTs^^ B 8 )- ^' u y^ u nanzo eraban * wh y to cno 8e *> e * W6e11 ox and 

A\ *> ^ fW ffi MM n 1O 

1) See page 70, V. 

3) MENCIUS (LEGGE, (7A*n<f Ckutict, vol. I, p. 15.) 

Ch v $ 4 6) Jttxcius (utooE, Vol. II. Book I. Pt. I. Ch. I. J3). 

7) Ch. VII. H- 8)Ibid. Ch. VII. f7. 


goat? Nanzo kini iri-mdsu mono go. gozdri-mdsu, is there anything that 
pleases you? TjnJL^. JR "^ ^^ -^^ ^ ') Nanzo sono motoni kaverazdru, 
why not return to the foundation? 

Nanzo ya, ^a'X-Y, obsolete :fX*Y o ^of ife 'fcf $P = how is this, how 
does it happen? as predicate closing the sentence, and preceded by a subjective 

+. Tami ohokikotowo kuvavezaruva nanzova*), that the people does 

^jf, ^ E3L 

\ ^ not increase its number, how is this? 

- *}* 

/fcrr ^ix Nazo-nazo. = how? how?, riddles. 

1RJ v x ' 

' } ? Nani naru 3 ), = what? being. ' Nani naru mono, or koto, 

^ ^ what thing, or what matter? 

Nani no, nanno, adjectively what? in the expressions: Nani no fi(^S[- J u ), 
what day? vulgo itsu. Nani no koku ('ffif = $A?)i what hour? ^ i^C 3 = 
'fof ^ J\]j) N y* ^| V 4 ) ' -^ore makotoni nanno kokorozoya, what was really (my) 
opinion concerning that? 

JVam' and Nan occur adjectively in the expressions Nani-goto ( / JBf= -^T) 
what matter?, what? Kimi konomU tokoro nani-gotozo, = that which you wil- 
lingly have, what (is it)? Nani-goto def, wherefore, why? Nani-bun 
('(of t ^), what part? Nani-yau or Nani-zama (^"= ^^j what man- 
ner? Nani-ven (^ t j^v)i wna * volume? Nani-fodo (^"^ ^f)' wna ^ 
quantity? the quantity. Nani-mono (^= ^"/)' wna ^ being, what? Nani- 
gokdro (^= ^\j>^) which heart, which sense? Nani gokdro naku ( _3B? 
^t _j\^^), without any purpose. Nani-yUd ( / JBf= ^L^i what cause? 
Nani-yu^ni sorezo?, why that? Nani-kore, obsolete Nani-kure (^ t ^^), 
what one? ^t ^^ s |^g| ^ ^y ^^ ^ ^J 1 ^ ^ X X* JVam' bltoni 
kagirdzu kono koto wo ndsu koto ydzu, nobody may do this. 

Nani-gasi ('$$= ^f^)' a ft er J a P- etymologists from Naniga nitsi, = where- 
of? master, what somebody, now in use only with the signification of the inde- 
finite pronoun any-(some-)one" (^) and applied by the speaker to himself. 
Compare Sore gasi, p. 88. 

Combinations with Nan (-f ^) are: Nan-nen ('fnfv ^v) wich year? - 
Nan-guwats (^f" v^M f) wn i cn month? Nan-doki ( / jnf Bjjp ^), which (what) 

1) MBNCIUS (ibid. Ch. VII. $ 23.) 2) Ibid. (Ch. II. $ I). 

3) Not Naniru, 4) Ch. VII. $ 7. 


time? what hour? Nan-doki-goroni (fa $$ | ^|), against what time? '). 
Nan-dan (ffit$ji*)i which pieces? Kono iroga nan-dan drtmdjtXka ? *), what 
(how many) pieces are there of that color? Nan-gin?*) (fat /f ?) now 
many pounds? 

Nani, Nanzo occur also with the signification of the indefinite pronoun 
any-(some)-thing." - Nandzivd sono kotoni tsuitd nanzo kikitt 6r*kd, have you 
heard anything about that matter? 

2. Ika, -f 1] (#pfa irfa), how? 

Current combinations with Ikd are: 

Ika-mono ( > (5f ^f"/)' wna * thing. 

Ika-sama, vulgo Ika-yau, Ika-yoo ( / fnf H! ^T^jf) which way. Ika- 
yauni, in what way, how. Ika-ygunimo, however. Ika-yau ni ndri tomo, 
however it may be. Ika-yau ndrit mono, what sort of thing. Jka-yqu naru 
mono nite mo, what sort of being or thing it may be, who or whatever. Ika- 
yauna koto de mo sdru, do whatever thing it may be, do every thing. 

Ika-fodo ( / fnf ^3E*) quantity. Ika-fodoka, how much? Jk-a-fotlono 
tstkdra, how much power. - - Ika-fodo no aid a, - how much interspace, how 
long? Sore wo Vkd-fodoni uruya, for how much is such sold? Iku-fodo ook* 
tomo, however much? how much soever? 

Ika-bakari, how yet (still). Sono koto wo ika-bakari kurinka, how will people 
yet (still) be sorry for that. 

Ika-naru, how being, of what sort. Ika-narU kotozo, what sort of thing? - 
Sok6ni ika-naru fitdzo, what sort of man is there? Ika-naru -roco, what 
(is your) name? 

The modal terminations of Ika are: Ikani, -f # =, Ikanika, -f * - 
Ikanizo, -f ^ -X, abbreviated Ikan, -i ^ f, Ikanzo -\ * ^X, or eren Ikade, 
1 fty (pronounce Ika-nde, 1 # 7 # , Ikaaekn, Ika-mleka t how? Lat <juotn>l<>. 

Soreva ikan? = such how? how is such? According to the rule of the Japa- 
nese arrangement of words ikan, as predicate, follows or*ra as subject *). The 
subject may also be a subjective clause, e. g ---- aruvd ikani, how does it happen, 
that there ... is? Ikade (vulgo doude) iraterare mdttkd, how goes it? - 
arazaran, how should there not be, why not? 

I) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 17. *) Ibid - P- "' 

3) Ibid. p. 11. ) ** ItwdrtioB. p. 44, l, A. 


Ikaga, -f ~J] ~ff , pronounce ikd-nga ( $f| -JBf -j^ -ftif ), ho w? , probably a fu- 
sion of ikd Vka. Ikdga On watdri sorooya , = how is your passage?, how do 
you do? Soko-moto ikaga kurdsizo? , = how do you let (the time) go round? 
how do you do? - - Ikdga sen, how will one do (anything)? Ikdgandru (or 
Ikdgand) koto, what matter? Ikdga no obdsimdsfzo , what opinion? what do 
you think? 

Interrogative pronouns with the suffix mo. 

Connected with the suffix mo, ^ (= also, Latin que, cunque), the interro- 
gative pronouns embrace all that is comprehended in the interrogative as indivi- 
duals together. Dare mo, the same as quicunque, whoever, everyone that may be 
reckoned under Dare or qui. 

If the interrogative is joined to a substantive, mo is placed after it, and if 
it is declined, after the inflectional termination. - - Idztireno ya mo karato tin 
b6si, every arrow may be called kara (shaft). Dokonimo or Dokoddmo, wher- 
ever, everywhere. 

Instead of mo, temo (7" t) is often used; e. g. Dare" temo sono ziwo hdme'tart, 
= whoever it may be (everyone) has praised this poem. Idzttreno tosinitemo, 
in whatever year it may be: temo having, by apheresis, arisen from site" mo (= also 
is), whereas to te mo in expressions as Nani to te mo, - whatever people (may 
think or say), is the same as an ellipsis, being the verb that means think or 
say, and that governs the apposition ') characterized by to (nanito), not expressed 
itself, but only indicated by the termination te. Nani to te mo, thus stands 
elliptically for Nanito iyu te mo 2 ), = whatever it may be called or be. An abbre- 
viation of which is Nanitomo, Ndnt&mQ. Ndnto omovuka, what do people 
think of it? Ndntomo omowdnu, people think nothing of it, people do not 
trouble themselves about it. 

VIII. Arrangement of the personal pronouns in the conversational 

The choice of the words, which are used in the oral intercourse as pro- 
nouns, is not indifferent, but it is prescribed by etiquette. From our own expe- 
rience, if after an intercourse of more than two years with Japanese we may 
speak of it , and from the information given by a learned Japanese gentleman 3 ) 

1) Compare p. 70, V. 2) Wa-gun siwori. 3) Mr. TSUDA SIN ITSIEOO. 


the following expressions, used as pronouns, enter into the conversational lan- 

1. For. I. 

1) The humblest expression is Te-m&e, plural Te-mae-tatsi, in the popular tongue 
of Ytdo which frequently changes a to e, Temee. = at hand, i. e. that which 
is at hand or present to the person opposite. 

2) Watakusi, plural Watakusi-domo , a modest, and, in confidential intercourse, 
most usual expression. Every respectable man speaks of himself thus; and the 
man of the people at Yedo says for it Wasi (icascfii). 

3) Ore, plural Orera, in the Ti^o-dialect Oira, after the mention on page 86 
supported by a quotation from the Dictionary of the old-Japanese language, 
a self-humiliating expression, is now considered as one of pride at Yido. 

4) Ware, plural Warera, the I" and >We" in the mouth of a prince, when 
he speaks to his people. 

2. For the person spoken to, THOU, YOU, YE. 

1) Ware, plural Warera, the most humiliating expression, which is applied 
only to low people. Probably confounded with Are? 

2) Te-mae, the same as given above for I," is fit for subordinate persons and 
servants, and answers to the well known German >JSr" and *." 

3) Temae-sama, plural Temae-sama-gata , is equal to You, Sir, You , gentlemen , 
used by a person of quality towards those somewhat below him. 

4) O-maS, in the T&fo-dialect Omee, plural O-mad-gata, in use among the 
middle class. 

5) O-maS-sama, = Your Honor, more periphrastical and consequently more so- 
lemn than 0-mde. 

6) Anata, plural Anata-gata, used, with preference, by polite people towards 
their equals J ). 

7) Anata-sama, plural Anata-sama-gata, is expressive of the greatest respect 
towards the person addressed. 

3. For the person spoken of, HE. 

1) Are, plural Arera, is put down for disrespectful. 

1) The members of the first Japanese embassy, which came to Europe in 18, tad to which the author 
was appointed as one of a committee by his Government, generally used A*4U mutually. 


2) Ano mono , = that person there , characterizes the person spoken of as a mere 
object (mono), deserving of no respect. 

3) Ano fit6 , plural Ano fitd-gata , polite indication of one's equals. One officer 
or functionary speaking of another intimates him by A no fit6. 

4) Ano O fit6, plural Ano O fitd-gata, somewhat more stately, is used when 
the person spoken of is related to the person spoken to. 

5) Ano kata, plural Ano kata-gata , = the side there, and Kono kata, = the side 
here, looking from the person, and only indicating the direction, in which 
he is, both belong as our Your Honor, to the very respectful expressions. 

6) Ano O kata, plural Ano O kata-gata, is "indicative of the highest respect. 

The above arrangement of the pronouns of the conversational language agreeing, 
in general, with that adopted by R. ALCOCK in his Elements of Japanese Grammar, 
page 21, contains, however, a few deviations which, the reader will please to 
observe, rest upon the authority of Mr. TSUDA SIN ITSIROO. 



9. The adjectives attributing to the idea, expressed by a noun substantive, 
one or another quality, have, in proportion as they represent an attribute or a 
predicate, different forms which, though strongly prominent in the written or 
book language, are, on the contrary, more or less obsolescent in the conver- 
sational. The forms of the written , will , therefore , be treated before those of the 
spoken language. 


A. Construction of the adjective in its radical form with a noon. - 
If the quality expressed by the adjective is represented as present in the object 
from the very beginning, then the adjective is, as a subordinate attributive 
definition in its radical form, joined to the substantive in a compound word; 
Taka-no, = Highland, German ffocklanJ. Thus also: 

Ktir6-tttU*ii black-earth. 
Amn-sakt* sweetbeer. 

foi, the old-year. 

Nagd-sdki, Long-cape. 
Akd-t#ittsi, red earth, ruddle. 
Sir6-g<ine, white ore (silver). 

B. Adjectives in ki. 

1. a. Ki, termination of the adjective used as attributive. -- If the quality 
is first to be attributed to the object expressly, the adjective, to be used M 
attributive, acquires a conjunctive, or properly a derivative termination, which 


for a particular class of adjectives, is ki; Takakino, = a high land, land that 
is high , distinguished from Takano , = highland. Thus also : 

Nagdki saki, a long cape. 
Akdki tstitsi, red earth (ruddle). 
Sir6ki gdne, white ore. 

Kurdki tsfttsi, black earth. 
Amdki sakd, sweet beer. 
FUruki dto, old traces, ruins. 

The adjectives belonging to this class generally express a quality, to which 
activity is not allied. 

Remark. The termination Ki , whose vocal / is the root , from which the continuative verb ari := to be, 
is derived, means ,,being so" that is to say, as the essential part of the word implies. The relation of 
the essential part to the verbal element can be no other, than that of an adverb to the verb , whereas 
the mutual relation of Takaki and Yama is that of a compound word. Compare what has been 
said on page 96 line 15 et sqq. concerning Kaki-mono. 

The vulgar language of Nagasaki substitute ka for the adjective termination 
ki, thus sirdka for sirdki, white J ). 

b. The adjectives with the termination ki may be used substantively , as nouns 
concrete, and then as such are declinable. -- Yama takaki or Yamano takaki is 
the high of mountains , i. e. eminently high , or the highest of mountains , yama 
now being a subordinate definition to takaki. 

2. Ku, adverbial form. - - If an adjective of this class is used as an 
adverb, then its radical form assumes the termination ku. Takakft tobu, = to 
fly high. The adverb in ku under all circumstances remains an adverb, yet re- 
presents in the coordinate sentence, whose predicate verb must be in the un con- 
jugated radical form s ), the undefined radical form of the adjective verb termi- 
nating in si. 

Isolated by the suffix va ( 6) the adverb acquires a position separated from 
the verb, which brings out its idea with more emphasis. Odsik&vb, = manifold, 
often (frequently). 

3. a. Si, form of the adjective as praedicate. - - When an adjective of this 

1) The question, formerly mooted in the ,,Proeve eener Japansche Spraakkunst" by D. CUETIUS, 1857, p. 34, 
if the termination ka is really peculiar to the dialect of Nagasaki , has since been answered affirmatively, as well 
by Japanese orally, as in writing by the late E. DE SAINT AULAIEE, who was stationed, as Dutch inter- 
preter for the Japanese language, at Nagasaki. ,,The adjective termination in ," wrote the latter to me, 
,,is really used generally in Nagasaki and the lower class of the people understand nothing else ; those however 
who have had a little education, know very well, that it is not right." 

2) See Introduction, p. 45, Coordination. 


class is used as a predicate , its radical form acquires the termination si , = to be , 
is. Yama takasi, = the mountain high to be, i.e. the mountain is high 1 ). The 
relation in which taka stands to si, is, in the spirit of the Japanese language, 
again no other than that of an adverb to its verb. 

This si , placed by Japanese grammarians among the auxiliary verbs (Ziyogo) *) 
and designated G-en-zaino si, 3 ) or the si of the present tense, undergoes no 
verbal change. 

b. If now a verbal change to indicate term and mood is required, then instead 
of si, the continuative verb ari, am 4 ) (= exist), is used, which added to the 
adverbial form ku, fuses with this into kari; from Takaku ari, - continually high 
to be, comes Takakari, a derivative verb, which is now to be conjugated in 
accordance after the general plan of conjugation 5 ). Instead of art, eri is also 
used, as expressing the praeteritum praesens, see 80. 

4. By the change of si into sa thase adjective verbs are made nouns abstract; 

Takasa, = the height. 

Remark. Sa is a contraction of the predicate, and the isolating m. Ta*<ua, therefore include* 
the Takdsi predicate = ,,is high ," whereas va raises this idea to a noun ubUntire ,,the height.** 
The Chinese follows the same way, when it expresses the abstract idea of ..height" by " 


1. Taka-ki, lgf|, high. 2. Fiki-ki, Fik*-ki.fa$ $, low. 

S. Fnkarki, 'fl! 5, deep. 4. A*a-ki. jg ; 

5. Naga-ki, ||J>, long. 6. MMsika-ki, $@f, short. 

7. Fir6-ki, J{ , wide, broad. 8. Sel>a-(Sema-)ki , ^T<. fifc, narrow. 

9. FM6-ki, ^fci, thick, coarse. 10. Fo*o-ki, ^^. fine. 

) [Ooi-naru, ^ | r v , large.] 11. TuuaM, /J^ 8maU ' 

1) In E. BROWN'S Colloquial Japane,e t p. XXXIX, line 36 et .qq., *.' u cited a. the tenottiti. 
the adjective predicate, and is wholly overlooked, no doubt a printing fault . that we may ot lero . 

) *yj 3 pq 

IB ** -ff V ~> / 1 1- ^ ra-r* wr under Si. Compare lODftioun. page 66. 
8 ) $S,v^Y xC It 

4) Not tar*, nor yar, as it is printed in Atco Am., p. 7, It 

5) See 10. 

6) The adjectives placed between bracket, [ 1 do not belong to tti. c^ory, a, 

the autithesis. 


12. Fira-ki, 

14. Naka-daka-ki, 

16. Firata-ki, 

18. Atsu-ki, 

20. Nao-ki, 

21. To6-ki, 
23. Amane-ki, 

25. 06-ki. 

29. Matta-ki, 
31. Kovd-ki, 
33. Tsuyo-ki, 

36. Om6-ki, 
38. Kdta-ki, 
40. To-H, 

42. Hayd-ki, 
44. Wa&a-K, 


If, level, even. 13. Kevasi-ki, ') | 

[ *. # , gibbous, con- 1 5 . Kubo-ki , 



7 , flat. 17. Mdro-ki\Ma- ' 

^ , thick. 19. Usu-ki, 

, right. [Magaru , 

, far, distant. 22. Tsikd-ki, 

'So JH o Hi * eve ~ 24. Suku-nd-ki, 

ry where. 

> y , much, many. 26. Stik6si-ki, 

I %*<> 1^1 o ^ dense. 28. Mtind-si-ki, 

'-? , entire, whole. 30. Ndki, 

* *3 

\ ^ , hard. 32. Moro-ki, 

^5o^ ^cjft' [Yawaraga- 

harsh, rude, waste. ndru, 

|[^, heavy. 31.Kar6-ki, 

fc%, difficult. 39. Ydsu-ki, 

fy h o ^ , pointed , 41 . Nibu-ki , 
sharp; quick. 

early; quick. 

^, young. [Oitaru, 

, new.] 45. Furu-ki, 

46. To- (old. Ye-) || 3 o || , good, well. 47. Wdrti-ki, 

48. Sdmti-(SdM-) |gj, cold. 


|, hollow, con- 


*", crooked.] 
, near. 
, seldom. 

g */, little , few. 
t , without con- 


tents, void, 
t , without , . . . less. 

io Ife^ brittle. 
y o ^^, weak, 
gf, soft, weak.] 

^^ a , light. 

>^ ^ , facile , easy. 

^7' blunt. 


jljl^, late; slow. 

4^-t- nlrl 1 

>C^ t- f^,^ O1U.J 

^p^ o ^, ancient, 
Jjgi ^ , bad , base. 

> f$l ^ f i warm.] 

1) Kevasiki, and the adjectives cited under Nos. 28, 30, 66 and 73 have tiki (N. 71) for their 
derivative form. 

49. Suzu-ki, 


3 cool. 50. Nuruki, 

51. jfiTo-K, Keki, iH 3 ,,^, strong (of 52. 

taste or color). jfct, 

53. u4o-H, ^| ^, pale blue, pale 54. Aka-ki, 

. green. 

55. Sird-ki, j , white. 56. K&rv-ki, 

[Akirdkd-naru , l$J Jt^ light, clear.] 57. Ktird-ki, 

58. Amd-ki, 

60. Umd- (Mu- 
ma-) H, 



^ofPI' sweet, 61. Niku-ki, 
nice, beautiful. 

62. Kayu-ki, )fp;*, itching. 

64. Sibu-ki, fiifcK raw acerb, 


^ o )|, lukewarm; 

v , faint (of taste 
or color). 

5. JJQCi red- 

2, black. 
$, dark, dusky. 
>x, acid. 

63. Niga-lci, 

66. Kaubasi-ki, ^^ */, fragrant. 67. 

S<f ft e ; 

Kauvasi-ki , 

68. Sivd-ki, ifeJZvrfii covetous, 6e". Td-ki, 


7Q.G6t6-ki, -jffj^ jf, like. [/fotonrfrM, 

71. 5-&i, $H H Sfe i being such 72. Sikd-ki, 

as (substantive suffix 
= . . . ish , ... like). 

73. Be-ki , "pf ^, allowable. 


^, bitter. 
, tart 
, stinking. 

$C *. |^ ' desirous, 

J|.j: v , difierent] 
j^ ^, being so, or such. 

.4fca . . 54. 

Hit* . . 2. 

Kaubasi 66. 

Malta . 29. 

AYX-M . . 61. 

%< . . 27. 

Too. . . 21. 

^4wia . . 58. 

F/m . . 12. 

Kayu . . 62. 

.l/fci*a. 6. 

.Vuru . . 50. 

V/ro . . 5.S. 

1*90 . 33. 

Amane . 23. 

Firata .16. 

fo . . . 51. 

.1/oro . . 32. 

.sY'-fi . . 68. 

Ao . . . 53. 

/Yrw . . 7. 

Kevasi . 13. 

.1/uwa . 60. 

Onto . . 36. 

\ M ... 59. 

Uma . . 60. 

^4ra ... 35. 

Foso . . 10. 

Ko . . . 51. 

Munasi . 28. 

00 . . . 25. 

.s'ijl-i> . 26. 

(/M. . . 19. 

^4sa ... 4. 

Fuia . . 3. 

/vv/ . . 31. 

Oto. . . 43. 

Sukuna. 24. 

JfeM . . 12. 

Furu . . 45. 

/Tufro . . 15. 

Na . . . 30. 

.N'M . . 49. 

Waka. .44. 

Avo ... >'_'. 

Futo . . 9. 

Kara . . 57. 

Naga . . 5. 

NVlFHH. . 48. 

IKam. . 47. 

A''/;'" . . 56. 


Seba . . 8. 

Ti . . . 69. 

.Be . . . 73. 

Goto . . 70. 

Kusa . . 67. 

ka . . 14. 

.NVwui . . 8. 

T-iia . . 1. 

Kit* . . 89. 

.V,/,, . . 20. 

.sY ... 71. 

TWua. .11. 

Y<g* . . 65. 

Faya . . 42. 

tfa/a . . 38. 

A/aro . . 17. 

AYAu . . 41. 

.sVi-a . . 72. 

Tao. . 22. 

Yo . . . 46. 

Fiki . . 2. 

Kara . . 37. 

3/aru. . 17. 

AY^a . . 63. 

6Yftu . . 64. 

r u . . . 40. 

Fmoa. . 34. 


Remark. The termination ki, as the distinguishing characteristic of 
this class of adjectives, ought to be placed on the foreground, deviating from 
the method in the Japanese dictionaries, which give these adjectives as ad- 
jective verbs with the termination si and, so doing, do not distinguish them 
from those, which terminate in siki (= ish). So, to give an instance, their 
expression j\f e $* is defective, since fisdsi (= is of long duration) as a 

*'' **/ 

syncope of fisdsisi, is in all respects the form of the adjective verb, has 
but fisdsiki, not fisdki, for adjective form, whereas the adjective form 
of nagasi is not nagasiki, but nagaki. 
6. Examples of the use of the forms cited. 

[Ki.] Sibu-kakino tanewo uete, amaki kakiva fayezdru, if people sow seed of 
the sour fig, then do not grow figs, that are sweet, - - Tanba-kuniyori kur6ki 
kitstindwo sasdgti, from the country of Tanba people offer a fox which is black. - 
Tsikdra-ndki yumi , a powerless bow. Tsikdra-ndki koto , powerlessness. Ne- 
ztimino sirokiwd siro-nezUmito /#, the white of mice (= mice that are white) are 
called white mice. FUrukiwd stitete dtdrdsikini tsukti, forsaking the old, to 
apply oneself to the new. If objects are previously mentioned, from which a choice 
is made, then the expression is good: Fitrukinowd stitdte atardsikinowd toru, to 
reject the old (objects) and take the new ones *). 

V ll]5 

Ydma takdkiga yUdni tattokardzu, a mountain is not considerable, 
HB Z -E^-fr 

M/ $J it because it is high; Kidr&wo mdtte tattosito su, because he carries 
$ if 

j ^ wood, people consider him to be respectable. 

^ "* _ "* ,> Mftsasabiva takdkiyori fikikini dmdmuku. Fikikiyori ta- 

2 kakini nob6ru-koto atavdzu 2 ). The bat turns itself with 

y? ^J ^ A ^ % its head from above towards below. To climb from below 

y 5 towards above it may not. 

; 9 

[Ku.] Konofa akdkti ttrite firtigaverti , the tree-leaf shining red flies around. - 
Iy6wo takdktt tsftkuru. to build a house high. Kdriva takdku tonde tookuyori 
kttdri, the wild goose flying high, comes from afar. 

1) With regard to this construction compare, page 86, line 10, in connection with note 1. 

2) JLasira-gaki kin-moo dzu-i. XII. 11. recto. 

% -to? 

9 ~ ' -__ 

Kuma-takavd takano ooi-naru mono wart. Tsubdsa 
w HI* y^"> ku-tsiu takdku tobi-mfyiiru '), the eagle is the big- 

;* /% gest among the birds of prey; strong in the wings. 

y >5t ^ 

nx "f JH* he soars round high in the space of the air. 

pr| i t 

Tsubdsa tsuydku stands to the next sentence in the 

relation of coordination, in consequence of which its grammatical relation is left 

undefined and the adverbial form tsUydku is used instead of the predicate t**y6d. 

(See above, page 106 b. 2.). The same is the case with ydssUku in the proverb: 

ffifc^T 3.*% Aku-dauni iri-ydstiku, sen-dauniwd iri-qdtatt. = to turn into the 

4JcpE. ^* vy!/ W 

way of evil (is) easy, to tread the way of virtue is difficult 

_./ =^ '' Korewd soreydri ydsuku art-mart, this is, from that out, 

If 5- ^5 cheaper, = this is cheaper than that a ). Nomi-tdku, dri, desirous 

Z& Z&Z* of dri nk, to be thirsty. - - Oide haydkft ari-md**, or merely 

J? =0 haydkft ari-mdsit, = your rise is speedy, a greeting at setting 

out on a journey, and on the way. - Y6ku ide natdrc-mdata, - well, your 
arrival has happened, i. e. be welcome. - Wdrukti, wart, to become bad. 
Wdrukii ndtta , has become bad. - Yo fodo takdru nori-mdsfi *) , it is too high 
(too dear). 

Remark. Do the adverbs in ku in the three last expressions, which we hare taken npratlj 
B. BROWN'S valuable Colloquial Japanese , p. XL , retain their adverbial character , or are they predi- 
cate adjectives? this question is answered in the place quoted in that SCUM, ,jUuU wktmtr titit farm 
(the adverb in ku) precedes a substantive verb, it it an adjective or a prfdieate adjeftie*," eoetp- 
tion with which we cannot agree. As the Japanese has no properly called nominative termination , an 
adjective, to stand as predicate, cannot agree with the subject; these adjective* are governed aa aco- 
ordinate definitions , by verbs which , as regards their signification , answer to oar ,,be** and ..beeoaM," 
but their complement, when it is a noun, to the question where? how? or whereto P in tie eaae of 
ni or de , and, if it is an adjective, have ku before them, in the equivalent adverbial form. 7V*-Ji 
yoku dri (yokari) or Ti-n-ki yoku nari; the weather is good, or the weather becomes jrood , M in a 
language nearer perfection in all respects expressed by Tempetttu to** tit, or lom*jU, bat the Ja- 
panese expression is, as far as form is concerned, equal to TtmpttUt Itne tit, or lf*f #1. 

[Si.] Kono misdkiwd hanahada nagdsi, this cape is very long. Neno adti 
amdsi, the taste of the root is sweet. - - Kariga tobu-k-vlo takan, the flight 
of the geese is high. - Yama toori, the mountain is < Kono */ >, 
sivo faydsi, in this strait the stream is swift Siyuni mazicfo* monovd akui 

1) Kasira-gaki kin-moo dzv-i. XIII. 6. recto. 8) SAoppimy.DMywt , p. 95. 

3) Ibid. p. 37. 


<! whoever goes abouth with red is red. Fino atdriitoko'ro, taki- 
fino kin-ziyove 6ku koto dstsi. Subtle dsiki nivoviwo imu btsi, in a place where the 
sun comes , (and) in the neighborhood of fire (the eggs of the silkworm) to lay 
is not good. In general people ought to avoid the nasty smell. Kono sima fiio 
nasi, this island is without inhabitants. Yosito timo'vn, to think that it is 
good. Neno adzi asisi yotte, because the taste of the root is nasty. As to the 
difference existing between Yoxino, = a beautiful field and Yosino, - a place 
which is renownd as the Beautiful field, see Addenda N. IV. 

[Sa.] Kono misaki nagdsa san ri bakari nari, the length of this cape is only 
three ri (miles). 


The spoken language suppressing the k and the s of ki, si and ku, thus 
retains only the i and the u, which now immediately follow a vowel. Thereby 
they acquire. 

for aki and asi the form ai and for aku the form au, pronounced as au, ao, 60. 
eki esi ei eku eu, eo. 

iki isi ii iku iu. 
oki osi oi oku ou, 60. 

uki usi ui uku uu. 

The easy written style, which follows the spoken language, has for au, eu 
and ou , no fixed written form ; it supersedes the form of writing to be used by choice. 
(high) also by 2% 7, 2 3 *? and 2 3 ] 
(long) t#7, T** t*l 
(desirous) ^^, K^ K) 

(far) K? ) . 

Examples of the use of the forms. 

[i for ki]. Nagai matsu yori otsuru yuki, snow falling out of the long (high) 
pine-trees. Karoi kemuri noboru, light smoke ascends. Fdna simono samuiwo 
osoru, the flower fears the cold of the rime. 

[i for si]. Kurdno figa akai, the evening-sun is red. Kariga tobu-koto takai, 
the flight of the geese is high. Korewa amari tsiisai 1 ), this is too small. 

1) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 2. 


. . nagai*), is long. . . takai*), is high. - - Fitoga nai 3 ), there is no one. 
Korewa dziyaiga usui 4 ), this is thin of texture. . . atsui 5 ), is thick. Kortwa 
iroga koi*), this is dark of color. ..iroga wui 7 ), this is light of color. 
..iroga warui*), this is bad of color -- Osoi kara 9 ), as it is late Ydsui 
nara , tori-masoo I0 ) , as it is cheap , I shall take it. 

[u for ku]. Ari-gdtau or Ari-gdtoo, difficult to be, abbreviated for Ari-gdtaku 
ari-mdsu, it is difficult to be, = I am obliged to you. Y6o moofft, for Ydlrii 
mausw, to speak well. Kaslkoo sum, for Kasikdkfi suru, to do wisely. Fukoo 
wadzurdo, for Fukdku wddzurdvu, to be deeply involved in difficulty. 

In Japanese vocabularies the expressions of the conversational are mostly 
distinguished from those of the book language by an antecedent A or Q 

that is: the word Kanari of the book language is equivalent to Soredomoyoi of the conversational. 
('should not...) of the book language is the same as Soosita koto tea nat j, Mich tort of thing then 
is not) or as TLauteio* nai ( is there not; of the conversational- 


10. Adjectives in karii and gartL 

By a fusion of the adverbial form ku with aril (being), the form karfl is 
obtained (so being as the previous adverb indicates). Nomi-tdku-ar* , passes into 
Nomi-takdru (J L?% v), = desirous of drink or being thirsty. 

Derivatives of this stamp take the same inflections as art, dr* being the 
attributive, drt the predicate form; and as the adjectives in ki themselves, 
express a quality, to which the idea of activity is not allied, the derivative form 
k+ari expresses merely the continual presence of the not-active quality. 

Waka-ki, young. Waka-ki tokoni, in youthful time. Wakakdr* fafa'm', 
while or as long as one is young. Wakakdriti toki ydri, since the time when 

one was young. 

Naki, not at hand, being without. Nakari, continually not to be at hand. 
Sir61d, white. Sirokdru, continually white. 
Ydsuki, easy. YdsZkdri, continually to be easy. 

I) Shopping-Dialogue*, page 8. 2) lg >2- ) PV 3 - 4 ) PV ' 8 ) PV f4 ' 

6) page 23. 1) ptg* IS. 8) p^ 1 1. 9) PH* < <>) 


114 CHAPTER III. THE ADJECTIVE. 10, 11, 12. 

Remark. This illustration of the derivative form lean explains the obscure $J 55 and 57 of RODRI- 
GUEZ, lem+ The gam there mentioned on page 55, lines 8 to 12, is a fusion of the genitive-termi- 
nation, ga and aru peculiar to the conversational language exclusively. Joined to the Chinese word 
Yek-ki 1 ), gladness, with it, it forms Yekkigdru, being full of gladness, synonymous with Yekkindru , 
Yekkina, being glad. See 12. 

11. Adjectives in aru. 

Ari, aril (^(=fT o r,)i ver ^ continuative , to be at hand, to be there, to exist, 
antithetical to Ndki (^F|p, not at hand, ....less. Ari is the radical (to be) 
and at the same time , but by exception , the predicate form (= there is) ; dru the 
substantive form (the being) , which is at the same time used attributively (being) , 
to derive adjectives from substantives. Iro ari, = there is color or colors are 
there. Kumova iro an", = what concerns the cloud, there is color, i. e. the 
cloud has color. If the definition: there is color" is to become attributive, then 
an acquires the attributive form dru', the subject iro now becomes an attributive 
proposition of dru, and assumes the attributive form, thus the genitive termina- 
tion no, in the spoken language, ga. Iro no or iroga aru kumo means, literally: 
colors present being clouds, i. e. colored clouds or clouds which have colors. 

The genitive termination no is often omitted in similar expressions, parti- 
cularly when the attributive definition joined to aru is a verb, which is in 
its radical form; e.g. Asiki riivdi druki, wood (M) of a bad smell. Nivoi, to 
smell, smell. 

Examples. Tsumi an, there is guilt. Tsumi dru, mono, a guilty person, 
criminal. Futd-kok6rono dru fito, a man who has two hearts, a double- 
hearted man. Om6i futdtsu dru kotoba, a word (kotoba), that a couple (futdtsn) 
of meanings (om6i) has, an equivocal word. Kok6ro-sdsi dru mono, one who 
has a will, a firm character. Aya-dru ori-mono, flowers having texture, flo- 
wered silk-stuif. Sai-vai-dru , happy. Yamavi-dru , sickly. Koto-dru , having 
business, busy. Fima-dru or sukimaga dru, having free time. : ^% 7 ^) 3 
^ E , Kou-dru fito, a man who has merit. ^f T, ^tn^' feki-aru, profitable. 

12. Adjectives in naru, na and taru. 

By means of the substantive suffix naru, which is, in my opinion, a fusion 
of the Local ni and of dri, dru, and thus means being lasting in . . . ," from 

n, THE ADJECTIVE. 12. 115 

substantives and adverbs adjectives are formed, which indicate a possession of 
that which the root expresses. 

The familiar conversational, and the epistolary style abbreviates naru to na 
vulgo da. -- Ki, yellow. Ki-uri, the yellow pumkin '). Ki-ndr* or Ki-na uri, 
a pumkin that is yellow. - - A Fimdna tokoro, a place of rest. A Kirei-na 
nizi a beautiful rainbow. 

With the inflectional termination ni the radical forms of this class are used as 
adverbs. Odini, greatly. Tsundni, commonly. Suguni, directly, straightly. 

As words, which have naru for their derivative form are to be noticed: 

1) 0rf), ^| o |, great. U4, _h*, above. 
TsttnJ, UJ?, common. Sttd, "f^, below. 
Mare, ^fjt, rare, seldom. Mat, JJJTX, before. 
Sugu, yUfy, right. lya, ~^\ ^, unwelcome. 

Examples of the use of the forms. 

Ftt6 sono nave no 6oi ndruwo sirn koto worf j ),= it is not the fact (koto 
that a man knows that his rice-crop is so large (ample). -- ^ap> P^ 3 '" 
S\\$ 7 } ) X * 1 ~Y i //% '^ ^S ^A ^ *9" 7 9 In-kova dai seo ari; '6dt mrrdra 
fatono 6otsd dri, of parrots people have big and little ones; those which are big 
have the bigness of a dove. Sono kou 6ot wan, his merit in great. h'ari-ko 
no katdvara naru taka-tokdro , a high place at the side of the silkworms. <So- 
kini nevurisi kavikova nve (or u^) naru kavawo nugi-idzuru , = the silkworms that 
have previously slept, throw off the skin being (which is) upon them. 

2) By means of naru, or na, Chinese words are made Japanese adjective*. 

Zin-ndru, humane. 
Tsiu-ndrit, sincere. 

Fu-tsiu-ndru, insincere. 
Yuu-ndrii, brave. 

1) Cucurlita Pepo verrueoia LWN. 

2) Ooi, great, after the old writing **, w>d the form* ooK, *o*i, in the eoivwwtioMl 

ooi, derived from oo, much, are frequently interchanged ; the tamo writer frequently OM by tnnu <NNM 
^^Y<h) and oosa (f^ for ,,8;reat," and ooi-ntu-i and ooti m*ri for > rit.** 

3) Dai Got*, VIII, 2. 

116 CHAPTER in. THE ADJECTIVE. 12, 13. 

ft v W ? t flx ' Sin-zits-ndrii , solid , real , sincere. 
r fc^ ^ - - . , Tei-nei-ndru , courteous. 

,, Ki-rei-ndru, beautiful, fair. 
^ t ^ ? Bu-ki-rei-ndru , not beautiful. 
&, . . . ly, being as ... Yumino yau na, archwise. 
a 1 ), glad, joyful. 

r , 

7^- v lt^' "Sdo-st 1 ), = cease laughing, feel pain. Soo-si nari, It is not 
to be laughed at, It is sorrowful. 

Taru (2 n/), = te aru, is also used to form Japanese adjectives from Chinese 
words. ^Ev^v^^' Gen-zen-taru , apparent, public. 

If more adjectives thus formed follow, linked to one another, then only the 
last has the attributive form taru, whereas those preceding have the indefinite 

form tari. 

^ ^ j^ 7 JD^ * Jljj ^ Sit-tari, kan-tari, ft-tdru kun-si ari 2 ) , there is a prince 

JZ. */ a.fe n /\. Z A. Z stately, worthy, perfect. 

^,T.I TI 

13. Derivative adjectives in ka. 

The termination ka, in my opinion, allied to the adjective radical forms Ke 
and Ko (page 109 n. 51), just as these, indicates, that the quality expressed 
by the radical word is present in a large degree or is strongly prominent. As 
evidence of the mutual affinity of ka, ke and ko may be adduced that the forms 
kanaru, kanari and kani, the first being attributive, the second predicate, the 
third adverbial, are frequently superseded by keki, kesi and keku. For kdnaru 
and kdnari the conversational language uses only kana. 

Adjectives of this class are: 

AMrdkd, IfJ^^^j bright, clear, light; allied to Ake, light. 
Atataka, ^5^*' warm ? allied to Atatameru, to warm. 

Faruka , jm ,# , far. Sono dtofarukd ndri or farttkana or farukdsi, his trace is far. 

Kdsitkd, ^|*^, remote, solitary. Umino kazdva kasttkd ndri, the sea- wind is so 

solitary. Mitsiga kdsttkani farttkana, the way is solitary and far. As to ni see 160. 

I) Both expressions are taken up here, to illustrate the forms occurring in RODRIGUEZ Element, p. 55, 
line 9 and 10 sosina, ,,avoir do regret" and yekina, se rejouir." 
3) Daigaku, III, 4. 

CHAPTER in. THE ADJECTIVE. 13, 14. 117 

Ktrdrakd, ffi ? #, brilliant; from Kira-kira, glitter; Kirara, glimmer, niika. 

Komakd , $gj ^ % o $gj ^ , fine ; allied to Komamtru , to make fine, to make small. - 
Komakana sund, fine sand. Komakani, adverb, to the most minute par- 
ticulars; minutely, exactly. 

Nadarakd, tf$#7#, smooth, ironed out; from Nader* , to iron, to stroke. 

Namerakd, J^f J ? ^, smooth, slippery; allied to Namert, suck, and to Namfa, 
to make smooth. 

Nodokd, 'fijZ p $&* > se * fei r (f the weather); from Nodo, calm. 

Ogosoka, jJE^y^, severe, strict. - - Or6ka j^iS^ ^, stupid, obsolete 6r6U. 

Ordsoka, ^^ y *> negligent, lazy. Ordsokanisu, to neglect; allied to 0rJ*u, to 
lay down, put off. 

. fr t -fi 

Sadaka, ^ ^ _^., certain, sure, definitive. Sadaka ndri or Sadaktsi, it is cer- 
tain; allied to Saddmeru, to define, fix. 

Sidztikd, jffi^ ^.^i calm, still. - - Asa-Jiga sidzHka nan', or fefcti*&ui, or 
sldzuktsi, the morning is so calm. SidzUkdni, old- Japanese also jfcfcuZ-uiii, 
I/M^M, to go softly, slink, sneak. The old form SidziJcuni pleads for the in- 
fluence of the vocal harmony. (Compare page 62 , line 2). The radical word 
Sidzu is preserved in Sidzu-kokdro , a calm mind. 

Tavtrakd, ^ , or Tdlrakd, even, plane, flat; from fa, hand andytra, flat, thus 


Tsttmd-btrdkd , ^-=? ? ^, clear and plain, decided, settled; after the 5i iron from 
Tsumdri, concise and firdku, to open. - TVumo'&fra&im, or old-Japanese 
TsttmablraMkti, adverb, plainly. 

WadzUkd, ^j[Y J^, scarce; Wadztkdni, scarcely, hardly. 

14. Derivative adjectives in yaka, in old-Japanese also vaka, )\ "ft . 

Attributive yakdnaru, predicate yakdnari (in the conversational language yi- 
kana), adverbially yakani. 

The derivative form yaka means as much as having the appearance of that 
which the root points out ') 

To the words of this class, which have passed from the old language to the 

new, belong: 

1) This notice of th6 meaning of ya*a agree* with that which a Japuve etymologi* <im of it: 

*v#o H, 


Asdydkd, $EE^ # $E HfJ , fresh and bright as the morning (asa). Also Azayaka 
Azayagu, Asayuga, Azarakeki. Asayakd ndru iro, a bright color. Kure- 
naiva iro hana-hada asdydkd nari ^J j| ^ /^ CiQ &^^- Hflr^- *J * ^' 
the safflower is very bright of color. 
Fiydyakd, J^-v^, bleak, cold. Aki-kaz6va Jiyayaka nari, the autumn wind is 

bleak. From Fiya, cold. 

Ke-zayaka, ^^ ^^> bright (of the weather). 

Kirdviyakd, ^7^.^, glittering; also Kirabiyaka, from Kirdmi, to glitter. 
K&mdydkd, ^|p|^ ^ #> 1) tight, close, dense; from Komi, Komu, to fill. Knsdki 
komayakana, grass and wood close growing. Komayakanaru saM ^ % jp| , 
strong beer. 2) narrow, precise. 

Mamfyaka, tlf. ;< J|J#, sincere, unfeigned, true; from Mamd, reality. 
Miyabiyaka, ffj&^f #$!' splendid, beautiful; allied to Miyaburi, courtly. 
Nagdydkd, j^fj $^#' maidenly, graceful; from Nago, maid. 
Nigiyaka, HH^^^, busy, bustling. Nigiwavi, bustle. 
Nikoyaka, ^ft^Y*? ^ ne tender, soft, mild; from Niko, pleasing; fine. 
Nobiyaka, ^*^Y* elastic; from Nob)i, u, to stretch. 
Oddydkd, ^ftlrY # calm, still; from Oddv)i, u, to become calm. 
Savdyakd, p J ^^ bright; gay; brave. 

Sayakd, fft\ ^* ^ Sayakeki, clear (of light and sound). 

Sindyakd , ^^ ^^ ^ o ^^ , supple , pliant ; soft , flexible ; also Sindbiyaka , from 

Sindmi, to bend (oneself). 

Sindbiyaka, ^f'v#? secretly, from Sinob)i, u, to hide; to suffer. 
Snkdyakd, / ^v*o jP| ^gi strong, full of power; also Siikuyakd, Sttkuydkd, 

Sukdydkd and Sukiyakd; allied to SnM, support. (?) 

Sttmi'yakd, $$|? = %, quick, swift; allied to Stisitmi, pronounce ssmi, to advance. - 
Kava-osova midzu-nakawo fasiru-koto sttmiyakd nari, the motion of the river 
otter under water is quick. 

Tawdyakd, JUJj^fri also Tawayaka, pliable, supple, soft; after Japanese etymo- 
logists from Ta, hand, and Yowa, weak, being the weaker sex, opposed to 
the man, called Tawoya-me; allied to Tawam)e, eru, to bend. Nami 
kazemo tawdyakdni naru, Waves and wind become softer. 

Wakdydkd, ^*^ juvenile. Waka-ki*, young. Wakayaka ndru samurai t a 
youthful warrior. Yuruyaka 4ffe*s%, limp; slow; allied to Yurusi, to loose. 



15. Derivative adjectives in keki or k6ki. 

Keki or K6ki, radical form Ke or Ko (yf|), = strong (of taste or color), 
already mentioned among the adjectives in ki, whenever it is joined to the root 
of another word, signifies that the object richly possesses that, which is men- 
tioned by this word. Words of this stamp are chiefly characterized as old-Japanese , 
although not totally excluded from the modern language. The conversational 
language supersedes the attributive keki or koki and the predicate kesi or kori 
with kei or koi, and the adverbial kekit or kokti by keu (keo) or kou (koo). The 
forms keki and koki frequently mutate with the derivative form ka ( 13). 

To this class belong: 

quite fresh, 
very clear. 

~j^ , very strong, 
very cold, 
very calm, 
full of dew. 


Nure-koki , 


lying in a deep 


Azara-keki , 
Fdrtt-keki, l ) 
Keya-keki , 
Sidzu-keki , 
Tsuyu-keki , 

16. Derivative adjectives in siki', = .. like. 

Adjective siki (i"f ), adverbial slku (*/;?), predicate sisi (l^>), often, but 
not generally, si (O' in the conversational language by the elision of k and *, 
mostly sii ( M ) and siu ( l/*? o 2/7), the last mentioned frequently pronounced 
as su (shu)', substantive sisa (>f); continuative verb Ikarl,u, = so to be. Root 

si (^fP^), = so, Lat. sic >). 

Siki means, just as . . like (German . . lich, Dutch . . lijk, . . an/ki), equality 
with that, which is expressed by the root, to which it is joined. Being of a 


^j, it is indicated in writing also by these Chinese characters, thus by a 
rebus, which places the word indicated in a false light 

As in old-Japanese many of the adjectives in ki ( 9. B.) occur with the ter- 
mination siki or ii, the Japanese philologers consider the ki as an abbre- 
viation of siki. 

1) Distinguished from Fdrv tetiti, spring-wrathcr 

Zoo boo ti-mon t*i*-loo 4, 1119, under Sit*. 


Siki forms adjectives from nouns, from adverbs and interjections, and from 

1) Denominative and Adverbial i. e. derived from nouns and adverbs are, e. g. 

A-siki, jl 7 2/* 3f|$ , bad. Kokdrono asiki mono, any one bad in disposition, 
a person of bad character. Asitd utsuva: bad tools. Asiku mandbu, to 
learn badly. Fino teri-kdmuva hanahada aslsi, = the entrance of sunshine 
(in an apartment where silkworms are bred) is very injurious. Yosi asiwo 
wakemavdnu , = not once to distinguish the, it is good and it is bad," not to 
distinguish good from bad. Asikdru , continuative verb , from asiku and dru. 

Ava-siki, J^'*^*, frothy; faint of taste; also Ava-ava-siki. 

Aya-siki, "trf ^ 2^ * *K^, wonderful; singular; from Ay a! ', exclamation of sur- 
prise. Ayasiki ame, a wonderful rain , e. g. a stone-rain. 

Bi-bl-slki, ^^ V ^ Hfci'' handsome. Fage-siki ^T^*, heavy; eager. 

Fanafada- or Hana hada-siki, 1^ 1- tf^* , very, uncommonly; from hanahada, very. 
, l n g a g> antithetic to Sibdrakv, shortly, lately. FaktL-sai 
Hon-tsiyquni towdru koto Jisdsi, it is long, that Faku-sai has intercourse 
with our empire. Fisdsa, length of time. Iku fisdsani nari-mdsukd , 
= what lapse of time is it?, how long is it ago. In Fisa is placed the meaning 
of -^ , i. e. the sun or the day goes hence , or has gone hence , which 

refers to Fi sdrist. 
. igif. 

^^, = of one sort; agreeing. 

thickish , stout. 
Ikdga-stki , jfRv ^j"**^^, interrogative, inquisitive. 
lyd-stki, ^V2x^, despicable, mean; from lya, no! 
Kdna-siki, Jj. f 2/* , painful, pitiful; from Kana! alas! Kdnasiki kdna! how 


Kibi-siki, J^^2^^, originally Kimi-siki, - masterly, authoritative, strict, severe. 
Kuda-kuda~siki , J^ ^ ^ { ^C^i piecemeal. 

Kuru-&iki, ^^2^.^, Kuru-kuru-siki ^ Y ^Li tiresome, disagreeable, grievous. 
Mi-kuru-siki, disagreeable to be seen, ugly, misformed. Root Kur)i, M, to reel 
(reel off cocoons). 

Kftvd-siki, j$ 2x^ o ^ o ^, fair, neat. Ktivd-sikima , a fair horse. Jitvd- 
j neat, precise. 

, poor, shabby. 


Mdsa-siki, lE*^*, real; from Mdsa, truth. 

Hand-slid, >gt-^*, without contents, empty; in vain; from mt, kernel, fruit 

and no, without; thus fruitless. Miind-slku ndru, to become empty; to give 

up the ghost. 
Ond-ziki, fsj^^*, identical. 

Sabi-siki, Jg*^*. |#j o $fr $L rusty; alone (solitary). 

Suzu-siki, ^ - 2^*, cool. - - Suzu-stkdru, continually cool. 

T&dd-dki, ^ vSx * ^ , proper, real. 

Taye-daye-siki, ||Jf| ^ f Sfc^ often interrupted, by pausing. 

Urt-siki, JL.*,^^, glad, merry, joyful, pleasant. -- Watdkusimo Hrfaku gozdri- 
mdsu, also I am joyful. - - Ur&toa, gladness. - - UrMta kagiri nakeri, the 
gladness was boundless. Ur&ikdru or Ur&tgdrt, = Hrfakit-aru, continuative 
verb, to rejoice. Fi-kdzuno ooiwo urtslgdrtl, to be glad at the greatness 
(ooiwo) of the number of days (at a long life). Urfamtt, transitive to make 
glad. - - Ur4, Yakutic Yor, joy. -- The Wa-gun Siwori gives ffi (e, uru, 
= to get, acquire) as root. 

Utsuku-slki, j^ /'*, lovely; agreeable; handsome; old-Japanese Its*ka-tiki; al- 
lied to Itsuku-simu, or also Uts&ku-stmu , to love. 

Y&sd-siki, J^^^Ol^, meek; honest, graceful. 

Y&rd-stki, ^gtn2x^ ^, apt, fit; well. 

2) Verbal, derived by means of slki. 

The transitive or intransitive meaning of the verb, from which adjectives are 
derived by means of stki, passes over to the adjective too, because tfJn is, by 
nature, neuter. On the manner, in which the derivation in one case or another 
is brought about, the Japanese etymologists, at least those, whose works are 
within our reach, preserve silence; they talk about it, indeed, but leave the 
matter itself in the dark. To be able to treat thoroughly and satisfactorily this 
class of words which, from an etymological point of view, belong to the most 
intricate, we ought also to be able to compare the forms, in which they occur 
in the different dialects of the popular language. As these are still unknown to 
Us, we think we must confine ourselves to a mere indication of the most con- 
spicuous phenomena. 

Adjectives with a causative meaning derived by means of slki from causa- 
tive or factive verbs, from verbs, by which, as it is known, to cause an ac- 


tion to take place or be carried out is indicated, and which in Japanese, as 
it will be seen, hereafter, are formed by changing the verbal termination i into 
asi (or for vocal -harmony sometimes into osi). From Kondmi, - to like, to be 
fond of, is formed the causative Konomdsi, = to cause fondness for, to make one 
to be fond of, and from this the adjective Konomdsiki, lovely. The adjectives, 
so formed, thus show, that in the nature of the object lies the action, expressed 
by the causative verb, to exercise or to bring to light. 

To this kind of adjectives, among others, belong: 

Ibukdsiki, &?* >&3f' strange, wonderful; polite expression for: doubtful, su- 
spected; from Ibukds)i, w, to excite surprise, and this from Ibuk)i, u, to be 
surprised at something. 

Isogdsiki, |r|j| ^L^ 7^\ J K*' busy; from Isogds)i, w, to make busy; and this 

7T **'* 

from Isog)i, M, to make haste. Isogdsiki tokoro, a busy place. Watdkusiwd 
kon-nitsiwd isogdsii (^ *7 -^ ^ ^>y ^Tj & "f ) 2 ) I nave much bu- 
siness to day. As a variation of Isogd-siki, we have Isogavd-siki , derived from 
the causative form Isogavdsi, to make busy, which proceeds from Isogdv)i, w, 
= to be busy. 

Itamdsiki or Itavdsiki, ^jjj% ^^ ^ St' smarting, painful; from Itamds)i, w, 
to torture, and this from Ildm}i, M, to feel pain, to suffer. 

Kdnomdsiki, lovely, agreeable, from Konomds)i, w, cause to like, to excite one's 
love, to attract a person; and this from Ktinoni)?,, w, to be fond of. &p. 

Medzurdsiki , 3^2T ^i(^o "wT ' exciting interest, interesting; from Medzurds)i, w, 
to excite interest, and this from Mede, MedzUru, also Medzuri, to take inte- 
rest in . . . , to have gladly (^). Distinguished from Medzurdkd, important; 
costly. Every thing that is strange and rare, and however insignificant, an 
object of taste, is called Medzurdsi. If from Me-tsnki or'Mi-tswki, = to fix the 
eye upon a thing, an adjective with the signification of attractive to the 
eye," must be formed by means of stki, we should obtain Metsukdsiki, as de- 
rivative from the causative form Metsukdsi (= cause one to look), but not 
Medzurasiki 2 ). 

Mutsukd&lki, tiresome, grievous, vexing, J||, or also, by means of rebus, ex- 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 16. 

2) This as an answer to the question, proposed in E. BROWN'S Colloquial Japanese, XLI. 


pressed by ^ >gf |- and ^ %-* gjr^; from Mut*ukas)i, u, to vex, to 
grieve, make sad, and this from Mutsuk)i, w, whence the contin native Mutsu- 
kdr)i, M, = to be grieved (or sad), is more in use. 

Natstikdsiki, $p Jg, vulgo *|g| Jj^, attractive, engaging. Fdnan6 nin6vi 
natsukdsii, the scent of flowers is attractive. - - From NaMtkdt)i, u, make 
disposed, excite inclination or love; and this from Natsuk)i, u, to be inclined, 
have inclination to. 

A*. 3ft kJW ij 

Omdmukdsiki , |lp ^ ^V' a ^ so by contraction Omogdstki, pronounced as Omo- 
ngdsiki, attractive, engaging; from Omd-mMlutyi, u, to attract, and this from 
Om6-muk)i, w, to turn oneself with the face (om.6) towards a thing. j* t 
^^ [Sj . From muki, = to go to meet, arises a continuative verb mu/vir)i, u, 
to be turned towards; whence mukavas)i, u, the causative form; from this is 
derived dmdmukavdsiki , to be continually attractive. 

Om&v68iki\ causing to think of one, keeping another's thoughts engaged, and 
that in a good sense, thus engaging, dear, kind; from Omovds)i, u, also 0md- 
v6s)i, u, to cause to think, and this from dm(jv)i, u, to think (,{, ). 

Osor6s1,ki, ^fl^y^*, frightful; from Osdr6s)i, M, to make fear, and this from 
Os6r)d, uru, to fear. 


Saivagdsiki, ^^ ^HtM* J^' ^^ ^ ^^^g an ^ noise, stormy, turbulent; from 
Sawagds}i, w, to make rustle, to disturb, to confound, and this from Sairag)i, 
w, rustle, make a noise, be uneasy (t^ ^* ^ ifc ) - Sivo wwagati^ 
the sea is stormy. Rokdrowo sawagdsit, make the mind uneasy. Saruva 
sei savagasiku site mono wo kai-su ! ), = the monkey makes much noise and 
injures every thing. The old-Japanese has as variation of Sawagi also So- 
wagavi, rage, tear; Sawagavds)i, w, enrage, and Sawagavdtfki, full of noise. 

Tanomd&M, "Pf ^, trusty, a thing upon which one can rely; from Tanomot)*, 
u, make trust, and this from 7Wm)i, M, to trust to, to rely upon. 

Urdmdslki, exciting disgust; from Urdmas)i, u, make have disgust, to prejudice 
against oneself, and this from rom), M, to be disgusted with. ^ . ^ft- 

UrdyamdOki, (vulgo, and by way of rebus y|[| jlj $ jR^), worthy of enyy; 
from %rdyamds)i, M, to make one evy? excite envy, and this from 
u, to envy. ,^ ^. 

1) Kasira-gaJd kin-moo dzu-i. XII. 11. recto. 


Uruvdsiki, uruwdsiki, jH^'^^* 5^, charming; from Ur&vdy)i , w, enliven, and 

this from ttmivi, nrdvi, to be enlivened, or charmed. 
Utdgaodstiri, j^ff / 2x ^ o ^F* ^> doubtful; from utdgavds)i, u make doubt, and 

this from Utagav)i, u (^ o ^ o 1^), to doubt. 
Utomdsiki, despicable, from Utomds)i, u to despise, properly to estrange, and this 

from ut6rn)i, w, to be strange, to be despised. ijjjj^. 

y^ P~ 

WadzUravdsiki, ^jPf-^SAaK, ^, tiresome, teasing, plaguing, from Wadztiravds)i , 

/ "T 

M, to tease, and this from WadzUrdv)i^ M, to be plagued. 
Ydd&rdsiki, hospitable; from Yddtirds)i, M, to lodge, take anyone in, and this 

from Yad6r)i, u (fgf f), to lodge somewhere. 
Yawdstki, 3ft\^ ^*, calming, from Yawds)i, u, to make rest, to reduce to calm- 

ness, and this from Yav)i, u; or Yam)i, w, to come to rest. 
Y&rdkobdsiki , joyful, rejoicing, from Yordkobd$)i, w, to please anyone, and this 

from Y&rtikdbi), w, to rejoice, to be glad. ^ o ^1. 
Yukdsiki, ^ * ^^r, urging on, impatient; from Yttkds)i, u, to make go; to drive; 

and this from Yuk)i, M, to go. 

17. Derivative adjectives in k&-slki. 

To the adjectives in siki unite the derivatives in ka-siki, ka-siku, ka-si; 
terminations, which are considered by Japanese etymologists as contractions 
of kamasiki, kam&siku, kamasi (for which kavasiki etc. also occur), and which 
are indicated in writing by j|f|* Hfc^T- The sign j{j| means to go through 
or to make go through for...., in Japanese Kayovi or Kayovasi. Is this 
character to be remarked as a rebus here, or is its signification allied to that 
of the Japanese termination? This question remains unanswered by the Ja- 
panese philologers. The writer of the present, leaves the rebus for what it is, 
and sees in the kasiki in question nothing more , than the frequently occuring 
abbreviation of sika-siki , of which the radical form stka ( jffi ^) is quoted among 
the adjectives in ki (page 109 n. 72) with the meaning of being so, such." 
Kasi is met with, and that as a substantive predicate verb with the signification 
of is as much as," in simple expressions such as Mister tova kimizo 
kasi" ! )> = the word Mister is as much as kimi; whereas the continuative verbal 

1) I borrow this satisfactory example from a metrical list of Japanese and Dutch words, by a Japanese 


form Karu (for siMru) in Karuga yfttni [= for reason (yitfni) of the (ga) being 
so (kdrti), that is therefore, on that account], is generally in use, and that to 
exclusion of tiled. The derivative forms kdtiki, kfalku, kdsixi or kasi thus answer 
to . . . ish, ... some; whereas kamasOd is equivalent to a fusion of ttka-nuul- 
siki (masi, to be). 

To this class of derivative adjectives, among others, belong: 
Fadzi- (vulgo Fddzu-) ka-siki, $$ jg* gjr^ jfc |jr, timid; also Fadti- 

(vulgo Fadsu-) ka-mdslM, or -kavdsild; from Fadzi, blush; Fadzu, Fadzttru, 

to blush. 

Fdrtt-kd-siki , 0j| , j|| ^, clear (of the weather) ; also FdrH-kavdtfki', root Fare, clear. 
Kara-kaviga mdsiki, droll, jocose; from Kara-gam, to laugh, aud this from Kara 

kara, = ha! ha! 

Ne-ka-slki, ^^ JJ* Sfci'* sleepy, also Ne-kama- (or fora) sT&t; from A>, sleep. 
Ya-kamdsiki, Ra*^, noisy; from ya/ an exclamation like Heh! holla! ho! ') 

Kokode yakamdsikiwo sakeru, here people prevent what is noisy. Sidzuta 

ni site yakamasi nai ( ^ ^ Pg| ) , it is quiet and without noise. 
Yume-ka-siki, ^J *M * ^1^' a l so Yum4-kama- (or ytaua-) *UT, as in a dream; 

from Yume, a dream. 

18. Derivative adjectives in ra-slki , = having a resemblance to .... 

They are generally denominative. Ra is instead of ara, which has arisen by 
the strengthening the final vowel of ari into a ; ara-slki , by apheresis ra>slki , 
thus means: such (slki) as were there...," or so as if there were." Makoto, 
= truth; Makoto-narii , = being truth, true; Makoto-ra-slki, such as if it were 
truth, i. e. probable. Makoto-rd-tiki koto, or Makoto-rd-sta , probnbility. 

Ba-siki therefore answers to the derivative termination ..ish, so far as it 
means having a resemblance, to that, which is indicated by the root, as 
bluish 2 ), whereas the Japanese termination gives at the same time, to the ad- 
jective formed with it, a diminishing, frequently also a contemptible signification 
in addition. 

The old way of writing the predicate form Arari is ^f r J{ 9 ^ ^ The 
presence of ^ , which is here ideographically , with the signification of to be 

1) Ta, yobi-kakunt koyeni iveri, = Ta ii aid of a calling Toioe. r^w /ivori, unUr 7. 

2) BRitt, Nederl. SpraakUer, 1854, J42. . 1). 


on hand, = Jap. ari" pleads for the correctness of the assimilation of ra-si to 
ara-si, and therefore against the supposition, that the ra used here might be 
the characteristic of the plural ( 5. III. 1. page 56). 
The dialect of Nagasaki has raska for rasiki. 

Examples of derivative adjectives in ra-siki: 

Otdko, man; Otdko-rdslki 6nna, a manly woman. 

Onndgd, woman; Onndgti-rdsiki ot6ko, a womanish (effeminate) man, = tinndno 

yquni okondi-mdsu dtdko 1 ), i. e. a man conducting himself like a woman. 
Warabe, Warambe, boy; Warambe-rdsiki , boyish. 
Ko-domo, child; Kodomo-rdsiki , childish. Kodomo-rdsiki handsi, childish- talk. Ko- 

domono yau ndru, childlike. 

Kimi, gentleman; Kimi-rdsiki, playing the gentleman. 
Dai-miyau, = grea,i name, imperial prince; Dai-miyau-rdsiki hdtamoto, a vassal, 

who plays the prince. 

Baka , fool , madman ; Baka-rdsiki , stupid , foolish ; Baka-rdsiki koto , stupidity, folly. 
Use, gossip, untruth; Uso-rdstki, trifling. 

The derivative F'itd-rdsiki , from Ftto, man, answers formally indeed to hu- 
man," must however, with a view to the examples quoted, have a signification, 
by which it is only applicable to a not human being, that acts humanly 2 ). 

Also words of Chinese origin are compounded with rdsiki, e. g. 

Kou, ^^ , merit; Kou-aru waza, = a merit being deed, a deed, that really is 

meritorious. Kou-rdsiki waza, an apparently meritorious deed. 
Ri-kou , 7JJ|j '' p| ^ , whetted mouth or tongue , eloquence. Rikou-ndrA fito , an 

eloquent, witty (but not blunt) man. Rikou-rdsiki ftt6, a man, who plays 

the witty person or the orator. 
Ai, $?lf , kind; Ai-rdsiki, amiable. 
Ka-wai, proper ll]"* ^f:^ Ka-ai, kind, agreeable. Kawai-rdsiki , amiable, lovely. 

Ka-wai-ra$iku naki koto, ungraciousness. 
Bin-bou, ^j^^J^Jjri poverty; Bin-bou-rdsiki , poorly. 

1) Thus Mr. Oono Yasaburoo, when requested to describe the meaning of Onnagorasiki otoko, defined it. 

2) We know this word alone from a Vocabulary, in which it was translated j.menschlijkerwyze,'" 


19. Derivative adjectives in beki. 

Placed after the attributive form of a verb beki (~pf ) signifies, that what 
the verb expresses may, can, must and shall happen. The predicate form is 
besi, the adverbial bekii. Onna kono Uwazaw6 stt-b&t, women may, can or 
will do this work Korewa onnano stt-Mki tewaza ndri, this is a work to be 
done by women. Su-beki, = being allowed or able to do, is here conceived in 
an active sence, whereas the genitive onnano precedes as definition. Compare 
page 97 8. VI. Fit6-bit6 kono tamawo tattomn, every one values this jewel 
highly. Korewa f%6-Mt6no tattomU-beki tama nari, this is a jewel, which every 
one may, can and shall value highly. 

In the chapter on the verbs ( 104.) we shall refer again to Beki. 

20. Derivative adjectives in naki, = without, ...less, indicating the 
want of that, which is mentioned in the radical word. 

Na-ki fi|, in the conversational language Nai, from the radical word If a, 
= not, used substantively means the good for nothing" or > something good 
for nothing," = nothing, e. g. : Fltowo naiga sironi *M, to consider a person as 
good for nothing (of no value). Naiga is genitive. 

Used attributively it means not existing;" Naki-fitd is a not existing man , 
one deceased; Nai-mono, a good for nothing, a not existing thing, a nothing. 
Fitdno naki-kotowo kiku, to hear of a person's not existing (his death). 

When Naki is preceded by an attributive definition of what does not exist, 
it answers to the suffix ...less. - Tsikdra-naki or Tsikaratio nnki yu/ni, a 
powerless bow. 

The predicative form Nasi, in the conversational language Nai , means the 
not being at hand of anything, be it thing or circumstance. -- A~>m> yurm'uvi 
tsikdra nasi, this bow is powerless. Iwqu-ga-sima ftt6 now, the sulpher island 

rf ft? t_ - f J" ^ J J^** ^" 

is without inhabitants. Ari nasi wo tovu, _fljj ? ^\T) _flR^ * inquire about 
the existence or non-existence of a thing. 

Adverbially Nakii ( j[J), in the conversational language N|u, Noo (1*^. 
-f? J *? J 7). Thence the continuative verb Nakari (= NdkA + ari), 
not to exist. Ndku nari, to go to nothing, to die. - Nat* )i, u, to be 
without . . . , to want. 

Na and the forms derived from it will be found treated more diffusely in 
the chapter on the verbs ( 109.). 



21. Adjectives with the negative prefix Na, or the Chinese 3^ 
ETa, with negative power comes before adjectives as well as substantives, and 
causes them to express the contrary. This use of A T a peculiar to the old lan- 
guage has been preserved in expressions as: Na-yami, no rest (^ 5C)' 
Na-yi (J"#), = no seat, for earthquake" (^tjj J|p; Na-ivizo, = not speak, 
= be silent! 

The Chinese ~^>^ ', Fu, = not, as a pure negative prefix to Japanese words 
expressive of quality has also got into use. To the few compounds of that na- 
ture belong: 

Fu-de-ki, ^ 


> mis-chance, bad-growth. De-ki, to proceed, to be 

Fu-nari, ~J*^ f ^ ' ^ a< ^ growth. Fu-narino tosi, a bad year. 

Bu-rtari-naru , ^^^f^^ti" misshapen; Nari, shape. 

Fu-katte-naru , ^ 7 )f^* ^*^t<V' uncomfortable, disadvantageous; uneasy; 
Kdtte, the winning hand. 

Fu-mi-motsi-naru , ^ 7 ^^ ^F^tV' hehaving badly; Fu-mi-motsi, bad beha- 
vior, Fr. inconduite; Mi-mot si, behaving as it should be. 

Fu-ratsino, ~%* 7 j^f?/ > extravagant; absurd; improper, irrational; from the 
Chinese Line (j^, vulgo J^), after the Japanese pronunciation, Ratsi, li- 
mit, fence. Fu-ratsino koto, what goes beyond limits. Ratsi mo naki 
zon-zi yori j^^.^^-^. ^-^- 1o|M > an irrational opinion. 

%i *^ 

Fu-sai-vai-naru , ^ 7 ^fettf*^, uuprosperous ; Sai-vai, prosperity, luck, bles- 
development, and favi, growth. 

^ lucky; from Si-avase, chance. 
excellent, not being particularly well. 
> inconvenient , incongruous; from 
> - altogether, the sum; thence Tokino tsu-gquni yori, 

sing; from 
Fu-si-avase-naru , 
Fu-sugurete imasn, 

the Chinese 

according to the time. 

More numerous are the compounds with ~^\ 7 , which , adopted from the Chi- 
nese, and sanctioned by use as classical expressions, have penetrated even to 
the language of daily life. 

As attributive definitions prefixed to Japanese words, they occur with the 
suffixes no or naru', e. g.: 


discordant. ] ^f* 7 ^*^^*,, unfashionable. 

f /ix, desastrous. 

t- ;n unchildlike. 

t nxj insufficient, not enough. 

indisposed , not 


' i 

, unceasing gossip. 



f|lv, unforeseen difficulty. 
^^, unexpectedly, by 

If the pure negative ^ 7 , of similar expressions is superseded by ^fc 7 ' (bu^ 
- without) , the meaning of the word undergoes a considerable modification , which 
is still frequently lost sight of. ^ 7 /flL-r t n/ Fu-rei-naru, is uncourtly, and 
equal to coarse, clownish. fiE 7 ^ ;f^gf t j\^, ^ without ceremony," and may also 
be rude behavior, which does not wound. ^| u /|fL^, i g a behavior, antagonist 
to the nature of politeness, thus misbehavior. ^ 7 H^p ^> Fu-si is untimely, i. e. 
not at the time fixed; ^t 7 * ^p^, without fixed time, i.e. always; ^ u B^^, 
wrong-time, the improper time, the time at which something may not happen. 

8 22. Adjectives with a previous definition. 

Nouns, prefixed to an adjective as definitive, form with it a compound word, 
provided they are not characterized as an attributive addition by the termination 
no. Te, hand; Naga, long; Te-naga zaru, long-armed ape. -- JTuta', mouth; 
Omoki, heavy; Kutsino omdki ftt6, a man heavy of mouth or tongue. 


InisiM imdno na-takdki ftt6 , High named (celebrated) persons of old and new times. 
Te-baya, asi-faya, = of hand quick, of foot quick; quick-handed, quick-looted. 
Kotoba-fayasi, he is ready of speech. Kotoba-oosi, he is woordy. Kut*i-jir6ki, 

broad-mouthed. - - Me-akdki, red-eyed. 

Mimi-t6ki flt6, a man, sharp of ears, a quick-hearing man. 
Fara-bm6, thick of belly, a paunch-belly, name of a fish. 
Fardka uw6 (for fara-aka uw6), a fish red of belly, the red-belly. 
Om6-sir6ki, white or clear of countenance, friendly. 
Mono-Uyeno naki yo, a night without sound, a dead night 
Kok6ro-neno fir6ki kotoba, a word ample of meaning. 
Kokoro-neno warm fito, a man bad of disposition. 

Ke-no ara-mono, ke-no niko-mono, rough haired beings, soft haired beings. 



23. The definition, that the quality in any object in full or relatively full 
measure is met with, is expressed by adverbs or definitions equal to them, which 
precede the adjective; as such are worthy of notice: 

1. Ma, Jlfl^o j| 5 iu conversational language generally Man, = effectively, 
really; genuine unadulterated, indicates the full measure of the quality. 
Ma-naka, or Man-naka, la.^ Pp#> the just middle. - Yumino ma-nakawo 
torn, just the middle of the bow to seize, to seize the bow just in the middle. - 
Man-nakano iy6, the middle house, standing between two others. 

Mdn-firdki, fi^^p^^, quite level, even. 

Mdn-mdruki, pL v HU '^ > quite round. 

Md-ydsuki, M!^ v^^*' quite easy. 

Md-sirdki, tlf ^ lirja^' quite white, snow-white. 

Md-kur6ki, iff. ^ 1^^, quite black, jet-black. 

Ma, = effectively, really, variation of Mi ( |f| a ), is the same radical word, 
that occurs in Ma-koto ( tlf. l|j. o jit ^f* ) , = reality , truth. Ma-gok6ro , an up- 
right heart; Masa, truth; Masa-slki, - really. 

2. Itsi-dan, '^ J^> a whole piece, adverbially: wholly. - - Itsi-dan 
utsukiisiki 6nna, a woman in all respects beautiful. Itsi-dan kek-kau ndrU, in 
all respects excellent. 

3. Ikanimo, = however, in all respects. Ikanimo tsiisaki, as small as 
possible. Ikanimo taydsuki, as easy as possible. 

4. Zui-bun, ^j$j$ ^^' = comparatively, so much as possible. Zui-bun 
faydku, pretty early; is also used with the signification of very early." 

24. Absolute comparative. 

Adverbs which, expressing a higher degree of the quality, come before the 
words of quality, are: 

1) Mo, ^^ vulgo j^ , yet, yet more; to be distinguished from Ma, 
- real , with which it frequently mutates. 

Mo-ydsuki, ^ ST5> easier 
Mo-gami, ^ ^ _t a higher up. 
Mo-sotto , jj|f ^ 4Ji? ? , yet less. 

Mo-fayd, Ig -*p-v s till quicker or 

earlier ; already. 
Mo-suk6si, HS/^ x ^*?> yet a little. 

Mo-sukosi sakini, still rather earlier; just now. Korewa amdri tsiisai. Mo- 


sukdsi ookiinowo mise *), this (case) is too small. Let me see one rather larger. 

2) Ookini, ^J _, greatly, very. Ookini furuki, very antique. Ooki 
ni ardki, very rough. 

3) Suk6si, /J^, little, in slight degree. Sskosi takai tokdro, a place 
high only in a slight degree. 

4. Nao, >Jj|j f, old-Jap. Navo, 3fj!| J, once more so . . . , still more. Sortdt 
nao yoku nari, thereby it becomes so much the better. Sore dake nao yorrfmt, 
it is so much the better. 

5) lya or Iy6, also ya or y6, J!} J o Y e 3 o gj;, = once more so.., far- 
ther, more; to be distinguished from ?'ya, no. Jyd taka yama, the mountain 
once as high. lyd medzurdsiki , still more interesting. 

6) lya-iya or iy6-iy6, 5HJY Y L SHU V {> more and more; in the con- 
versational language Tydga &y<!ni also. Jyo-iy6 fiikdki, still much deeper. 

7) Masii-masu, ^^, more and more. Riyau-kokuno mdtfoari mdiu-md*u 
dtsuku ndri, the intercourse of both the empires extends more and more. 

25. The relative or real comparative. 

1. If a quality be attributed to one object in the same measure as to another, 
the likeness, if it is quantitative, is expressed by Fodo, if it is qualita- 
tive by Yauni. Fodo (^*) means quantity, Yauni, or Yooni ($?), in 
the manner. 

Namiva ydma-fodo takasi, the waves are as high as mountains. Namiva 
yukino yauni sirdsi, the waves are white as snow. - Y<inia-fodo, = siie of 
mountains, and Yukino yauni, = in the manner of snow, are here adverbial de- 
finitions , which , as such , precede the words of quality takdsi and W. The par- 
ticle va, vulgo wa, is here necessary to separate the subject nami from the 
following substantive (yama, or yuki), which, as subordinate definition, belongs 
to the predicate word of quality. 

vSaw ri fodo todsi, it is so far as three miles. Ii yguni kataki, - stony hard, 

<i - ^ ^^f ^^ ^^n ^t 

i. e. so hard as stone. Zen fodo dai-sfan tm'rfi monora nrt, ^jJH^ W 5 1E H 
"^t? W5 ^ 1V -3* n ' tnere ^ s no * n * n 8 * important as virtue; in the con- 
versational language: Zen fodo tai-setsu na (or also tei'-H ta, 

monowa nai. 

1) Shopping-Dialogue* , p. 


2. If a quality is ascribed to one object in a higher degree, than to another, 
with which the comparison is made, the latter is considered as the point of depar- 
ture in the ascription and, as such, characterized by the termination yori (out), 
immediately precedes the word of quality, which does not assume a comparative 
form; thus NamivB, iy<[yori takasi, = the waves are from houses out high. i. e. 
the waves are higher than houses. In this form of speech also the isolating 
particle va or wa is indispensible. 

The Mongolian and Mandju, in respect of the comparative, follow the same 

way 1 ). To the expression: The horse is higher than the sheep," is equivalent 

in Japanese the expression: Mum d va fltsuzi yori ooi rtari ( Jj^^i ^ _~fc x ^f 

^ ? ifei > - ^ ne norse - - from the sheep out high is ; in Mongolian Morin 

ami chonin etse jeke. 


Meiva koo-mooyori karosi (fjfjY M ^jlcc? ^f V^f* _^) ^ ne ^ e 1S 
lighter than down. Ookamivd yama-tnuyori takesi, the wolf is bolder than the 
wild dog. Olanda-fundvd Too-senyori sakini tsiydku-yansu, the Dutch ship 
lands earlier than the Chinese. KakYiretdruydri aravaruruva ram', = some- 
thing more manifest than the hidden, is there not, there is nothing more mani- 
fest, than the hidden. Riwo kivamete, Ten-kaw6 dsdmtiru-kotova slyuyori 
ooi-ndruva ram, what concerns the forming of the understanding, and the go- 
vernment of the state , there is nothing greater than the doctrine of CONFUCIUS. 
. . . yori sukdsiku naru, less becoming than . . . 

Remark. No comparison is contained in the sentence: Kono sdkayoritsutsi 
./tX&t, rr the land (tsutsi) is of this steepness off low; as the words of this 
steepness off (kono saka yori)" are an attributive definition of land (tsutsi)" 
and not of the word of quality low (fiki)" 

The relative comparative may also be defined by means of one of the adverbs 
( 24), which indicate a higher degree of the quality; e. g. : Wasiva kuma-takayori 
mata-mata ooi nari, the eagle is twice as big as the bear-falcon (the horned falcon). 
Kuma-takava me-ono dai-siyau mina takani onaziku, takayori ooi-naru koto san 
bai seri, with the bear-falcon (Spizaidos orientalis) the size of the female and the 

1) Compare I. J. SCHMIDT, Grammatik der Mongolischen Sprache St Petersburg, 1831. S. 39. 
CANON DE LA GABELENTZ , lem. de la Grammaire Mandchoue , 1832. page 86. Characteristic der 
hauptsachlichsten Typen des Sprachbaues , von Dr. H. STEINTHAL Berlin. Ifc60. page. 200. 


male generally is as with the hawk; his size (ooinaru koto) with relation to (yori) 
the hawk amounts to threefold (san bai); i. e. it is thrice as big as the hawk. 

The object, with which the comparison is made, is also isolated by va, when 
the word expressive of quality does not immediately follow it, but is separated 
from it by a subordinate adverbial definition; e.g.: Kono 1y4 yoriv* mats faX-ori, 
is as high again as this house. Kono 1y6 yoriv& nao takasi, is yet higher than 
this house. 

If the object, with which the comparison is made is something which either 
has remained without notice, or is not expected, then it is characterized 
by the suffix m6 (= also, even). Kore yorim6 oo, more than this also, or 
more than even this. -- Faydbusd to ivu toriva taka yorimd faydti^ the bird, 
called Faydbmd, or the quick flier (it is the noble falcon) is fleeter than eren 
the hawk. Kono ftt6wa are yori mo gakuriya de ari '), this man is more 
learned than even he. - J= ^$S # J&\ /> $t* ftt 3 9 ^ T t * 
fifyj /">-f / Sau-m6kuno kwa-kiyauva Botan yori ooi-ndru monovd no, among 
the flowers of the vegetable kingdom there is none bigger than the piony. 

Verbs also, which express a more or a less, such as Masl, Maaari.Masa- 
reri ( ^ij f, * H& / 0| ) , = to be more, to excel (praettare)', Otoreri ( % ;,,), 

rfl* / 

= to be less, are used in the forming of comparisons; e. g. Idzurtga nandnni 

masdru ( jfb ^ J^ tJC ) ' wno is more tnan you? "" Kon * am ' w ' ma ^ rW * fa ^ 
rano dru kum ( J^ r ^ ' _@ = ffil ^ ^Sf ' H ), country better than 
this country and rich in treasures. - - Wareni masdreri, he has excelled me. 
Siro-mayu-kavikoni masdreru monova ndsi, there is nothing, that surpass* the 
silkworms of white cocoons. Pttdni ot6ru, to be less than others. 

Remark. When in the saying: It is better not to go, than to go," 
deviating from the usual order of words, according to which one would be 
obliged to say Yukdniiva (the not going) ynk-uyori (than the going) m* 
(is better}," is expressed by Yuknyorlv* yuk<wii& m*i, a rhetorical inrer- 
sion takes place, to make it appear, that the predicate it is better (= Ut 
praestat)" is of the most importance. Therefore the subject yufcfwi, as a 
subordinate definition precedes the predicate, but is emphatically cha- 
racterized by ga, whereas the yuku yori, contributed to the comparison, 

I) Compare KODBIOUEZ Element, p. 80. 


isolated by va, is placed in front. Compare what is said on this subject, on 
page 64. 

The poet supersedes yoriva by kara koso or gara koso; e. g. : 
Udte miyo! Fanano sodatanu satovd ndsi. 
Kok6ro gar a k6s6 miva iyasikere *). 

Plant and look! There is no village where flowers do not come up. 
My outside is worse than my heart. 
Koso, an emphatic suffix. 

26. The absolute superlative. 

The absolute superlative is expressed by one of the abverbs, which imply 
the highest degree of the quality and precede the word expressive of quality. 
The adverbs are: 

1) Fana-fada, or hana-hada, ^ t , very; old- Japanese Fata-fata, from, fata, 
yet again. Fana-fada takaki, very high. F. sebdki, very narrow. F. tdku- 
san ndru, very plentiful. Tsubame tobi-kakeru koto fana-fada fayd-si, the flight 
of the swallow is very quick. F. tai-se'tsuni dmovu, to consider of the most 

2) Mottomo, jjx? ^Hf ^[J , originally Motomo, utmost, quite. Aka- 
kaneno nari mott6mo yorosiku, itatte mare nari, as to the standard of copper (the 
coin) is quite good, it is however extremely rare. 

3) Ito, ito-ito, j]| "f o ^ 5JJ o ig: o Jjj| , very. Ito ydsuki, very easy. - 
Ito 6siki feme", a very lovely girl. 

4) Itatte, 551 #7, the gerund of Vtdri, - arrive at the place to which one 
will come; as adverb complete, entire, utmost, highest. - - Itatte yor6si, 
it is quite good. Itatte faydku, very early. Sasaki va katatsi itatte tsiisdku 
sit6 hoye" ooi nari, the wren is in form very small, yet in voice strong. . . . to 
kokoro-yuruvd makotoni itatte oroka nari, mean that..., is indeed utterly stupid. 
Instead of it place the inversion: makotoni or6kan6 Itari nari, = is indeed the 
highest point of stupidity , if the logical accent is to be placed on itari. En-in 
ainari kino-dokuno itarini soro, $, v *f | ^ % jjJ(i ^ ^ / ^ 7 ^ ^ Z 7 a , 
delay is the summit of vexation. 

The Chinese .H? 2x si, =1tdtte, also is used to express the superlative, and 
that in composition with Chinese words ; e. g. : 

1) A leaf in an album, written by FUKU-SATA, 1862. 



3* *" ffifr % , si-g6ku , top-point , utmost. 
JS^Wv? si-zen, highest good, perfectly good. 
^5 ^ 3p T , si-beo , excellent. 
3j? ^ ^|j^ ^ , si-you , needful in the highest degree. 

5) Meppod (t ^ ^i^), which is said to be in use with the signification of 
most," but only at Y4do, was known to us only under the form of Meppou-ndrv, 
as synonym of Mono-os6re sfau, - caring for no danger, fearless, bold. Kono 
nedanva meppoo takai might thus signify: this price is boldly high. But as we 
now recognize this word to be the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese 9j Jjr , 
Mie-f&, signifying annihilation-law" , i. e. unavoidable dead, we most translate 
Meppoo takai by mortaly high. Some write $&$. ~tTf, and pronounce it Mct-boo. 

6) Itsino, '^ y, first; Dai-itsino, ijfc % --f , = the first. -- Tsuruga Irita- 
kuni itsino yoki mindto nari, Tsuruga is the first good (the best) harbour in the 
northern provinces. Nippon itsino takeki mono, the bravest man in Japan. - 
On the other hand itsi stands for utsi, = blow, in Itsi faydku, = quick as the 
lightning. Ten-ka dai-itsino gdku-slya, the first scholar in the empire. 

7) Itsi-ban, $ <5, = first rank (see 81. 1) ). Itsi-ban yoritiki, the 
very best. 

8) Siigurete, ^F 

9) Kitsuku, kitsuu 

-, excelling, surpassing. SugHrttc mcdztrdslki , meet in- 

, heavy, very. Kitsuu sui mono, something very sour. 

Very common also, are the following Chinese compounds with 
= very, utmost, which express a superlative: 

o 8ai 

T _t.X> uppermost, best. 
% PJ3 , middlemost. 
^ "fk"**, lowest, least. 


5f iH?' the highest 
S r M*' fiwtJ ^to re l ation *<>*" 
= just now, presently, a few mo- 
ments ago. 
KY 8ftt moet diligent 

27. The relative superlative. 

The relative superlative is characterized iu that, that the objects snrpawed 
expressly named, and this naming, whether in the genitive, or in the local, 
placed before the word expressive of quality, by way of a definition, and thus 
subordinate to it. The bright of (or among) the stars is, after the Japanese 




manner of speaking, the brightest of (or among) the stars, Fosino (or Fosi 
no nakani) akiraka ndru va. 

Examples. Karasi fazikamiva, nano tattoki nari, mustard and ginger are the 
principal of vegetables; or: A r ano tattokiva, karosi fazikami nari, the principal 
among the vegetables are mustard and ginger. - - ||| |5 ^ ^ ^ # ^ ' Jl^ * 
[^jj*^] ^ ^ ^tt" / Kusurino nakano masdreru [pt6reru\ mono, the best [the least] 
among the medecines. 

wr i/ JRcg TO ? 1/P ? Buppoova moro-morono norino nakani motomo sarani 
Ijfa^ ^ , ^"^ sugurete imdsu J ), the Buddha-doctrine is among all 
lgd?* *^>y " doctrines the most excellent. 

28. The excess in a quality is expressed by: 

... ~Y .. 

Amari, ^^ ^, = excess, adv. excessively, too ... Tsikarano amari, 
excess of strength. Amari gin, excessive money. Korewd amari tsiisai, 
AJz^' *? ^"if /hl"f 2 ) ti*^ is ^ small. Korewd amari nagai 3 ), this is 
too long. Korewa amari iroga koi*), this is too dark of color. Korewa 
amari dziyaiga dtsui 5 ) , this is too thick of stuff. 

To-fodo, ?f$ 3 ^E*) = excess, excessive, too . . . , = Amari. Soredewa 
yo-fodo takdku nari-masu, ^t^^ ?fe 3 * ^1 it 7 "*" 9 ^^ 6 )' tnen ^ 
becomes too high (too dear). Yo-fodo os6i 7 ), it is too late. 

1) Nippon-ki, Vol. 19, page 25 verso. 

2) Shopping-Dialogues, page 2. 3) page 8. 4) page 23. 
5) page 24. 6) page 37. 7) page 41. 



The Japanese language has its own numerals; but with the introduction of 
the Chinese system of measures, weights and reckoning of time, the Chinese 
numerals and the Chinese marks of number came early and generally 
into use. Therefore one has to do with two sorts of numerals, with the Japanese 
and with the Chinese. The Japanese are connected with Japanese words, and 
the Chinese with Chinese. 

29. The ancient Japanese cardinal numbers are: 

^. , 


, Pltd (P't6, H'to) . . one. 

, Fiitfc (P'ta) two. 

Mi three. 

Yo . . . four. 

f y , Xtsu five. 

,4 , Mu, Muyu six. 

-)- > , Nana seven. 

^ , Y& eight. 

I? > J , K6k6n6 nine. 

y* ^ , Too , = once ten. 

>/ , So , ten , termination of teat* 

^ > , Momo hundred. 

']"; . . . fo, . . vo, as termination of 

*]~ , Tsi thousand. , 

3 tt y*, Y6rodu . . ten thousand. 

The vulgar man says for Hito (1) and Kokono (9), by way of abbreviation, ffi and Koto alto. Or*l 
communication by OONO YASABUHOO BSQ. 


These radical forms are used in the forming of compound words in which, 
according to the principle fixed in 9. I. A., the idea of number is supposed 
to be already combined with the object, e. g.: 

Fit6-vino /ana, = one day's flower. Fttd-yono sake , = one night's rice-beer , 
i. e. sake , that is only one night old. Fltd-fdna , one-flowered. 

Pitta-go, a twin. Futd-gok6ro, a double heart. Fntd-nari, an hermaphro- 
dite. Futd-oyd, the parents. - - Futd-tdbi, twice. Futd-nan6 sima, a two- 
named island. 

Mi-ka, the day (a), which has the number three as characteristic, the third 
day; also the period of three days (triduum). - - Mi-ka-tsuki, - the third-day- 
moon, the moon of the third day. Mi-tose, the year three, also the period of 
three years (triennium). Mi-kusdno kayu, = three-herbed pap. 

Yo-mo , the square. Mu-t6se , the year six , also the period of six years. 
Mu-t6seno, six yeared. Nand-ydma, the Seven mountains. 

Used as substantive numerals, the cardinal numbers from 1 to 9 take the 
suffix ^ tsu, which just as the Chinese numeral-substantive j|j| (ko), with 
which in the most ancient writings 1 ) it is assimilated, means, originally, a 
piece of bamboo and, in a general sense, in the counting of articles, is 
taken for piece, number" 2 ). Consequently we have the following compound 
nouns : 

Fit6~tsu (F'tdts, H't6ts) . one. 
Futd-tsu (Ftdts) ..... two. 

Mi-tsu ........... three. 

Yo-tsu ........... four. 

Mu-tsii six. 

Nand-tsu seven. 

Yd-tsu eight. 

Kdkono-tsu . . .... nine. 

Itsu-tsu (lists') ...... five. 

These numerals answer to the question: Iku-tsu (a|?), how many pieces? 

Flto-tsu-fa, a single leaf 3 ). Mii-tsii-hdna , or Mu-tsuno /tana, flowers to the 
number of six, being Mutsu characterized by the genitive termination no as a 
noun used attributively. 

1) Nippon-ki. 

2) "When, in 1857, I published the Proeve eener Japansche Spraakkunst van DONKER CURTIUS, I con 
sidered this tsu as the old genitive termination. 

3) The name of Acrostichum Lingua. 



By combination with ari or ori (= to be), Ftt6, Ftitd, Mi and To form the 
words Pitdri ($Jb), Fiitari (zl 7 A?)> mtiai (H a A?)' and Yottari, 
= individual, alone; pair, both; triad, three together; four; noons, 
which are only applicable to persons, and thus are used as substantives, as well 
as attributively. Kun-siva sono flt6riw6 tsUtsusimii , the philosopher attends to 
his own person, himself alone. Iku-tari, how many persons? 

The tens: 10, 20 to 90, consist of the cardinal numbers followed by }/ , ao, 
which means ten (just as ..ty in twenty). Mi-so, three ten, = thirty. If they are 
used as substantive numerals ; they take as suffix , (instead of 7 , tsu) ^ , tei , 
which is only a modification of tsu, and for the sake of euphony also changes 
to ^ , dzi. Mi-so-dzi, - thir-ty-number. Mi-so-dzino hdna, flowers to the number 
of thirty. Let this f be distinguished from > zi, for Misozi means the age 
of 30 years (H* + y OC^)- 

The tens are: 

Radical forms. 

, To6, also To, contracted from 

F'tdso, = once ten. 
y, twenty, not in use.) 

7, Mi-so, thirty. 
y, Yo-so, forty. 
?y, Itsu-so (W*- 
7, /-so, fifty. 
y , Ma-s6, sixty. 
^ y ,Nand-so, seventy. 
Fa-so , eighty. 


Compounds with tti, 

, To6-tsi, one ten. 

two tens. 

, F&td-tsi, 

, F&td-tsi, 

L y f f , Mi-so-dzi, number of thirty. 
3 y f f , Yo-so-dzii number of forty. 
-f y f*. te-*6-dzi, (tt-(W*t), number of 


A y <f , Ma-sd-dzi, number of sixty. 
~f~ * y ^Tt A'in-wrf^oc/cj, > seventy. 
-Vyf, rW(W', number of eighty, 
y , ^^TzJ-so, ninety. 3 ^ y y f , A'otonrf-Wzt', > ninety. 

^t > , ifomo, a hundred; in combinations &, -/ - t10 ' " ho; thence r<> " r0f 400 " 

I-vo, 500, Fa-vo, 800; others we have not met with, 
f , Tsi, thousand; f ^ , Tsi-tri, thousands. 

7 ^f ^, FWa-tsi-tsi, two thousand. t * f . Nand-tri, nine thousand. 
57 B r, rtfrd-rf, ten thousand. * * f , Momo-tti, a hundred thousand. 
* ^ 5? B 7*, Momo-ydrtdzu, a hundred times ten thousand, or a million. 

*, raw-ydrd(fet, eight hundred times ten thousand, or eight millions. 


The Japanese numbers Momo, Tsi and Y&r6dzu are generally used in a ge- 
neral sense for many and all; Momo-ktisd, all plants; Tsi-tose, many years; 
Yorddzuno mono, all things; Momo-tsi-dori , all birds l ). 

If a numeral precedes another numeral in its radical form , then it is the attri- 
butive definition of such: Mi-yotsu is thrice four; Miso-yotsu, thirty times four. 

Two and thirty, on the other hand, is expressed by Misodzi amdri (or simply 
mdri) futdtsu, i. e. a number of thirty plus a number of two. One counts thus: 

Eleven . . . . . . To6-tsi mdri ftt6tsu. 

Twelve ..... . futdtsu etc. 

One and twenty, Fatdtsi mdri fitdtsu etc. 

Mu-s6-tsi mdri mutsuno Tcuni (^ A ~\^ 4 *fe~*l '/^y ^ ' @=) the ^ 
and sixty countries. Ya-fo yorddzuno kami, eight hundred times ten thou- 
sand gods. 

The saying: It is more than 1792470 years, since the heavenly parents 
descended from heaven," we find in the ancient chronicle Nippon-ki III. 2 verso, 
expressed by: 

-K ^5 -fc* H? O 

* I II iff 

^^ T ^> f- -L j| ^fr A matsu mi-oyd no ama-kUddri-mdsite y6n ko- 


Momo yorddzn tose (100 X 10000 years) amdri 

^ ^ 5 - a 

} H 3 z^ * nandso yorodzii tose ( 70 XI 0000 years) amdri ko- 

71 "* 

W^ | ' _ -^ K&^? kon6 yorddzU tose (9X10000 years) amdri futdtsi 
\- - j I 3 

7- 3 If tose (2000 years) amdri yo-vo tose (400 years) aman 

5 h ^3 *? PA* ^ 

') t 1 ^ i^h ^ nandso 2 ) iose (70 years) aman' <osi dn. 
Ut 7 | 

7^ ',.-? - i 

The numerals in tsu and tsi serve as nouns substantive and are also used, 
with or without the genitive termination no, as attributives. Kono simavami 
fltdtsuni stte, 6m6 yotsti, ari, - this island (the island of the four countries, St- 
kdktt) is of body a unit, and has of faces four in number. 

1) Momo-tsi-dori is also the name of the thrush, that imitates the voice of all birds, 

2) The original, printed with some worn out forms, has nana instead of nanato. 



30. The Chinese cardinal numbers, after the Japanese pronunciation. 
The first column contains the number in full. 

* o 4 = ?' Itsi 



.............. two. 

fo ur . 

, Bikii .................. six. 

sitsi (*'*' at ra o A'fct) .......... seven. 

| o /, Fatsi (/*&) .................. eight. 

ft o Jl$S> Kiu Ku ....... ' ' .......... nine. 

t& o +S ? 2 ) Ziy 11 ( at Ye ' do rf * ^M <^f. Eng. ;t), ten. 
"Q"|, Piyak' (tyaV) ................ a hundred. 

-^vj Sen ...................... a thousand. 

^ o 7f v >' Man (^) .................. ten thousand. 

The number of the tens, hundreds, thousands and tens of thousands is more 
definitely determined by the units preceding them, thus: 




Is-ziyu, ten. 

Ni-ziyu, twenty. 

San-ziyu , thirty. 

Si-ziyu, forty. 

Go-ziyu, fifty. 

Rok'-ziyu, sixty. 

ASftte/- (7tVi) z?'y?t, seventy. 

Fatsi-ziyu, eighty. 

Ku-ziyu, ninety. 
, Ip-p1yak\ one hundred. 
, N-flydk\ two hundred. 
, Sam-llyak', three hundred. 
, Si-flyak', four hundred. 

, Go-ftyak\ five hundred. 
, Rop-piyik\ six hundred. 
, Sitsi-f1yak\ seven hundred. 
i Fap-plyalc\ eight hundred. 
, Ku-flyak\ nine hundred. 

/*-#n , one thousand. 

Ni-sen etc., two thousand. 

Itsi-man , once ten thousand. 

Ni-man, twice ten thousand. 

Ziyu-man, 10X10000. 
, Ni-:iyu-man, 20X10000. 

Ftyttlc-nMii, a million. 
Ni-f1y<ik-man , two mill. 

1) The numeral Si (4) is mostly avoided in composition with nnuni, and inpfneded by the JapWMM 
numeral Yo because Si also means ,,to die." 

2) The written form ?*r would, in all respects, answer rather to the Ytto pronuncution , it howerer, io 


By the suffixing additional numbers all possible numbers are expressed; thus: 
Ziyu man itsi, 100001. Is-sen fap-plyak' roku ziyu roku wen, the year 1866. 
The number is intended here as attributive definition belonging to this year. 
If however the meaning is 1866 years, then the number is preceded by the ad- 
verbial definition Oy6so, J\^3 (pron. 6y6sso), = in sum, together, and the 
number itself followed by a numeral substantive (see 37). J\^ 3 -^ ^r [or -^ " 
A&% ^f^*] fc^^ 59^ Oy^so rok&'ka, [or roku sitsilsa] nenno aida, = within 
six (or six to seven) years. The necessity of taking up oydso in the translation, 
naturally disappears in every language, that has a plural. 

To a Japanese word, the Chinese numerals are connected by the genitive 
termination no. Ziyu ra'no iro, twelve sorts. 

31. Ordinal numerals, the first, the second. As the most in use are: 

1) The Chinese numbers Itsi, A T z, San etc., followed by ^jjf' ban, that 
means watch, and number. To the question ^g^ ^H'vi Iku-ban, = what 
number?, answer 

'$ ^'V' Itsi-ban, number one, i. e. the first. 

*. = : ^ : v' Ni-ban, number two, i. e. the second. 
Ell v "flf* v Sam-ban , number three. 
|7tJ 3 ^^^5, Yo-ban, number four, exceptionally for Si-ban. 

2) The Chinese numbers , preceded by |jj| ^ Dai, = series; thus: j|=j ^ -^, 
Dai-itsi, one according to order, i. e. the first. -- Nippon-Id ken daini ziyu 
sitsi, = Japanese chronicle, volume 27, literally: 27 according to the order of the 
volumes, "j^ ^* r"y ~^^i Dai-san sz, the third son. 

3) The compounds Itsi-ban , Ni-ban , Sam-ban , etc. , preceded by ^ ^ Dai ; 
thus Dai-itsi-ban , Dai-ni-ban , Dai-sam-ban , first , second , third. Dai-yo-ban , 
fourth, exceptionally for Dai-si-ban; so also Dai-zlyu-yo-ban (14 th ), Dai-ni-ziyu- 
yo-ban (24 th ). 

With the genitive termination wo, these three sorts of compounds become 

If only two objects are to be counted, the difference is made by lam , Sen 
and *g ^ Go, before and after. If the arrangement is limited to three classes, 

Japan itself, not yet adopted. By a mutation of the French letters j and y, in the Supplement to RODR. 
<rr. from page 15 you is generally found improperly for jott (ten), 



they are distinguished as the topmost, middle and lowest, by f* fr Ziyoo, 
ffj i Tsiu and ~^\^"Ge } ), or as foremost, next and last, by <Sot, Tsugi and 

Ato or ftsiro. _t J , ft| *t* ? y SI ?<> ~F ^ S ? ** *^ e 8ee ^ * 
second, third quality. 

The first, with reference to the time, is expressed by '*? /o/*fi, or 
Fazime, no ,- first : Fatsu-mono, the firstlings, the first fruits; Famine no to, the 
first year (of a period). 

32. The iterative numerals, once, twice etc., are: 

Japanese, to the question: 
Iku-tabi, ^dl $* how often? 

yjXrf x /-'W t- 

Ftt6-tabi, once. 
Futd-tabi, twice. 
Mi-tabi, thrice. 
Yo-tabi, four times. 
Itsu-tabi, five times. 
Mu-tabi, six times. 
N&nd-tabi, seven times. 
Ya-tabi, eight times. 

Kdk6no-tabi, nine times. 
To-tabi, ten times. 

In numbers higher than l' the Chinese numbers 
also are compounded with teii; thus 

Ziyu-itsi-tabi, eleven times, 

Chinese, to the question: 
Nan-do, ft , jg H , how often? >) 

-1 16? **, Itri-do, once. 
r >t 

*. ~ |& **, Ni-do, twice. 
=r t IS H , San-do, thrice. 

1 *^ /^W 

P9 3 fi **' Yo-do, four times. 
<SiWo, four degrees. 
^L 3 * j^ H , Go-do, five times. 
-/c2 f6f H , Rok'Jo, six times. 

^^ * -^ AX^ 

^fc ^ ffi F Sitn-doi s^ 11 times. 
y\^ j^ **, Fat*i-<lo, eight times. 

^L 7 >K H ' ^ u- ^' n * ne t" 068 - 
-|-^ H , Ziyu-<lo, ten times. 

. tbffsji 


Momo-tabi, ~ * g , a hundred times; many times. - - 7W-teM, ^f 1 
a thousand times; many times. - TW-faW momo-fW, ^f J R5 S' 
a thousand times, a hundred times'); often. - - TnlMi, $ V { * often. 

TaJi, with which the Japanese cardinal numbers form a compound word, 
means journey; Tabi-ttto, a traveller. 

,) The yomi: Kami, Naka, Sio, is in the c-a I. ,ation, -conliBg to Ik. oI , 

a native of YeMo, there at least, not in n*. 

11 J l m~Jo '2 ete. 8) Abo hundred time of 

2) Also how many degrees; llti-do , 1 , ffi 


CHAPTER IV. NUMERALS. 32, 33: 34. 

in* |3J 3 ^ h Sanyo do, three to four times; San si do, 3 to 4. 
By suffixing Me ( }E| *), which means eye and, figuratively, mark, these 
iterative numerals become ordinal numbers, which with the genitive inflection 
T?O are also attributive. Iku-tabi-me , $% J& % H *. what number of times? 

sy^ ^ >>*^* *- v * 

Flt6-tabi-me , or Chinese ^ ^ H ^ ^ , Itsi-do-nie , the first time. To- 
tabi-meno hanasi, a story for the tenth time. 

33. The doubling or multiplying numerals, single, twofold etc., 
consist of the Jap. noun "X, veorhe, vulgo JC , ye ore, -fold (German fach), 
preceded by the Japanese cardinals. To the* question Iku-ye (=j^|? IfC^), = how 
manifold? answer: 

-yd, single. 
Ftd-ye, two-fold. 
Mi-ye, three- fold. 
Yo-yd, four-fold. 

Itsu-ye, five-fold. 


Mu-vd (obsol.), 
Ndnd-ye, seven-fold. 

Yd-yd, eight-fold. 
Kbkono-ye , nine-fold. 
To-ye, ten-fold. 
Fatd-ye, (obsol.), twenty-f. 

Fitd-yeno fdna, a single flower (flos simplex). Ya-yeno fdna, an eight- 
fold, i. e. a full flower (flos plenus). 

The counting by pairs is expressed by the Chinese ^^ ( a ^ so PR)' t)ai 
= double, pair, in connection with Chinese numerals, thus: 


'^ ^ < i Ttsi bai, one (or a) pair. 
1 = 'fg * , Ni bai, two pair. 

, pair is also used. 



Instead of bai, 

7 , Ziyu bai, ten pair. 
7, Fiyaku-bai, a hundred pair. 
~*^ ^i ^ Js-soo, one pair. 

34. For sort numbers, as one sort, two sorts etc., serve the Chinese 
numbers compounded with the Chinese ^Ifsiyu (pron. su), which means sort, 
kind. They are, after the Yedo pronunciation: 

2/3., Is-su one sort. 

2/2., Ni-su ...... two sorts. 

, San-su three sorts. 

-, Y6- (not Si-) su . four sorts. 

, Go-su five sorts. 

tr >? i/ 2. , Rok'-su .... six sorts. 

H'tsi-su .... seven sorts. 

, Hdtsi-su . . . . eight sorts. 

, Ku-su nine sorts. 

., T6-su, etc. . . ten sorts. 

Ren-ziyak' va, wo no nagaki to mizikaki to no ni-siyu art, of the bird Ren-ziyak 
(Bombyciphora) there are two sorts: as well a long- as a short-tailed. 

CHAPTER IV. NUMERALS. 34, 35. 145 

With the termination no these substantives are used attributively: San-riyuno 
sin-too , the spirit-service of three kinds. The Japanese numerals are also used either 
compounded with Kusa, sort, kind, f. inst. Fvta-Kusdno ttutdye, HL %%%. ./ 'ftf * . 
two different traditions, or combined with the pluralsuffix rano, f. inst. 7t*urano 
koye ( -J- ^ 3L ^ )M 3 ^3 x) the fi ye kinds of vowels occuring in fa, fa, fa, XY, 
&o; sa, si, etc. etc. 

35. To express the distributive numbers, one at a time, two at a 
time, etc. are used: 

1) the Jap. adverb ^* ^ , dzu-tett, pron. dzts,= at a time, preceded by 
the Jap. numerals FM6-tsu, Futd-tsu (= one piece, two pieces), or also by the 
Chinese numerals in connection with the object counted. Dz*t*& J ) is expressed 
by ^gl". To the question iku-tsu dztdsu, jjfel 5flj, how many pieces at ft 
time? answer: 

Fttd-tsu dzutsu, h5 ^1 one piece at a time. 
Futd-tsu dzutsu, H? jj, two pieces at a time. 

Navawb futd-sudzi dzutsu fdru, one spins ropes (fdru), two pieces at a time. 
As it appears, here the accusative navawo (rope) is the objective direct to /am, 
whereas futd-sudzi dzutsu, by way of adverbial definition, is placed between the 
object and verb. - $ ?= Zl = Ht JS H ^ ^toi-mVwm *m </o 
twice or thrice a day each time. --In accordance with this is the saying: 
ofcftfeowo kodomoni Too Mydku ( @ "g" ) wo ieri-fiuri </r<* yari a*rfr ), = gire 
to these boys a Too hfydku, one piece at a time. > !;t?la't - xIl a ST%^ 
^T } ^^, Ptt6-lro ziyu-ni dan dzutxt arl-mdffi, of one and the same color, twehe 
pieces at a time are at hand. -- H = ^t| A 9 Rj %?/ ^ sfl^ ^* 
%oo fassak dzutsuno futd-kire*), two pieces of 2 yoo 8 JnA at a time (= 

Jap. feet). 

One, two, three or four at a time, when persons are spoken of, i> expressed 
by F*t6ri dzutsu, Ftodri dziitsu, Mitdri dz*t**, Yotldri d:*t*. 

1) The common written form $g ? U ineswt ' !t ' ^o^ 1 ^ to * h ^ 
to ^^. Misled by indistinct eiamples in badly printed book. w. bt. ta 
1857 , page 64 improperly adopled FUo-ds*ds* intel of FUo* *&* 

N 171 Too kigtk i. f. ..a handrtd (cwh) wortk," iMOrip- 

tion OB the new Jap. bronze coin of the period Ttm-too (tolgo Ttmfo). 

3) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 88. 


146 CHAPTER IV. NUMERALS. 35, '36. 

= how many persons at a time? (see 29.) Ko fnndni fttdri dzwtsn noritaru 
fnndkatd roku-ziyu fodo kogi-kitdri, sailor to the number of sixty, seated one at a 
time in a small boat, came rowing. 

2) In the same manner , instead of dzutsu Ate ni ( ^ T) , the modal of Ate 
is used, which means an object, that is proportioned to another, and fully 
answers to it in respect of value or quality. We consider it equivalent to per 
ration, in proportion." 

Iku-tsu ateni, $$%% uij ]/LT = ' how many pieces per ration? 
F$t6-tsu ateni, -^ Hf} ^ ^T=> one pi ece P er ration. 
Futa-tsu ateni, two pieces at a time. 
Doru itsi mai ateni yarn, to give one dollar to each person. 

36. Fractional numbers or broken numbers are expressed by means 
of Chinese ciphers and numerals. The denominator as genitive, indifferently with, 
or without no, precedes the numerator, thus ^-* PPH Y ^ P^I ^ fy 7 ^ '^i 
Kin-riyoono si-bu itsi, or si-buno itsi, i. e. one of the four parts of a Riyoo gold, 
= a fourth R/lyoo or koban. 

^jp^ fy^si Ham-bun, = the half part, the half. 

^ ^" 7 * *^ Sam-bu itsi, a third (part). 

PJ^^f*-^ ^, Si-bu itsi, a fourth. 

3t^ ^ 7 'f' Go-bu itsi, a fifth. 

^" ^ 7> '^, Roku-bu itsi, a sixth. 

-\^ fy 7 '^ SUsi-bu itsi, a seventh. 

/V? ^f*" 7 '^ Fdtsi-bu itsi, an eighth. 

^^ ^* >;7 '^ Ku-bu itsi, a ninth. 

-J-" 5f -^ 7 -^ , Ziyu-bu itsi, a tenth. 

-j-*^ -^ ^j^ 7 '^? Ziyu-itsi-bu itsi, an eleventh. 

l=f ^ ^*" ^ ' ^ ' Fiydku-bu itsi , a hundredth. 

r ^^^ 7 ^, Sen-bu itsi, a thousandth. 

^ ~J^ ^. ^>- 7 ^ , Jfe^ man-bu itsi , a then thousandth. 

' man-bu san , three ten thousandths. 

In broken numbers ^- is generally read 6w instead of bun , and therefore often , 
but improperly superseded by ^ 7 *, bu, the name of a superficial measure. 

CHAPTER IV. NUMERALS. 36, 37. 147 

Mi-tsu itsi, Mi-tsuni means one of three, two of three, properly of 
number of three, being the denominator, which is expressed by a Japanese 
meral, the partitive genitive of the numerator expressed by a Chinese numeral. 
They count further: 


Yo-tsu itsi, one of four. 
Itsu-tsu itsi, one of five. 

Ya-tsu itsi, one of eight. 
Kok6no-tsu itsi, one of nine. 
Kok6no-tsu fatsi, eight of nine. 

Mu-tsu itsi, one of six. 
Nand-tsu itsi, one of seven. 

The division of a hundred by ten is called Wari, f[i] ^, = splitting. 
"% If'K' Itsi-wari, = 10 per cent (10/ ). JVt, *w, , go trari, = 20, 30, 40, 
50/ . Ku wari, ziyu wari, - 90/ , 100/ . 

Bu, fj* r , vulgo chiefly but erroneously ^ r t is called the tenth part of 
Wari. fr^, Itsi bu, = l per cent. Ni, an, ', go 6u, = 2, 3, 4, 5/ . 

Bin, J|C^, is the tenth part of Bu. jjC, Jtiei ""t = tel Ui per 
cent (TC/O). And so further: Ni, son, si, go rin, = TV. tV 1%. tWo- H ^ 
W"J ^ ~fc 3 * ^ ^ ~' v JS v 1 Si-wari go-bu san-rin , - 45,3*/ . 

The definition , that the import duty of certain articles shall be paid for with 
35 percent, in the Regulations, under which the Netherlands-Trade shall be car- 
ried on in Japan, belonging to the Treaty of the 18 th Aug. 1859, edition of the 
Japanese text page 25 verso line 2, is expressed by ~fa ^^ : $j "^ &'$. 
_t ^ $fa A ^^i Migiva san wari go bu no un-ziyquico komu &e, L e. on the 
said articles a duty of 35/ shall be paid. 

37. Numeral-substantives, or Numeratives. 

Since the Japanese language, like the Chinese, U deficient in the gramma- 
tical distinction of singular and plural (see page 53 5), to ditinguuh what 
is enumerated as something in the singular, or in the plural an a repetition of 
singular objects, it must have recourse to certain names, which, joined to a 
numeral, express that the object, which is to be counted, is present a* 
unity so many times, as the numeral denotes. For one cannon, six cannons," 
the Japanese uses an expression answering to: tone-piece cannon, si x -piece 
cannon," in which case tone-piece" and six-piece" have the value of an attri- 
butive definition to cannon," or, in its place, is found: > cannon one-piece, 
cannon six-piece." The number of suchlike auxiliary names in Japanese is 
greater, than is really necessary. Considering objects in respect of their outward 


appearance, they are counted according to one or another noticeable cha- 
racteristic, as stags, by heads, fish, by their tails, brooms and objects with 
handles , by the handles. Hence has arisen a distribution of articles into classes , 
which are denominated either with Japanese or with Chinese names, and are 
usually indicated with Chinese characters. The Japanese names of classes are 
associated with Japanese numerals, the Chinese with Chinese. We have thus for 
one piece of wood" either the Japanese expression -^ 2j ^ s ~fo* , Fit6- 
motono ki, or the Chinese '^ 2JJv^V^' Ippon (or also Ipponnd) ki. 

A list of these classes has been taken up in some Japanese Encyclopedias, 
under the head of gj*^ -r^tS' Tsui-miyau, i. e. names which are used for 
pendants or matches; a denomination, which very justly describes the cha- 
racter of these words. The Japanese-Chinese dictionaries also contain lists of 
these words, being amassed, the Japanese under Fit6 (one), the Chinese under 
-^. '^ , Itsi, Itsu, but at the same time being mixed with words which 
indicate an idea of measure or of a quantity, as one grain of rice, one 
bale of rice. As the last mentioned properly belong to the names of the objects 
contained in the dictionaries, we limit ourselves here to those auxiliary names, 
which are alone used for fixing the idea of number, and them we divide into 
Japanese and Chinese. 

I. Japanese Numeratives. 

1. Fasira, >^^, post, column, for Kamis or gods of the Japanese myths. 
Iku-fasira , ^g ^ 7^ ^ , how many (gods) ? Fitd-fasira no kami , one god. 
Mi-faswano kami, three gods. Kono futd-fasirava kazdno kami nari, both these 
are wind-gods. Futa-fasira, here used substantively , includes alone the idea 
of both." 

Applied to statues of Buddhist saints, Fasira is expressed by ^ jjjjp ,= statue. 

Sv'^E* / W?^*ffl T ^^| 'h|]!' 1 )i one Bronze statue of Sakya- 

2. Kutsi, (U ^, mouths, for souls, that are not to be counted. Also Mund, breast. 

3. Kasira, ]p|^, head, for stags and wild boars. StM mi-kasira, or Mi- 
kasirano sikd, three stags. 

1) Nippon-ki, XIX, page 25 verso. 


4. Pami, |gf, bit, for reined horses. ATmano ftt6- (vulg. fttdtsu) ; 
one reined horse. 

5. Moto, 2f h ,Hy, pale, seat, for hunting-hawks, which are held on 
perches; for trees. 

6. Fa, Wa, ^J '\ ? , feather, wing, for birds. Kitino ftt6-va, one pheasant 
Hayabusavro futa-fa kakuru, to let start falcons by couples. Compare page 130, 7. 

7. O, JH^, tail, for fish. - - Koifitd-o, two carp. 

8. Ori, ^ftf, fragment, piece, for perch (Tan), which are offered as a 
present, and from modesty are called a small piece. 

9. Sudzi, ^JJ5^, line (from sumi, ink and cfci, way), for things that are 
long and thin. Nova, Tddzund, Tsuru, Obi fU6-sudzi, one line, one rein, 
one tendon, a girdle. 

10. Fira, |jr||| ^, spot, stretched, for things which are flat and even. 
Osi-gava fttd-fira, one piece of leather. 

11. No, ijlg 7 , breadth, for rolls of writing. Maki-mono fU6-no, one roll. 

12. Ma, ^jj^, room, for apartments. - - Ne-dok6ro /W^-ma, one sleeping- 

13. Tomaya, "^ ^ ^ v vulgo Tomaz, for warehouses. Kira fU6-tomai t 
a warehouse. 

14. Nagare, ^**, stream, for rivers and waving flags. Fnid-naffdrt tarn 
or fata, two rivers, two flags. 

15. Yeda, ^J, branch. Naginata fit6-yeda, one pike. 

16. Furl, ^^, sway, for drawn swords. - A ><nia /M<J-/im, one drawn 

II. Chinese Numeratives. 

The scope of a Japanese Grammar excludes a complete list of this numeroui 
class of idle words. For such we refer the reader, who wishes to see them all treated. 
to J. EDKINS, Grammar of the Chinese Colloquial Language, page 121 and further, 
and restrict ourselves here to those most in use. 

In the union of the Chinese numerals with a successive numeratiTe noun the 
Japanese spoken language allows itself a few modifications of sound, which arise 
as it were naturally from a rapid pronunciation, though ... writing generally 

remain unnoticed. 

The rule, which the spoken language follows in this retpect is: if the IMIU- 



merative noun begins with &, s, , or with the labial / (A) and />, then the 
numeral unites itself more closely to it, and the final consonant undergoes an 
assimilation, which has been already illustrated on page 19. 

Itsu-k . . 
Itsu-s . . 
Itsu-t . . 
Itsu-f . . 
Roku-f . 

becomes Ik-k . . . 
Is-s . . . 
T> It-t . . . 
Ip-p . . . 
Rop-p . . . 

San-f . . . becomes Sam-b . . . 
Ztyu-k ... Zik-k . . . 
Zlyu-s ... Zis-s . . . 
Zlyu-t ... Zit-t . . . 
Ztyu-f , . . Zip-p . . . 
The combinations subject to assimilation are to be known by the numeral 
^ ; e. g. ^ |g| * , pron. Ik-ka. 

No assimilation takes place , when the enumerative noun begins with one of the 
impure sounds g, z, d, which are pronounced as ng, nz, nd, or also with m, n, 
r, y and w. The characteristic of this class is the form ; e. g. -^ ^C^' 

To the Chinese Enumerative nouns most in use belong: 

1. ^^5 Nin ( '^ >\v)' m an, for persons. 

'^ > ^^ Itsi-nin^ = the Only, is applied to the Emperor (Mikado) alone. 
Bon-si ni-nin , two Bonzes. vj? s^ ^ ^ -j-* 5^ ;^ 3 J^ ^ , Siya-mon ziyu yo 
nm, ten Shamans. San-ninno onna, three women. Go-ninno kwai-kokft-nin , 
five foreigners; Kwai-kokti-nin go-nin, foreigner five persons. 

The conversational language uses for one, two, three or four persons the 
words Fytdri, Futdri, Mitdri and Yottdri (see page 145). Fttorino akindo, one 
merchant. F&tdrino siii-fu, two sailors. 

2. ^* e / f@5 by abbreviation /^ or ^r , Ka ( "^ f!|*)i the most gene- 
rally used enumerative noun, applicable to objects, which it is wished to cha- 
racterize as individuals, as a piece, answers to the Japanese ^ , tsu (page 138). 
The counting according to the Yedo-pronunciation is: 

Ik-ka , -f 
Ni-ka , ^ 
San-ka, ^ 
Si-ka , ^ 












Zik-ka , 
Ziu-ik-ka , 
Ziu-ni-ka , 2^ 2. cr 


'?> Hn $T^' Ik-ka-styo, a district (by counting). -^ J^)f^ /<SM- 

??/o (ts-so) one and the same district. :Elv y ^ v * ?> San-ka nitsi, three 
days. ^.5 ^? San-zitsu, the day three, the third day. J3j -^r 
^p^, Sikano Dai-'zi^ the four great temples. 



To show that a quantity counted is spoken of, the word Oydso 
pronounced 6y6sso, = in sum, together, is generally placed before the num- 
ber. fas + ^r ^IIT, Oy6o ziyu-ka geMi, ten months. - - fa$ - 
^ / 59 ' Oy<$ so ik-ka nenno aida, the interval of one year (in counting), i. e. 

a year long. 

3 - E$o /Eo .3ci Kki. Hiki ( E*)i objects, which are paired or 

given in pairs, as horses, horned cattle, some sorts offish, such as perch (Tot), 

woven stuffs etc. The counting at Yedo is: 

Ip-piki . . . 

. 1. 

Go-hiki . . 

. . 5. 

Ni-hiki . . . 

. 2. 

R6p-piki . 

. . 6. 

Sam-biki . . 

. 3. 

S'tsi-hiki . 

. . 7. 

Si-Mki . . . 

. 4. 


. . 8. 

Hlap-pi-lri. 100. 
Sem Mki . . 1000. 

Ku-Jdki(ski). 9. 
2ib-btki ... 10. 

A'u {p-pito .11. 

hvrmlXki. . 12. 

M'md ip-piki, one horse. Sdm-btM ufft, three oxen. - AV/< Ip-p&t, one 
piece of silk, of the length of 56 Jap. feet, or two pieces of 28 feet each. 

4. ;fg/\ Fa, vulgo Wa ( ffl") handful, bunch. Budoo, Dai-to*, 
Kari-ktisd, War a itsi-wa, a bunch of grapes, radishes, hay, straw. At YeVJo 

they count: 

Itsi-iva .... 1. 

Ni-wa 2. 

Sam-ba .... 3. 


Hltsi-wa . . 

. 7. 


ffatst-ica . . 

. 8. 


. 6. 

Ku-wa . . . 

. 9. 

... 10. 

Ziu itsi-ica (ip- 
paf) 11. 

This enumerative noun is applied to birds also (except birds of prey), and 
then expressed by $J'\ Fa, vulgo Wa, feather. -- Oo-tagi it*i-vra, a heron 
(not to be confounded with tisdgi, = hare). Ni-wa rira-*agi, two white herons. 
Sam-ba fibari, three larks. 

5. M 1 ^ Bi ( 111*0, tail, for fish. Kol, /*u, funu ifW-M, w-W, 

/ u " ' fO 

carp, white fish, stone carp one piece, two pieces. 

6. p *, Ku ( $ P *), mouth, for pots and pans. 

7. $f? , vulgo ^, Fai, Hai ( $ >^f) saucer as a measure of what 
is drunk; also a numeral-substantive for muscles. People count: 

Ip-pai .... 1. 

Ni-hai .... 2. 

San-bai .... 3. 

Si-hai 4. 

Go-hai .... 5. 

Rop-pai . . . 


H'tsi-hai. . . 


Hatsi-hai . . 


Ku-hai. . . . 


%ip-pai . . . 



%iu ip-pai ..11. 

I'M ip-pn Jl 


/in ni-lini . . 12. 

Sam-Sii-pri . 30. 


Zin min-ltai . 13. 

Si lip-pai . . 40. 


Ziu ni-lmi . . 14. 

Rok*ip-pai. 60. 


Ni-Kp-pai. . 20. 

Hiap-fxii. . . 100. 



Midzu ip-pai, a saucer or a glass of water. Tsa ni hai, two cups of tea. 

8. ^Y' Mai ( '- $C?)' Candle, anything single, leaf, for things thin 
and flat, as boards, paper, prints, coined silver, some sorts of fish etc. 

9- ^*> Pon, Hon ( -^ 2[ <), stem, stalk, handle, for trees, plants, 
in general things long and slender, which have the property of length, as a 
pencil (Fude), fan (Oogi), spoon (Tsiya-siydku), whip (Mutsi), needles (Fari), 
salmon (Sake), etc. At Yedo, they count: 

H'tsi-hon . . 


Hatsi-hon . . 


Ku-hon . . . 


Zip-pon . . . 


Zm ip-pon. . 


Ziu ni hon. . 


Ziu sam-bon . 13. 

Ip-pon .... 1. 

Ni-hon ..... 2. 

Sam-bon .... 3. 

Si-hon ..... 4. 

Go-lion .... 5. 

Rop-pon. ... 6. 

10. tfjjjfl , Tan ( -^ i^ ), a folded piece, for silk and cotton goods. Vulgo 
2$^, sometimes J v also. In answer to the question Nan dan 
how many pieces? the manner of counting is: 

Ziu si-lion . . 14. 
Ziu go-lion. . 15. 
Ziu rop-pon . 16. 
Ni-zip-pon. . 20. 
Ni-ziu ip-pon 21. 

Ni-ziu-ni lion 22. 

San-zip-pon . 30. 
Si-zip-pon . . 40. 
Si-ziu ip-pon 41. 
Hiap-pon . . 100. 

ip-pon. 101. 

It-tan . . 

... 1. 

Go-tan . . 




Rok-tan . . 

. . 6. 

Sanrdan . 

... 3. 

H'tsi-tan . 


Si-tan . 


'Hatsi-tan . 

. 8. 

Zit-tan. ... 10. 

Ziu-it-tan . . 11. 

Ni-zit-tan . . 20. 

Ni-ziu it-tan. 21. 

Si-zit-tan. . 40. 
Si-ziu it-tan 41. 
Hiak-tan. . 100. 
Sen-tan. . 1000. 

k 2J , Nuno ni- 

, piece-wares three 

it-tan, one piece of silk. ^ 

tow, two pieces of hempen cloth. - - J^ ^ (Jt* / zElv 2 

11. ^^ , Tsoo ( -^ ^X)' Candle, for tools with handles. Nomi it-tsoo, 
a chisel. So also Kiri, borer; Yasuri, file; Teppoo, gun; Naginata, pike; Sumi, 
East-Ind. ink; jRoo, wax; Soku, flat candlestick. 

12. ^7"' Fei He * ( '^ t^?)' s ^ em J handle, for pikes and articles with 

13. JJH^ , Yoo ( '^ ^^), the middle, the waist, for swords, which are 
stuck in the girdle. Tatsi, Katana, Waki-sasi itsi-yoo, one sword with belt, one 
large, one small sabre. Utsiwo, Yebira itsi-yoo, one quiver. 

14- lla.1^ ^i ( "^ ^?) cover, for hats (kasa), umbrellas and parasols 
(kara-kasa). They count as with Ik~ka: Ik-kai, 1. Ni-kai, 2. Zik-ka/i, 10. jVi- 
^-/cae, 20. Sen-gai, 1000. 



~w - 

15 - Wj' Kiyaku, Kiak ( $ )^Iv), foot, for articles of furniture baring 
feet. Tsukue, or Keu-sok ik-kiak, one desk. Siyoo-gi san-ftak, three couches. 


TSo ( !, 

swing, for trunks and traveling-articles, which 

are carried hanging on a stick. Norimono it-tso, a litter or sedan chair. Naga- 
bitsu or Naga-motsi ni-tso, two traveling trunks. 

vessel, for ships. Counting is done: 

17. | 

|, Soo 

( jm*) 

, vessel 



Go-soo . . 

. . 5. 

Ni-soo . 

... 2. 

Rokii-soo . 

. . 6. 

San-zoo . 

. . . 3. 

H'tsi-soo . 

. . 7. 

Si-soo . 



. 8. 

Kv-soo ... 0. 

Zls-soo . . . 10. 

Ziu- is-soo . 11. 

Ziu-ni-soo . 12. 

Ni-X-*>o . 20. 

-K-x>. . 40. 
HlakA-90o . 100. 

Is-soo-f&nd, one ship: Is-soo gun-kan, one war-ship. JTo-^fin/ w-*oo, one boat. 

** II 

I$i9)> a P^r f wheels, for carriages. Kuruma itri- 



^ Riyoo ( '3 
riyoo, one wagon. 

19. >jgf ^, Kwan ( $ ^?) roll, fo r writings and stuff, which are rol- 
led up. Siyo(so)-motsw ik-kwan, a roll of writing. 

20. l|j5, Puku ( -If. ijlg^), breadth, for piece-goods, pictures etc, 

21. $||j^, Ziku ( -^ ^^), axle, for pictures, which are hung on roller*. 
Kake-mono itsi-ziku, a hanging piece. 

22. || v Men ( ' lpSv) ^ ace > for mirrors, flags, fiddles, drums. Ka- 
gdmi itsi-men, a looking glass. 

23. ;JjJ-$> Sats' ( J flB"J) v ol ume for books. I*-*at*no lo-moti, one TO- 
lume. Hon ni-sats\ two volumes. 

2), for open letters, written declarations, proofr 

24. J||g, Tsuu ( -^ 
of receipt etc. They count: 

It-tsuu . . . . 1. 
Ni-tsuu ... 2. 
San tsuu ... 3. 

Si-tsuu . . 
Rok' tsuu 
Zit-tsuu , 


Ziu-it-t*nn . 



Ni-it-tuu . 



jVi'-ittt it-tsuu 


one letter. .' 

J.ftttifio lo Hoo, or 
H? W -V * or 

. 40. 
. 100. 

or 7V- 


Puu ( 

seal, for sealed letters. They count: 

Ip-puu . 

... 1. 

Go-fuu . 

. . 5. 

Ni-fuu . 

: . . 2. 

Rok-puu ; 

. . 6. 


... 3. 


. . 7. 

Si-fuu . 

... 4. 


. . 8. 

KU-/UU ... 9. 
.. . . 10. 
. 11. 
Ni-Kp-pw . 20. , 

\i-iiu-ip-pu* 21. 
San-Sip-puu . 30. 
. 100. 



^3 ^l$$ * or ^" ^ nil ^ ' Ip~P u n so-kan or te-gami , one 

?}, foot, for shoes: - Tabi is-sokti, one pair of 

sealed letter. 

26. J^ ? , Soku ( ' , 


38. Enumeration of years. 

Year, Japanese K ^, T6si, old- Japanese h'tf, Jfoe, Chinese 4^i^, .Afrw. 
1. The enumeration of years in pure Japanese is limited, on the question: 
Iku tdsd ( ^g ^ 4] .) , how many years ? , to : 
4j ^ , Fit6 ttise, a full year. 
'. ^ ^ -^ , Futd t&sd, two years. 
^ ^^^, ^/i' <Sse, three years. 
IJy 3 4^t' ^ ^s^j four years. 

itsu tdsd, five years. 

-J- h 

six years. 

2. The Chinese enumeration of years, on the question: 
how many years? 

, Nand tdsd, seven years. 
, Yd tdsd, eight years. 
, K&kdno f^ 1 ), nine years. 
, TJ Wse, ten years. 

C ' * 

^ , Momo ttisd, a hundred years. 
, Tsi fos^, a thousand years. 
T, > rp ^ Nan-nen , 

Itsi-nen, or '^ 

Ni-nen , . 

Ik-ka-nen, a year. 
Ni-ka-nen, two years. 
San-ka-nen , three 
Si-ka-nen, four 

Go-ka-nen, five 

JJy 3 ^5o ^' Yo-ew, 

-ff . 3 i^v Go-nen, . 


The Chinese si (four) immediately before new is superseded by the Japanese yo 
as they do 'nt like to speak of ^^ ^f^v? Si-nen, the year of death. 

ffiff ^ ^ p| ^ ~P^ ^v> ^ ne y ear 40 -from the accession to the throne. 
|Jt| /fe ^ ^ = t ') -^ X, Yo-tosi-meni or Yo-nen-meni nari-masu, it is now (it goes 
now in) the fourth year. 

3. The question: how old? = Japanese iku tftse (^^ J|| ^) 5 bow many years? 
is answered in the Chinese manner of counting. -p ^ -\^ \ j^jfr ^ = T ^ g = 
^^S7, Ziyu-sitsi zai nite kurdini tsuki-tamoo, in the 17 th year of his life he 

1) Vulgo Kono iose also. 



comes to the throne. - - Nl-ztyuno tosini or Tori ni-zXyuni, in his 20 th year. 

39. Chronological notation of years. 

1. Japan uses the Chinese enumeration of years, which was introduced by a 
buddhist missionary in A. D: 602 '). After this the years, as well a the months 
and the days, are counted by sexagenary periods, and named after the known 
sexagenary cycle, which itself consists of a cycle of ten and one of twelre signs. 

The cycle often series is called from the five elements: Wood, Fire, Earth, 
Metal and Water (Japanese Ki, Fi, Tsutsi, Kane, Midzti), which, each taken 
double, are distinguished as masculine and femine, or, after the Japanese con- 
ception, as the elder and as the younger brother (^Jf, 1 , Ye and j^J h , To). 

The names of the ten-series cycle are: 

1- EP / JE Kind ye. 



Y., Kind to. 
x , Find ye. 

4. T/ h , Find to. 


n' Tsutsin6ye. 

7 - 


$, / Y* Kanndto. 
z , M)de&n6yt. 
i. .1 /)</* nrf to. 

The twelve-series cycle has relation to the division of the zodiac into 
twelve equal parts, and bears the names of the Chinese zodiac, for which Japa- 
nese names of animals are used, as: 
Ne ....... Mouse. 

Usi Bull. 

Tora Tiger. 

U Hare. 

s' (pron. Taats) Dragon. 




, AT ma Horse. 

8 - 


?*' r '- 





If both series are let proceed side by side, till both are run out, then the 
sixty-series cycle is obtained, of which the first year is called Ep ^ ^ 
or Ktnfye neno ton, and the sixtieth ^ ^ ^ , or MWrimfto ino tori. The 
first year of the cycle now current answer to 1864. 

I) See Japan', Beziige mil 
j. HOFFMANN. 1839. Page 126. 

** *" **. 




i n in iv v vi vn vin ix x 






Pi I 








-*- > 












































































2. Enumeration of years by years of governments. 

In the earliest times, was added to the cyclical enumeration of years, the 
calculation after the years of government of the Sovereign (anciently ^ y -T*. 
Nin woo, = King of men, called afterwards Mikado). According to the rule 
adopted, the first year of the reign of a Mikado is always reckoned to have be- 
gun with the year following the death of his predecessor. The Japanese New- 
year's day, on which ZIN MU, the founder of the Mikado-dynasty, ascended 
the throne, was the 19 th of Febr. (after the Julian style) of the year 660 B. C. l ). 

1) After the calculation of the Professor of Astronomy, F. KAISER at eight 
o clock in the morning of the said day, there was a New Moon at Miyako. 


The second year of king ZIN MH is called jpljlf; jj A J^l jfl i^a 
jJ (IX 11) H=4t. 

40. Enumeration of years by year-names. 

In 645 A. D. the reckoning by years of government was superseded by a 
reckoning by year-names, Nen goo (f, or -77*^). 

Just as in China, these are appointed by the Sovereign, so are they in Japan 
by the Mikado, and after the lapse of a larger or smaller number of yean 
changed by him , this being one of the prerogatives of his crown. The adoption 
of his year-name pleads for the recognition of his sovereignty l ). 

The 68 Chinese words, from which the Japanese year-names are chosen, are: 

The successive year-names of the current century are: 



38: rig: I 

( Tem-poo) 
, Koo-kwa 





7t 1854. 

TC 186 - 


I I 


Addition to the edition of 1876. Introduction of the Western Calendar in 
Japan. The first of Januar 1873 (according to the time calculation of Greenwich) 
the Japanese Government has adopted the European Calendar with his twelf months. 

Therefore the correctness of the Japanese ohronology, may not be called in 
question, as is done by some bookmakers. 

1) The change of the year-names seems, in latter time*, not to btve been known early enough, M 
reckoning has heen continued with one yew-name, when another had taken iU place. 



his weeks and Sundays and fixed as the beginning of their era the year 660 
B. C., which is the foundation-year of the Mikado-dynasty. The first of Januar 
1873 was thus the first day of the first month of the Japanese year 2533 (two 
thousand five hundred and thirty three). The dating of a certain notarial Act: J 
^jK^iHH+H^H '^+3 B , is equalized there with 
^ Bfj VJ A ^E -^ M + 3L , and agrees with our 15 th Januar 1873, 
thus the Japanese still continue making use of the Nen-go ( . ^^ ). 

41. Division of the solar year. 

The course of the sun and the solar year are divided into twelve equal parts 
(months), called after the zodiac, beginning with the arc of the Mouse, on 
half of which the winter solstice falls. If the twelve arcs are bisected, the 24 
periods of 15 days 5 hours and 14 i minutes are obtained, by which the hus- 
bandman regulates his labour. These 24 divisions, called |[jf |> |jit*' Sek-ki or 
modifications of the weather, are distributed by pairs over the twelve months of 
the year , the first of each pair being called "BjJ ^ Setsu , the second Pp ^ Tsiu. 

Ris-sun ... 3 Febr. 

Beginning of the spring 

U-sui. . . . 19 Febr. 

Rain water. 

Kiyoo-tsits. . 5 March. 

Awakening of the insects. 

sun-bun ... 20 March. 

Middle of the spring. 

Sei-mei ... 5 April. 


Koku-u ... 20 April. 

Seed rain. 

Rik-ka ... 5 May. 
Begil ning of the summer. 
Seo-man. . . 20 May. 

Little plenty. 

Boo-siu ... 5 June. 

Transplanting of the rice. 

Ge-zi . . . .21 June. 

Height of the summer. 
Seo-siyo ... 6 July. 
Little heat. 

Dai-siyo. . . 23 July. 

Great heat. 

Ris-siu ... 7 Aug. 
Beginning of the autumn. 

\, Slyo-slyo . .23 Aug. 

Local heat. 
Q , FdkU-ro. . . 8 Sept. 

"White dew. 
<^, Siu-bun ... 23 Sept. 

Middle of autumn. 
a , Kan-ro ... 8 Oct. 

Cold dew. 

2 , Soo-koo . . . 23 Oct. 

Fall of hoar-frost. 

, Rit-too . . . 7 Nov. 

Beginning of the winter. 

| , Seo-sets ... 22 Nov. 

Little snow. 

|> , Dai-sets. . . 7 Dec. 
Great snow. 

^, Too-zi ... 22 Dec. 

Height of the winter. 
^ , Seo-kan ... 6 Jan. 

Little frost. 
, Dai-kan. . . 20 Jan. 

Great frost. 

The civil year begins with Ris-sun (beginning of the spring). Ris-sun yori 
fatsi ziyu nitsi me, or the 80 th day from the beginning of the spring is our 



23th of April. Time is very commonly determined after the two equinoctial feasts 
Bi-gan (ffi * j^ ), which last seven days each, the principal feast, that takes 
place on the fourth day, falling on the day of the equinox. 

42. Enumeration of months. 

Months are reckoned in answer to the question Iku-t**ki ( $fc ft J), O r 

Nan-getsu, how many months? 











'^ fty l }i Itsi-gets or -^ 
Zl = ft $ Ni-gets 
. -. ^ ft y San-gets 

"ff. 3 J-] y Go-gets 

= * 

ft r 

Tk-ka-yett, one month. 


/\ ^ 

y Fatsi-gets 
y Ku-gets 



9 months. 






9 . 


.. 12 

To the question Nan-gwaLt (^ ^ ft /), at Yedo Xan ngat*, which month? 
(of the year) the names following answer: 

, Siyoo-gwats , first month. 

(at Yedo Soo ngdtstt). 
, Ni-gwats, second 
, San-gwats, third 

, Si-gwats, fourth 

, Go-gwats, fifth > 

a^ ft ' Sttti-ittrut* , seventh month. 
^ '4 ft ''"t" eighth 

[, ^ ft , K>i-,,>i-,,', . ninth 

"if ft , /%u-(/>*t'>i)-,nr.>t.*, tenth > 
""o^^ ^ ^ , Zin-it.i-,ncat*i eleventh 

" i '- ~ ^ , %>n-ni-tnc<ti.i , twelfth > 

These names are good for the intercourse of every day life; in chronological 
writings and in almanacs the months are also named after the sexagenary < 

The intercalary month. As the civil year of the Japanese is a lunar year 
connected with the solar year, the mouths continually In'gin with the new moon 

RokU-gwats, sixth 

l) Itsi-gets, = a whole mouth. 


and have 29 or 30 days alternately. Thus to the common lunar year belong 354 
or 355 days. To keep the four seasons even with the revolution of the sun, 
every two or three years an intercalary month (Uruu-dznki) is added, which 
obtains the name of the moon, which it follows, preceded by the word Uruu 


(ypl ; ^). The intercalary month following the second month is thus called 

^m^ t=t 7 

ypi'V ^JaZi Uruu nigwats, = supernumerary second month. 

,7 x 

43. Enumeration of the days. 

The natural day, from the rising to the setting of the sun, is called in 
Jap. U, Fi, Hi; the night 5, Yo; the midday Firu\ the midnight Yoru. The 
compound Firu-yoru, - day and night, means the civil day; it is equivalent 
to the Chinese j|i -$C Y > Tsiu-ya, and, just as it, applied to the astronomical 
day also. 

In connection with the year and month, the civil day is called Jap. Ka, 
Chin. Q ^ ^, Nitsi (or Zitsu); both are used in counting the days. 

1. After the Chinese manner they count, with or without the numerative 
jjgj* or ^, ka, to the question: $jj^% $ *, Ikn-ka, how many days? 

'^ Hi* ? ' lk-ka nitsi, 1 day. 

""", ~ HH* 3f, Ni-ka nitsi, 2 days. 

lElv HI* ? ' San-ka nitsi, 3 days. 

ptj ^ j|j=j * ^ i Si-ka nitsi , 4 days etc. 

after the reckoning with the numerative j|f}*, ka (page 150): 

. v ~HI^ : t^ PJ v ra : *' 0^ y ^^ Sanziu san-si-ka nitsino aida, 


within 33 to 34 days. 

If the numerative jgj * , ka , is left out , the Si-nitsi (4 days) , because it also 
means dying-day, is superseded by the Japanese Yok-ka; for 14 days is said 
Zfyu-yok-ka, for 24 days Ni-ztyn yok-ka, for 34 days San-ztyu yok-ka etc. 

2. The Japanese manner of counting, which extends only to the first ten 
days , and to the 20 th and 30 th , refers to the days of a month , when the month 
is expressly named previously; this not being the case, the counting must then 
be considered to begin from another given date, which however is not included 
in the calculation. 

The days of the month, - - it generally begins with the new moon, are 
called, after the question: Idztt-ka ('fnf^ *), = which day? or Idzureno fi-kal 




? 01, 




' ? tt * 

? P i 




' * . P ft 
R ' 




rai 0*, 




^ ^ n * 

JL-7 P * 




-i-A p * 
./^i p ' 

Muyu-kd, vnlgo Mui-kd. 



"Ta5? i 

Nanu-kd , Nan6-kd. 







;t x 0*' 









^, Ziyu-itsi'-nitsi. 



+zl = 

Q ^, Zfyu-ni-nitsi. 




^, Zfyu-san-nitsi. 



+ i?Hl 

*, Z^u-yok-ka. 



+ 3 ' 

jj!, Ztyu-go-nitsi. 


- +5? A? ?. 
1 ^L r ?i 
" +^ * f 

p ^ ^, 
H = ^, 

Ht ?i A T -%i*-*n-m/*t. 

= , 


L-S^ rt = 

^ T P f-' 

A/ rj s 
f" M ^f 1 ' 

-J 9 rt = 

xu P -f , 

Q *, Mi-so-ka, of Sui-lryu-n. 

Tstii-tatsi , properly Tstiki-tatsi, signifies the moon's rising; the first day is 
called also Tsttki-gdstra , head or beginning of the moon. The first day of the 

T '', H* ^ v 

year is called jrj * ,y, Gwan (or (ran) '#*, or Fax! me no fi. The old* Japanese 
-^ a ( *) means daylight; Fi, as Chin. Q ^, Nitri, means sun and day. 
Still to be noticed, are the expressions: 

^ v , Sdkti-ya, last night. 

|r, Sdktt-zits, yesterday. 

5 J, Sdktt-ten, 

^v, Sdktt-tsoo, yesterday mor- 
^. J, Saku-kon, yesterd. and to day. 

before yesterday. 

, ^, JTon-n&ri, to day. 

i, to morrow. 

^ g ? , Wlyoogo *H*i, or 

v, the day after to morrow. 
JyM:a (^J *) rf deki-rndsHkd, in how many days can it be done? 
Ni-fiydkil nit si utside deki^ndsn, in two hundred days it can be done. - 
idzuka (ff * fa B$ . -?- fl^,) rnadeni delci-mdrtkaf till (on) what day 
can it be ready? Ku-gwata* fatsti-ka modem dtki-makx), on the eighth day of 
the ninth moon it will be ready. (Shopping- Dialog***, page 9.) 



If Ka or Nitsi be followed by ^ * , Me (see 32) , then this expression 
is equivalent to an express definition of the day by an ordinal noun of number. 
^Y ?> Mai-nitsi, is said for: daily; ^7 5^, Kaku-zitsu, the next day but 
one; M^-ka-meni, on the third day; Mi-ka-me g&t6ni fatsuru nek-ki, a fever which 
arises (recurs) every third day, the tertian ague. Kon-nitsiyori yok-ka-meni, 
on the fourth day from to day, to day as the point of departure from which the 
date is reckoned, not being included in the calculation. Yddo mukdsi yok-ka-me 
gtitdni itsi tdtsisi nari, at Yedo, market has been, of old, held every fourth day 
(or every four days), thus either on the 4 th , the 8 th or the 12 th , or on the 1 st , 5 th 
or 9 th day etc.). Muika-meni deki agarimasta, he accomplished it on the 6 th day. 
"^ , -J-* x ; fU- PH ^ ^* * ^ ^ * = i San-zm san si ka nitsi me ni , on the 
33 rd or 34 th day. 

44. Notation of hours. 

This dial shows the two methods of marking the hours in use in Japan. 



I. According to one method , the original Chinese astronomical , exhibited on 
the inside of the dial, is, as is seen, the civil day divided into twelve equal 
portions of time (^p^, Toki, times), which are named after the zodiac, as 
^PJ B$ Neno doki, Mouse-time, -ftt-KJpf, Ustno doki, Bull-time, etc. At 
Yedo they say Kok instead of Told. The Toki is divided into two halves; the 
first is called ;$J |", Styo, = first beginning, the second, j^, 5, = the true 
or proper. Each half, being equivalent to an hour according to our reckoning, 
has four subordinate divisions, called 5^lj?, Kok or notches, each of 15 ^> 
Bun (=15 minutes), and the Bun has 60 ^T^, Meo (60 seconds). This cycle 
begins with the -^rj P*jf Neno doki or Neno koku, the middle of which 
(IE?) fall 8 a t midnight; thus its beginning falls 60 min. before, its end 60 min. 
after midnight. 

^p* / fl^pjj: Nen6 dok{-, Mouse-time. 
J$]}fsfyo, = 11 o'clock in the evening. 

sei, =12 o'clock midnight. 
,/ H^fe Usind doki, Bull-time. 
J" siyo , = 1 o'clock in the morning. 
sei, = 2 o'clock > 

, Tiger-time. 

= 3 o'clock in the morning. 
= 4 o'clock * 

, Hare-time. 

siyo, - 5 o'clock in the morning. 
sei , = 6 o'clock 

ffifc 4f Tai*un6 doki, Dragon-time. 

HtJ -v 

s^wo = 7 o'clock in the morning. 
sei, = 8 o'clock 

, Serpent-time. 

in the 



i, = 10 o'clock 

, Hone-time. 

, = 11 o'clock in the morning. 
TF :$ , =12 o'clock noon. 

^p ^ JFtt9tLzln6 doki, Goat-time. 
yo , = 1 o'clock in the afternoon. 
, =2 o'clock > 

** B^F^ Sarfind c/^ti, Ape-time, 

w ***J ^ * 

^ rfyo, = 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

sei, - 4 o'clock > 

V ' Bj Ton wd rfdJW, Cock-time, 
f ^ Yyo, = 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 
sei, =6 o'clock 

& f 7ii n<5 tloki , Dog-time* 
tiyo, = 7 o'clock in the evening. 
Mi t =8 o'clock 

i. Swine-time. 

, = 9 o'clock in the evening, 
i, =10 o'clock 

Our 11 hours 48 min. 2 sec. before midnight is expressed by ^ f7/ : . 


Hlv %A? "l ^ v ^"v '- ~ ^"^ Neno styo san-kokft san-bun ni-meo, i. e. 
3 X 15 + 3 min. -f- 2 sec. from the beginning of the Mouse-time. Our 12 o'clock 
midnight is ^"5 5E?i A r <?wo s; our 12 o'clock 15 min. after midnight ~y*/ 

IE? tffl^l^A?' ^Vwd sei sfo/o &o#. 

2. The second method, the Japanese proper, supersedes the names of the 
zodiac with numbers, by which the hour is made known by strokes on the 
bell or drum. The civil day retains the division into 12, or properly 2X6 times 
( B^: T61ti); the T^M however is subject to the decimal division into 10 ^l]^, 
Koku (notches), which are also called ffi^_ B UH (tenths), the Bun into 10 

HI' Rin. The KokQ, or Bun is now = 12 min. The numbers which have been 

added to the successive twice six Tokis, are from midnight till noon 9, 8, 7, 6, 
5, 4, and the same from noon till midnight; these numbers are obtained, when 
the number, which should properly belong to a Tdki, is subtracted from the 
number 10; thus 10 1 = 9. The numbers 1, 2 and 3 are not included in the 
hour-numbers, as 1, 2 and 3 strokes on the drum or clock belong to the signals 
of the military and convent service, and a confusion of the two signals has to 
be prevented. 

The newest information respecting this notation of hours does not quite agree 
with the notices of it formerly obtained, and people in Japan itself, it seems, 
do not reckon more consistently. Therefore we confine ourselves to the clocks at 
Yedo. There, at 12 o'clock at noon, the clock strikes 9 J ), and the Japanese calls 
this time Firu k&kon6tsu doki, = noon, time of the nine number, or in short, 
K&k$n6tsu-d&M ', or Konondtsti, or even M'mano k6kti. From 12 to 2 o'clock accor- 
ding to our reckoning of time he counts 10 Bun and calls our 1 o'clock in the 
afternoon Firugo Jctiktindtsu han ddki, = afternoon 91 time, or. in short, Firu 
ktik8n6tsu han] our 2 o'clock Firugo yatsu-doki, or Firuao yatsu, or also Fitsuzino 
kokil', our 3 o'clock Firugo yau han, etc., till after the end of the fourth Toki, 
at midnight the clock strikes nine again, and beginning with Yoru kdkon6tsu 
dtiki, the other six Tokis continue till noon. In consequence of this , for the Ja- 
panese Tokis the following definitions of time are obtained. 

1) First a stroke is heard, about a minute afterwards a second and immediately after that a third, being 
the warning. A minute later the strokes of the hour follow, each stroke with a pause of 10 or 12 seconds, 
except the last two, which follow quickly on each other and show that the clock has finished striking. 



JL ) 



,, TORU or TO, at night. 

, KokVnfant-d8t{, Qth time, 
= 12 o'clock midnight. 

i Kdk6notsn-han, 9 , 
= 1 o'clock after midnight. 

, Ydtsn-doki, 8* time, 
= 2 o'clock after midnight. 

vj Yqu-han, 8 , 

= 3 o'clock after midnight. 

, ARE, in the morning. 

, N&ndtsu-ddki, 7* time,. 
= 4 o'clock in the morning. 
v, N&ndtsu-han, 7j , 

= 5 o'clock in the morning. 

, .^.O, in the morning. 

, Mmsu-doM, 6th time. 

= 6 o'clock in the morning. 
v , Mutsu-han , 6 J , 

= 7 o'clock in the morning. 

2. , ASA, in the morning. 

Itsutsti-d&ki, 5 th time, 
= 8 o'clock in the morning. 

= 9 o'clock in the morning. 
X, FIRU MAYE, in the fore noon. 

|, Y6t8*ttok(, 4th t i m e, 
= 10 o'clock in the morning. 

= 11 o'clock in the morning. 


* K6k6n6lsurd6ki, 9* time, 
= 12 o'clock at noon. 

= 1 o'clock in the afternoon. 

^ FIRU GO, u the iftaraotM. 

Ydttt-doH, 8* time, 
= 2 o'clock in the afternoon. 
l^M-Aan, 8|, 
= 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

$, TUU. in the eremmg. 

N&ndtri-dtH, 7* time, 
= 4 o'clock i n the afternoon. 

= 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 

^, rrJZlT. in the rtaui ( . 

M*t*u-<l6k(, 6k time, 
= 6 o'clock in the erening. 
AfStrt-ban, 6|, 
= 7 o'clock in the erening. 

70J?[7. or 70, it aifhu 

lt*ut**-dQk(i S* time, 
= 8 o'clock in the erening. 

= 9 o'clock in the eTening. 

4* time, 
10 o'clock in the erening. 

= 11 o'clock in the eTening 

In agreement with the preceding definitions are the notices of time, occuriug. 
in the Shopping- Dialogues page 17, after the Nagasaki original, page 42, where 
is to be read: -JL \ >y ^&Bf 3 *) -fct & 5^2 & 2 - ZBtoitrfton Aon 


dtiki yori nandtsu made utsini, between one and four o'clock." /V^ ^pv 
B=5f: ^^'^, Yau-han doki goroni, about three o'clock." 

On the contrary, not in agreement with it are the notices, occuring in 
R. BROWN'S Colloquial Japanese, Grammar, page XL VIII, where -Neno kokonotsu 
doki is made equivalent to 10 o'clock in the afternoon till 12 o'clock midnight, 
and also the other Tokis begin 60 minutes earlier, than according to our notice. 

The measurement of the Tokis fixed according to our hours, is, nevertheless, 
alone of value for an equinoctial day, and change (they become longer or 
shorter) in proportion as day and night in the different seasons are of unequal 
length. Thus each of the six Tokis from the longest day, if this day including 
the morning and evening twilight be reckoned at 17 hrs. 58 min. (notices are 
found which differ from it) has 2 hrs. 58 min. The Japanese almanacs contain, 
every 15 days, the definition of the changeable length of day and night, and the 
time-pieces are regulated accordingly, therefore they are so adopted, that the 
hour-ciphers are on loose plates, which are shifted, whilst the division of the 
hour-circle into Koku or Bun, as also the cyclical division of the zodiac is fixed. 
The changing of the hours is called Tokiwo utsusu. 


The Japanese measures and weights, as well as the coinage are for a great 
deal reckoned after the Chinese decimal system, with which, as a rule, the 
Chinese names are used, preceded by the Chinese numerals, both modified by 
the Japanese pronunciation. 

In consequence of the modifications, which since 1850 the Government at 
Yedo has introduced in the measures and money, the definitions here given differ 
from those given by us formerly and will, probably, sooner or later undergo 
modifications again, when people, in Japan itself, have agreed about the prin- 
ciple of the measures, viz. about the Japanese foot and its proportion to the 
French metre or Netherlands ell. 

45. Measures of length, Sasinome. 

, S&ku, foot ( -^ /^.%> Is-sdku, one foot), the iron foot (Kane- 
sasi, vulgo Kane-sdku), used by work-people, generally bent to a square and 
therefore called the bent foot ( $] 3 /^^ Kiyok-sdku], the unit of the Japa- 
nese measures, formerly (1831) was found by nice comparison with a standard- 



metre to be = 0,303 metre or 0',11'Ml'" of an English foot, since 1850 fixed by 
the Government at Yedo at 0,30175 metre or 30,175 centimetre, the metre being 
reckoned at 3,28889 Japanese feet. At the observatory at YeVlo the Netherlands 
ell or French metre is reckoned at 3,308 Japanese feet (KaneldJe*) '), whereas 
the Japanese Department of Marine has adopted 3,289248 Japanese feet for it 1 ), 
and a manual published at Nagasaki 3 ) gives 3,31 Japanese feet as the measure 
of the Netherlands ell. When, in 1864, the manufacture of some comparative 
measures was ordered of A. VAN EM DEN, by the Nederlandsche Handelmaatschappg ," 
the Japanese foot was fixed at 0,3035 Netherlands ell. 

For piece-goods, except woolen stufls, a whalebone foot (0[ 
zira-sdku) is used, being = 1,25 iron feet. 

Divisions of the Sdku: 

H ( J 

-y-J, Sun ( $ 

#, Bun ( J 

jf 2,, Rin ( 4 

j^$, Goo ( 

gz*/ Si ( t 

/|y|\ ' 

tgjf , JSTo ( J 

Jap. foot. 


= 0,30175 


= 0,030175 


= 0,0030175 


= 0,00030175 


= 0,000030175 

0,00001 = 0,0000080175 
. 000001 : = 0,00000030175 

Multiples of the 
fflt pj J, Ken ( - 

(1,8105 metres); as measure for piece-goods 6,5 
Zoo ( J ptf, //4oo) f = 10 K 

street ^* " 

measure of dwtanoe = 6 
(3,0175 mtot). 

(108,63 metres). 

ffl '', Bi, Japanese mile; 


mile. = 36 TV. Tho 

1) From a communication by OONO YASABUIOO, inOromttt-mkBr to U 

2) Introduction to the Japanese traction, publi.hcd at Yo in 1854, of , ^ ;- 
het onderriyt in de Zee-arlil^ir. Delft, .832. The Ulk .f lh. work b. ^ Jfc. % |R 

Kai too bo.*iyut* zen tyo, or ,,the book on Marine artillery ." 

Numbers. First part, N. 2. Nagauki, October, i60." PT 


or streets, = 3910,68 metres, if the Japanese foot is reckoned at 0,30175 metres. 

According to the Treaty between Japan and America, concluded in 1858, Art. 7, 

the Japanese Ri is = 4275 yards (the yard at 0,91438 Neth. ell), thus = 3908,9745 


N. ells, whereas it is said to amount to 33 BTp 48 ^ 1 ^ 5 ft . 

In the Japanese-Russian Treaty of 19 Aug. 1858, Art. 8, on the contrary the 
Japanese Ri is made equivalent to 3 wersts 332 saschen, which gives to one 
Ri 3908,68192 Neth. ells. 

46. Superficial measures. 

i. e. a square Ken, or ~^j ^ ^, i. e. 6 square feet (3,27791025 square metres). 

lfe* o SX* o Bjfc*' Se ( b lfe* F*M a rectangle of 6 Jp r Pu 
length and 5 Pu breadth, = 30 square Pu. 

Jg , Tan ( '$!:>> JT-to)i a plane of 20 Pw length and 15 Pu breadth, 
= 300 square Pu. It-tan is the regular plane of a rice-field. 

~f_ ^* 

BJj'v, Tsao, Tsoo ( -^ STf v ptj -^ , It-tsoo yomo), a plane of 60 PM length 
and 50 Pw breadth, = 3000 square Pu. 

47. Measures of capacity (Masttmd) for dry and liquid wares. 

^p3, Soo, Sao ( ^ ^p^, Js-soo), unity of the measures of capacity, 
formerly distinguished by Europeans with the Malay name Gantang, is 0,49 Jap. 
feet long and broad and 0,27 Jap. feet deep, containing 0,064827 Jap. cubic feet, 
= 1,893365719029 cubic decimetres, or 1 litre, 8 decilitres, 9 centilitres etc. 

Subdivisions of the Soo. 

ffi 3 ' "0*^ Go-goo, pron. go-ngoo, a measure of 5 -p^$T Goo, - % ffiz &oo 
full 9 decilitres. 

, Ooo, pron. vtgoo ( -^-f, /<' goo), = ^ ffi's &oo. 
v, formerly -^ v*, Siy&ku , pron. dktt ( % ^J *, Is-sdku), - T ^ 5 ^f- "^00. 

- 3 * f G ' s^y^u-? a measure of T |^ *oo, or | f. 

7^^, formerly ^j? and |gj, Sai ( $ ^!f, Js-saz), = T5 W ^^ Soo. 

Multiples of the /&>o. 

^.^ ^ ^, Go soo, a measure of 5 ff"|f&0i =9,46682595145 cubic de- 

^v, Pioo, or Tawfcra ( -^ ^^, Ip-pioo or Ftt6-tawdra) ; a sack or bale 
(rice), at present contains ^tx^v^^i 3 *^*^ 01 ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^J- b , To, formerly ^ h ( J h , /Mo), as vessel Tomdstt, = 10 


^ = 100 

^ ?, G6ku (pron. ng6k*) , formerly ff * ( J 
, or 189,3365719029 litres. 

.Remark. The fixed salaries of Government functionaries are based on the 
quantity of rice, which is allowed them per year or per day, and which is 
paid in money according to the market-price. The money value of a g6ku 
(5) in 1865 /12.50 Netherlands currency, or according the Japanese 
exchange^ * ^= ^| H= ^, i. e. 2X/5 + 2 X/1,25. -- "ff J 
5? l^jj Fdkn g6ku takdsa is an income of 100 Kok or /1250 Netherl. 
currency. The pay of a common man ( J 
or 6 cent(!) a day. 

48. Weights, Hakarime. 
-ft , Sai ( J^-?, JwKri), = 
^, vulgo ^, Sak' ( 5 -^ 
-g^f, Goo ( >f, J te - 5,00), = T ' 5 /f-J JK,,. 

/Tv Kin ( ' /Tvi Ik-kin), the Japanese pound, called by Europeans 
(c.), weighs according to former notices *) 0,6 kilo, according to the latest 
definition 2 ), 0,597 kilo. They reckon, at Yedo: 

Ik-kin . 

. . 1 ct. 

Rok-kin . 

. 6 ct. 

Ni-kin . 

. . 2 

S'tsi-kin . 

. 7 


. . 8 

Hdtsi-kin . 

. 8 

Si-kin . 

. . 4 

Ku-kin. . 

. 9 

Go-kin . 

. . 5 

Zik-kin . 

. 10 

Ziu ik-kin . . 11 ct. 
Ziu go-kin. . 15 
Ni Zik-kin. .20 
^W ziu ik-kin, 21 > 
.50 > 

Hiak'-kin, lOOfl 
Sen-gin, 1000 
Man-gin, 10000 


3L ^ -f" ^ JT t ' o ziu kin, = 50 catties (ct. 50), or half a picol (pi. 0,5). 
W^" /f*v Hiak'-kin, = 100 catties or a picol. 

2. Silverweight. 

Unity: Mon-me, pron. Momme , from ^* J/>, = farthing, and Q^ .I/*, 

= eye, means characteristic, i. e. weight of a farthing. The signs used for Mon-me 

are -^ v o ^t-f.'-^jfo ^f xi, /^j^' abbreviated forms of the Chinese $$') 

Sen, = farthing. In stead of Mon-me, in connection with some numbers, only 

pj x , 1/0 is used. The Europeans have therefore adopted the name Maoe, Dutch 

1) PH FE. VON SIEBOLD, Nippon- ArcKitf t DivuioD IV. 

2) Ban-go tiyoo in, see page 167, note 3. 


Maas. One Mace ( -^ ^ v , Itsi monme, or ^^ B *' Itsi-mp, or ^f!, 
'M!? ^|v> &i n is-sen), weighs 3,74799 grammes and has, as T l o Tael, if the, 
Tael is counted to be equal to /1, 60 Neth. cour., a value in silver of / 0,1 6 N. c. 
The Mon-me is divided into 

10 fy^i Fun, vulgo condrijn, conderein, cent. 
100 ^v' Rin, vulgo cassie, cash, mokje. 
1000 %f, Moo. 
10000 jjjj * , Hots, vulgo wassie. 

Itsi mon-me ni fun, = 1,2 Mon-me, or 1 Mon-me 2 condrijn. A7 mon-me 
san-bun, 2,3 Mon-me. San-mon-me si-fun go-rin roku moo, = 3,456 Mon-me, 
or 3 mace, 4 condrijn, 5 cent (or cash) 6. 

^L 3 ' ^ vX ' Gto-mon-me, = 5 mace or half a tael. 

-f"i > '^ v* , Ziu-mon-me, = 10 Mon-me or 10 mace, the weight, which, in 
silver, makes the immaginary coin Tael, Dutch Tail, = 37,4799 grammes, value 
in silver / 1,60 Neth. cour., being according to the Japanese text of Art. 12, 
alinea d of the Additional Articles to the Netherlands-Japanese Treaty of 30 Ja- 
nuary 1856, 6,25 ^v = /l,00 Neth. cour. 1 ). 

With Mon-me they count further: Ziu-itsi mon-me, Ziu-ni mon-me, Ziu-ku 
mon-me (19 mon-me), and in the tens (20, 30 etc.), and in the hundreds, thou- 
sands , ten of thousands , etc. supersede Mon-me by |=j * Me ; thus ~"*, = -p ^ 
j| *, F'^r'yu me, 20 Mon-me. \ , ptj ^ ~f"!T B ^' San-si-ziyu me, 30 to 
40 Mon-me. "H^ ~\^i '^ '%{^i Ku-ziyu itsi mon-me, 91 Mon-me. 


"Q v p * , Hiaku me, 100 Me or Mon-me, - 10 taels or 374,799 grammes, 
or /16 Neth. cour. 

Jff B *' Kwan-me (at Yedo Kdm-me), *? Af Q ^ Ik-kwan-me, or 
one rist (1000) we = 100 taels. 

^ v ^ ^v 5t ^ l=f v B ^' San-gwan go hiaku. me , 3500 me or 350 taels. 

fo? Jt^ B"*> Zik kam-me, 10 rists or 10000 me, = 1000 

Bvi7 W? B^> Hiak kam-me, 100 rists or 100000 wfc,= 10000 
~ -'^ v * 

^ t Jf ?, B ^ ' Sen ngam-me , 1000 rists or 1000000 me, = 100000 
Sv W5" B^> Man ngam-me, 10000 rists, =1000000 

I) In the official Dutch translation instead of it we find : ,,De zilveren Spaansche mat of pilaar-mat wordt 
gerekend tegen de waarde van /2,50. De Mexicaansche dollar tegen /'2,55 Ned. coor." 


The Yedo Pound (ft* fi $ >jj*< frl, Ytdono ik-kin), being = 16 taels 
or fj ^ -f- g| , 160 Mon-me or Me, or Sen, weighs 160 X 3,74799 grammes, 
= 0,5996784 Neth. pound, for which in the above quoted Ban-go gyoo-in >about 
0,597 N. pound" has been given. 

!ft ^^ Itsi-zi, i g| Sen or 3/ofi-m, is = ^= # IL' M2-^- 
/wn #0 rin weight. 

49. Iron, copper and bronze coins. 

The unit is , Mon ( -f* ^^, /* mO n) , the smallest exchange coin, 
in circulation ^ &m (= Chin. Trien), Japanese also Zeni, and called by the 

Europeans cash, pitje or duit. The Mon has a value in silver of one M ? . 

ft i ^ 

.Rm, and 100 pieces (U| 3fcB, #*'&* wow) are reckoned at one Mon-me or 
mace of silver. The exchange however varies, being reckoned in the town* of 
the Taikun only 96, and in the countries of princes at one time more and, at 
another less. 

The cents with a square hole are strung upon straw-ropes to the number 
nominally of a hundred , representing the value of one Mon-me or mace of silrer. 
Ten such strings joined in one bunch, are called $ JJ? ^fcj, Ik-kwa** 
mon (at Yedo Ik-kam-mon) or one string of cents, and are worth one Uel or 
10 Mon-me of silver. JH = ^"^ ^fcvi Nihcan-mon, two taels; ^ \ UT 3fc* 
San gwan-mon, three taels. 

The copper coins, which generally bear for superscription a year-name bcjkka 
the word j^ ^ Tsu-boo, = money, generally have the value of 1 Afon; never- 
theless there are larger also, of the value of 4 and of 5 Mon (^^ $* tilt. 
^L^^vli!) andof 2X4 or 8 Mon (^ H^^t>SlS' JVi mow ). 

The new hundred Mon-coin," ^ ^ ^, Too took* MM, of tiie name-Talae 
of one Mon-me (f 0,16 Neth. cour.), was first cast in the Oik year Ten-boo (1885) 
at Yedo, with the superscription ^ ^ jjfa f Ten-boo T*wt-boo. 

50. Silver coins. 

The unit of the silver coins is the pff v Riyoo, pronounced by some M 

$&t %^- ffi" H^ ^ Ht #v^' > on6 % of 
= 4 Mon-me or mace 3 FM or condrin, thus 6&A cents Neth. cour. 10 Riyoo of 
silver, according to the old coinage represented by an oval iflver lamp (/fa-^ar*), 
which has been called ^T Mai (vulgo by the Dutch, schuitje, = little boat), 
must have 43 Mon-me (- 1 tael 4 mace) silver- weight 

The obloug coin with the superscription ft S&t. Itai btt in ^ rst caa * "* 


1837, has been found to have a value of/ 0,80 5 Neth. cour., is nevertheless 
worth 33 Dollar-cents or 84 T 'o S o cents N. c., and according to the temporary Dollar 
exchange more or less also. The weight of the pieces is unequal; there are some 
of 8,61 and others of 8,81 grammes. 

The smaller square coin of silver with the superscription ~^. ^^ Is-su gin, of 
which 4 go to an Itsi bu gin, first cast 1854, is worth 8 Dollarcent, full 21 cents N. c. 

51. Gold coins (under the Taikun government). 

The unit is the pjjjj v Biyoo. ^ ^ *jj^ -f PPH i ^ n ^ riyoo , or one Riyoo 

of gold , is represented by the /\\ a ^lj ', Koban , which in virtue of its stamp 
is current without being weighed. According to the coinage then in force the 
Riyoo of gold or the Koban was worth 60 Mon-me of silver, or / 9,60 N. c., and 
divided into halves, fourths, eighths and sixteenths. 

An oblong gold, but properly silver and lightly gilt coin with the super- 
scription ""*. ^ Ni pu, first cast in 1818 and declared worth in silver 30 
Mon-me (f 4,80 N. c.) represents the half Koban. 

The Koban is an oblong coin with the superscription ft Itsi pu, for which 
it is customary to write -^ . Its value is 15 Mon-me or 1| taels (f 2,40 N. c.). 

The | Koban is represented by an oblong coin of silver and gilt, with the 
superscription ""*. ^ Ni su, for which in general Nisi is said; the newest cast 
in 1859, are worth 16 dollarcents or 42 cents N. c. 

The Y5 Koban, also a small silver-gilt coin, has the superscription ;TJ^ 
Is-siu, which is called Is-si. 

Addition to the edition of 1876. Recently after the legitime heir of the old 
Mikado-dynasty has resumed the reins of his empire his government has adopted the 
gold-standard of which the unit is a Yen || J vulg. ffi J being, according to the sta- 
tement of Mr. STANLEY JEVONS 1 ), only three per niille less in value than the American 
dollar. The gold-coinage consists of pieces of twenty, ten, five, two and one Yen. 
The inscription of a two-yen-piece in my possession is ^ [jj 2j OJ] yjpf . ^ 
'. HU Dai-Nippon Mei-dzi San-nen Ni-yen, Japan. 1870. 2 dollars. The new 
fractional money of Japan consists of fifty, twenty, ten and 5 Sen (^^) pieces in 
silver , the Sen corresponding to a dollar cent and in pieces of copper of 2 , 1 , I and 
Sen or one rin M , . 

1) Money and the Mechanism of exchange by Prof. W. STANLEY JEVONS. London 1875. 



52. The adverbs in Japanese which, as such, always precede the word 
(verb, adjective, or adverb) that they qualify, are, so far as their origin is con- 
cerned, to be distinguished as: 

I. Adverbs proper. 

1. Primitive adverbs, such as: Ma, truly, perfectly; Tto, rery. 

2. Adverbs ending in ktl (in the spoken language simply u), formed from 
adjectives in ki (p. 106), as Haydkii, early; Osdkfi, late. 

II. Improper adverbs or adverbial expressions. 

1. Nouns with or without the modal case ni or de, included among which 
the adjectives in ki (p. 106, />), ka (p. 116 13) and yaka (p. 117 14), prorided 
they are used as substantives concrete. 

2. Verbs in the gerund, i. e. in the modal case, charncteriied by to M: 
Sadamete, definitely; KessltJ, certainly; Kakite (kaitt), in writing. 

If, for convenience, we distribute the Japanese adverbs and adverbial expres- 
sions in groups according to their signification, we shall get at: 

53. Adverbs of quality, to the question: how? 

1. Adverbs in ku, derived from adjectives in ki (see p. 106, 9, B. 2), M: 

174 CHAPTER V. ADVERBS. 53, 54. 

Y6kU, Jtli 7? i n the spoken language You, Y6o, well. (See p. 112. II.) 1. 

Yordsiku, ^j[.a*/?, Yordsiu, well, good. 

Wdruku , ^L ^^ t Waruu , bad , ill. 

Haydku , jj||3 ^ , Haydu , Haydo , quickly, 

Osdku, jley?* > Os6u, Os6o, slowly. 5. 

Kdtaku J||| # 7 1 * * Kdtau , Kdtoo , hardly , with difficulty. 

"T^" / w 7 v> IT ^* T/' / ! 

X dSH/Ctf' . >v7f *7 >7 i ^ ^ ^ * CtSHM 63.S11V. 

*^C/ /s / J / 

Kuvdsiku, ^^^^,/7, Kuvdsiu, neatly, exactly. 8. 

2. Adverbs in ka, with the terminational ni (see p. 116, 13): 

Sidzukdni, i^V"-, calmly, in stillness. 9. 


Tsurndbirakdni 0^^^ ^ -, clearly and distinctly. 10. 

Sumiyakdni, J^^^=, quickly, swiftly. 
Tasikdni, ^^^=, certainly. 

Tamasakani, ^ ^ , by chance, fortuitously, accidentally. 
.Dan-danni, J^ v V i => ^J degrees, gradually. 

Zen-zenni, ^fv V i = ^J degrees. 15. 

Soro-soro , Soro-soro to , ^=f* Q V ^ Jl!l > ^7 degrees , gradually. 
Yara-yara, slowly. Yara-yara yuku, to go slowly, saunter, lounge. 
Mu-sdto, $f A ^^ -' Musd-musdto without forethought, in confusion, in 
opposition to Kuvdsiku, exactly. 18. 

$ 54. Adverbs of degree, in answer to the question: in what degree? 

The expressions cited in 23 and 24 p. 130: Ma, quite; Itsi-dan, wholly; 
Ikanimo, in all respects; Mo, still more; Odkini, very; Sukosi, little; Nao, once 
more so, so much the; lyd, ~iy6, again so; Mdsu-mdsu, more and more; Fana- 
fada, very; Mottomo, utmost; Ito, very; Itdtte, utmost, highest. 

Besides these: 

Ikura, Nani-fodo, 'fnf = ^* h w much? in what degree? 19. 

Dore-dake, Dore-fodo, how much? 

*? 4" 

Dono-kurai ooki , 'jnif ; '^ g ^ 1 1 how much ? 


Yo-fodo, ^ 3 jgf'; ^ma'n, ^5, too. (See p. 136 28.) 

Mina, ^^, together. Subdte, ^3;^ ^|$i Tonto, in all. 

Osi-ndbete , iffl (, g^ ^ ^ , altogether. 06 kini, very. 24. 

CHAPTEB V. ADVERB?. 54. 175 

Koto-got okn, J^h^j.?, a ^ oy er, entirely. 

Nokordzu, ^fiXfjg?, without surplus, without exception. (See p. 59.) 

Mattaku, ^y^?, wholly, perfectly. 

Ippaini, ? ;jg? = , full, abundantly. -- Tppanni, ^ JB=, full (to 

the brim). 

Is-soni, y H^-, together successively, altogether. 29. 

Kdtsu-te, ffify ^ T , wholly, entirely. With a subsequent negation, by no 
means, not at all, e. g.: Kdtsute wakaranai, it is by no means intelligible, Kdtrtte 
mairu mai, I shall not go at all. 30, 

Kdtsu-gdtsu, H % \^ f, wholly. 

KdtsU-mata , fl * /jj> ~% fl, * ^^ >[ , so much the more. 

Yo-keini, ^ 3 ^|"^=, in a greater degree, more. 

Iydsikiim6, ^ij ^ */? ^ 'ftjjt, so much the more. 

S&i-bun, ^g frZ, proportionably , pretty, tolerably. 35. 

Zfyu-bunni, "pi 4^v = > ^Uji quite. 

Itsi-bunva, -^ fy?/Ki partly. Wadzukani, 'Hl^as, scarcely. 

Mabarani, ^^^-, sparsely, in a scattered manner, here and there, par- 
tially, thinly. Stik6si, ty?}^, not much, little. 

Oydso, pron. oydsso, /t,3yi i n sum > together; very nearly, about 

Tdktisdnni (at Yedo),y/5.^ |Ilt = richly, abundantly, in multitude. 40. 

Tai-soo, ~fc* 7tt> excessively. Tai-soo ooku, far above measure. 

Tai-tei, C? ftc|, / in general, more or leas. 

Stikdburu, ^rv P r e% tolerably, for three fourths of the full measure. 
Stikoburu flsdsi, it is pretty long ago. 

Yo/odo, 3?# H, contracted from Yoi-fodo, pretty. 

^_ jt 

Tsiyau-do, pron. Tkoo-do, |8Jj S F ' not f * K, proportionately, rawonbly, 
just. Tsiyau-do yoi, it is just good. 

Fotondo, ^g* H, almost, nearly, scarcely, hardly. Sortva/otomdo tor?*, it is 
hardly enough. Moppara, ^5 1? one ^y mere ^7' 

Fodo-fodo, Naka-naka, (ff J V i almost 

SukumStkum6 o6kHm6 ndku, ty'fy + 9 * ^J^trjr* neither Iww nor more. 50. 

176 CHAPTER V. ADVERBS. 54, 55. 

Tsito, Tsitto, ^"^o jjj?5 j- ^P*- a little. Tsitomo, as little as possible, with 
a subsequent negation, not in the least. 51. 

Yau-yau- (yoo-yoo-) sitd, scarcely, hardly; almost. 52. 

Bakdri, jf#, merely, only. Kore bakari, only this. 
Fu-soktini, ~J\*? A^.% => no ^ enough. 
Be'tstim, J^|J^f_, in particular, particularly. 55. 

55. Adverbs of circumstance. 

Mti-ydkttni ^ A 3nL? =-1 va i n ty- Mtiddni, ^# = , in vain. 56. 

Ayamdtte, jlp^.^^, by mistake. 

Ukegatte, ^^.yy.^., -willingly. 

Kononde, jjft^/ vf* (contracted from Konomite), gladly, willingly, readily. 60. 

>< ^ 

Tasinde (= Tasimite), (^ i^^-, gladly. Nerigoroni, j^^ni gladly. 
lya-nngaramd , against the grain, reluctantly. 

to \~ * > 

Tomoni, y ^5 ^, with, together, alike. 

Itsuni, Fttdtsuni, '^=, together. 64. 

Ondziku, |^ t- j? 7, in the spoken language ftnaziu, together, at the same time. 

Tada, ^ ^ P|| , only, alone, but. Tada san ka nitsi nomi, or Tada san ka 
nitsi bakdri, only three days. 66. 

Saye, ^i ^-^, originally park, enclosure for cattle; used adverbially it limits 
the idea exclusively to what has been mentioned immediately before and answers 
to but, as it is as much as the Lat. modo only. Sono na saye siru, to know 
by name only. Ki-den to saye mausu, say only: Sir." Sakewo nomi saye- 
suru mono, some one, who does nothing but drink spirits. Sakewo nomi saye 
surdbd, yevu, if one does nothing but drink spirits, he gets drunken. 

In connection with a subsequent negation Saye is equivalent to not even, 
Lat. nee quidem, e. g. : Mma saye nakari, there are not even horses. Sono na 
saye siranu, not even to know by name. Zi saye mi-sirdnu mono, anyone who 
does not even know the letters. 

Dani, %=-, cognate to Saye, as an adverb, has the word to which it exclu- 
sively limits the idea, before it with or without inflection, e. g.: Ima dani nanori 
si-tamave, assume but for as yet a name. Ima sibdsi dani ovase nan, now it 
will only last a short time. 68. 

CHAPTER V. ADVERBS. 55, 56. 177 

Surd, x 9, even, German, sogar, indicates that an unexpected predicate is 
emphatically given to the subject of a sentence, e. g.: Kudki sura kari-kovo 
kuvase tamavu, even the qneen has silkworms fed. Rare rura tore wo tirdnu, 
he even does not known this. 

Kata-gata, ^, single, alone. 70 

Suku-ndku-tomo, ^*? t ^ h ^, at least. Sukunqu Atemo tan lea get**, at least 
three months. Sa-naku-tomo , at least. 

Ndru-dake, J^^^t?, if possible. 

Ze-hi, Jj^* ^*, so or not so, in any case; necessary. Ze-hi fefei-maioo, 
I shall do it in any case. 

Don bo-don , ^ ^** gjf , either active or not active, = in any case. 74. 

To-mo kdku-mo, h'Efc^'E, To-mo kau-mo, n**<e, however, in any case. 
Also To-kaku, [^ b ^^], if possible, synonym to Ndn^dake. - To-kaku 
itsi-yauni ndru-besi, if possible it should happen in one and the same way. 

Fu-ini, ^ 7 ^1, suddenly, at once. 76. 

Tama-tama, ^ % \ , unexpectedly, by chance. 

Sai-styo ni vd, ^ ^ tfj\ |^ = />, firstly. 

Dai-itsi ni vd , ^p ^ ^ _ ^ , > 

Dai-ni ni vd, ijj % "~^ - _ , secondly. 

Itsunivd, '^ = ^, partly, on the one hand. Afatd, ^5 a ^ 80 ' 81. 

Mata itsunivd, ^^ '^ = r, on the other hand. Itdtiuvd maJtoto, mdfa 
itsunivd itsuvdri, on one hand truth, on the other falsehood. 82, 

Ndkabdva,. ^p * ^, half. Nakabdva . . . , ndkabdva . . . , partly . . . , partly . . . 

Sarani, J^* _, again, anew. Kasanete, again. 

A^OTZO fokdm, 3jLy [$= further, farther. 

-Sowo ti,yeni, ijt^ _h^. = , besides; moreover. 86. 

56. Our adverbs of place and space, such as of, by, for, in, after, on etc. 
are generally expressed in Japanese by connectives expressive of relation, whiih, 
when they are accompanied with another definition, have the latter before them 
(see Introduction p. 44, 15, B. 1.); e. g.: yt or he, = wards; A'ofro-y*, hither- 
wards; yori, = of, out; Kotsira yori, from here. Since compounds with ad verbs of 
place, belonging to this group, have been already treated at pages 81, 82, 83, 
we confine ourselves here to a mere citation. 

Dokoni, where? Dokoye, whither? Dokoyori, whence? Doltonimo, wherever. 87. 


178 CHAPTER V. ADVERBS. 56, 57. 

Idzukunzo, Dotsira, where? Astikoni, somewhere. Atsira, anywhere. 88. 

Kdsikdni, there. Kokoni, Kotsira, here. 

Kono tokdroni, here. Sono tokdroni, there. 

Yosoni, elsewhere. Yosoye, to elsewhere. - Yoso kara, from elsewhere. 

Ta-siy6, pron. Ta-so, 'ftlJ,* jtk^n elsewhere. 92. 

Besides these, for the definition of place and space, come under notice: 

Amdneku, ^ li,^. ?, everywhere. Siyo-siyo, pron, so-so, j|| ^ ^ \i everywhere. 
Tsikdku, J^lS ?> near - 

Tooku, ^,^7, far; Yen-fooni *||,v >!?=' ^ ar> ^5. 

Is-soni, 3> Jj/fn'^ at or to one and the same place. Is-soni yuku, to 
go with, to accompany. 

Nakani, or Tsiu, pjj_, in the midst, amidst, amongst. , 97. 

Utsfni, Urdni, pfcj = , within. Fokdni, Sotoni, ^[^ = , without. 
Mayenij Sakmi, g^X = 5 before. Usirdni, Atoni, Notsini, ^g4=' behind. 
Uydni, _t-, above. Sitdni, ~JC^ = , beneath. 100. 

Sdbdni, Katani, Katawarani, ^Jx=> near, at the side, beside. 
Migini, >|^_, to the right. ffiddrini, ~fa % ij = , to the left. 
Mavdrini, ^3^ >j =, round, around. 
Guru-guru, around. Gururito, round about. 

Mukdini, fy%^~, against, opposite. Ai-tai, ;j|J ^j"^ opposite. 105. 
Yokoni, Yoko samani, ^| f = , across. Nana-meni, ^j*t ^ = aslant. 
Sudzi-mukdvini , X^A*ii=, vulgar. Suzi-kaini, almost opposite. 107. 

57. Adverbs of time, to the question: when? how long? 

Itsnzo, 'fnf^ H\5p y *i when? [zo, an emphatic suffix.] 108. 

Itsu-ka, -jof $ Q *, what day of the month? See p. 161. 

Itsumo, ^JX^^ ^^ ffl > whenever, ever. Itsudemo, whenever, always, ever; 
with a negative verb, never. Itsu made mo, always. 110. 

Imd (imd) ^^, now. Imani, ~^ =. ^^1 now. Imdyori, g ^ ^^> 

Ima-made, ^-^^f'? hitherto, heretofore. 

Ima-madeva, contracted ~imdda, in the spoken language usually Mada, ^j!|, 
hitherto, still, Lat. adhuc; in connection with negation included in the subsequent 
verb, not yet, C,- 113. 


Tadd-Vma, ${** ^ lfl ^ fa ?fc, j*st now. 114. 

Maye-kata, gf'X^fl' Mae-kata yori, beforehand. -- Madzu^ Q^, first, 

beforehand. I-raiva, \fy ^ ^" i since. 

Haydkti, JJv^ -^ > Hayau, Hayoo, 1. soon, very soon; 2. early. 

Mo-Mya , Mo-hay au , contracted JH/oo , already. 3/bo kairi-de gozaiimdtikd, 
do you go again already? 117. 

Os6ku , jj$j, ^ ^ , late. 

^4r# tokini, ff , once, at a certain time. 

Tsikd-goro, jfcj a & i ^, lately. -- TAkd-d#kd-ni , shortly, speedily. 

Mtikdsi, ^^ "^f, of old, formerly, of yore. Mttkdri yon', of yore. 

Inisihd, ^4*1 ^^, of old time, formerly. 

Tsuini, ^^ = a * * ne en< ^' finally, at last; ever; with a negative verb, 

Sikirini, ^|^t)=5 every moment, without ceasing. 124. 

Otte, i&* ffi)^> afterwards, consequently; late, henceforth, = tono not*i. 

Ottskt, Hr -? - ^o ^|J ~Jt , forthwith, immediately, directly, = ntgum, at-no naL 

Suguni, \ji^ = , directly, straight. 

Zikini, ]SJ=, directly, forthwith. 

Sibardku, ^jljj^??, in short, shortly, quickly. 

Yau-yaku, Yoo-yaku; JDfJv?' ^J degrees. 

Tatsi-matsi, JJL| ^f? e #> at once directly; suddenly. 

Y agate, lp|J>ffii^ suddenly. 

Soku-zini, iP^ 8$^=, directly. 

Ftodtik*, y(+*/7, long. Hisd-bitd, long ago. /SwWi Ao, long ago. 

Sai-zen, ft? "|0v j 118 * now - 

Kore-kara, hereafter, thereupon. 

jjfe-^o, _ |ttj^, henceforth, in connection witli a sub0equent negation, 
no more. 

SfoWra, ^t?'= o B' already. 

Ktuni,. ^C^=, quickly, hastily. 

Tslyoto, TWtto (^3^ b), vulgo TUito, "$.$ g h , once, for a moment 
* 3 t-* *, just hear! Tsidito matfi nasare, wait a moment! 

Sono toki, ? B$, then, at that time. 141. 



Sono notsi, lj/ ^|4' thereafter. 142. 

Notsi-kodo, ^|f ^*' by and by. Notsi-notsi, later. 
Kono i-go, & / JSl Y H ^ after this. 

Kono-goro, ^^ a there, then. 145. 

./Tcwo Ao^o, J^J / JJSL^I shortly, lately. 
Konoaida, Jfcj ?$% # $ ? MY**' shortly. 

Sakini, {? ^~ ^ \& vltf'> Before, the time that has immediately 
preceded the present, just now. Mo s&k6si sakini, a short time ago. 148. 

Saki-goro, ^J 31 a > lately. 
Saki-hodo, ^Q^ ^ij*' J us t now, presently. 150. 

Definite notices of time like to-day, yesterday, to-morrow etc. are expressed 
by nouns with or without a previous adjective definition, e. g. : 




^ Kon-nitsiwd; -^^ Q 7 , Keo, Kioo, this day, to-day. 
^", this morning. 152. 

|> Kinou, ^/7 (contr. of Sakino fi. "^0? K ), yesterday. 

Sdktt-gdtsu , |f|: ^ 


* , last month. 

,, last year. 155. 

5 * > ^ morrow. Asu-made. till to-morrow. 
Miyoo-nitsi, $%*? ?' to-morrow. Miyoo-nitsino jiru, to-morrow noon. 
Miyoo (nitsino) 050, to-morrow morning. Miyoo-ban, tyj +, $&,i to-morrow 

Miyoo-getsu, I^J f^ ^ ^*, next month. 

Miyoo-nen, Hfj ^v nex ^ y ear - 

Miyoo-go-nitsi , ^ ^ 3 " ^ the day after to-morrow; also Asatte, 

Akeno tosi, Akuru tosi, tyj%-/ ^1^1 nex t year. 

Akuru fi, tyj^n/ u , to-morrow. 

^ v the year still to come, the next year. 
^ ^1^1 nex t month. 
_, by day. 

^f*v= Ya-tsiu, ^^ Pp^? at night. 

For adverbial definitions, to the question: how often? are used: 
1. the repeating numbers cited in 32, p. 143: F%t6-tabi or Itsi-do, once; Futd- 
tabi or Ni-do, twice; Futd-tabi mi-tabi, twice, thrice, continually, etc. 




CHAPTER V. ADVERBS. 57, 58. 181 

2. Mareni, ^gf ^ = , seldom. 168. 

Suku ndki tokiva, 4^1} f ^ $f , M seldom. 

06 ki tokiva, ^>3U ^^/., often. 170. 

Ori-6ri or yori-yori, R*f^ \ {, now and then. 
Ori-fuzi, :$H fjf Bj |jf , from time to time, now and then. 
Fu-tosite, ^p *j^j*, sometimes. 
SiM-sibd, $jb%\, often. Setsn-setau, fff $ V it often- 

.^w* * I " I ^ 

Tabi-tabi, Jj^^ V i> a ^ every turn. 175. 

jftmm/ m, ^| = ^g, generally, always. -- Ts&n6-dz*nt, continuaUy. 
OUt&ddsiku, :$y*z^*/>?, manifold, often. 177. 

58. Adverbs of manner, indicating the form of thought or speech, in 
which the speaker represents the idea expressed in the predicate. 

1. Affirmative. 

H&i, -f, with its variations: hdhi, Az, vulgo hdi, /m, yea. 178. 

Sa-yoo, ^r^ ^Hl^? contracted Soo, so, thus, considered more polite than 
H4i. Soo mdsoo , it will be so. 

Stkdto, ^I'j-, certainly, truly. 180. 

Td&bani, ^s^^=> certainly, truly. 

Makdtoni, Zitsuni, ^Jf^=, in truth, truly, forsooth, indeed. JMtiMni, 
jE?=, indeed. 

Geni, or Geni-geni, jjjjf \f {, evidently, doubtlessly. 

K&sttdj $$ rffi T'J surely; with subsequent negation: by no means, not at all. 

Ari-teini, ^7 } ^|=, solidly, to the purpose. 

Ktit6, ^| |^ h , certainly. 

Fit-zen, Jjfc$ ft$ ?' certainly. Fit-dziyoo, i)fr$ ^v, certainly, definitely. 

Itsi-dziyoo, -^ ^v^5" definitely. 

Ka-ndrazu, $%?%, certainly, doubtlessly, without doubt. 

Motsi-ron, Mu-ron, Ron-ndku, Roti-n$u, jfl$ jjft, = do not reason! = without 
contradiction; not to be contradicted. 

Sappari, + ? >< ') , in all respects; with subsequent negation: by no means. 
Sappari-. . . . sezu, to do by no means. 

Tyu-zen, Too-zen, @^ ^ J, properly. 

leasaka, ~%ft$. + ^, in -short. 

Sasuka, Sasukani, {^-, notwithstanding. 



2. Negative. 
liye, -f > ^c, vulgo iiya, no. liya-iiya, no, no. 194. 

Remark. The negative: not, expressed in Japanese by n, as a rule, is included in the inflection of 
the verbs, by which a peculiar negative conjugation arises. 

Fu-sinni, ^ 7 
Fu-d6-site, ^ 7 |j 
3. Optative. 

Doozo, -jfiif f 2^ 
hear though! 

Negavdkuvd, Jp 

v = , uncertainly, doubtfully. 
b */T suddenly, by chance. 


^, though, than, Pray! Doozo, kikareyo, hear, if you please, 


^ro though (contracted from Negai, wish, and Ivdkuvd, 
so as they say), so as one wishes. (See Shopping- Dialogues p. 11.) 198. 

4. Supposing. 

Makotordsiku , probably. Ta-bun, ^>% fy^, perhaps. 199. 

Tokini yottevd, Kotoni yottard, perhaps, according to circumstances. 
Zi-gi ni yori , ^p ^ ^ ? ^^ ^ , or ^i'-^fi ni yotte or yottard , if time be favo- 
rable, according to circumstances; under favorable circumstances. 201. 

Utdgavurdkuva , 5*E % #* 7 ^ 7 />> probably. 202. 

Zon-bunn6 st-dai, ^ ffi-^C / ^F^^'^i as ^ think; also Zon-bunni sita- 
gatte. Zon-bunno si-dai siyo-mdtsti ari-mdsuka, are there books also? 

59. Adverbs connecting propositions, such as nevertheless, however, 
since they are conjunctional adverbs, are treated in the Chapter VllI on the 



The numbers correspond with those placed after the adverbs treated in $ 53 59. 
Asu . . 
Asia . . 

Ai-tai . . 

. 105. 

Akeno tosi 

. 162. 

Akuru ft . 

. 163. 

Akuru tosi 

. 162. 

Amdneku . 

. 93. 

Amdri . . 

. 22. 

Ari-teini . 

. 185. 

Am tokini 

. 119. 

Asatte . . 

. 161. 



Atsira . 
Bakdri . 


Bdtsttni . . 55. 

Don bo-don 


Dai-itsi ni vd 79. 



Dai-ninivd . 80. 

Doozo . . 


Dan-dan ni . 14. 

Dore-dake . 


Dani. . . . 68. 

Dore-fodo . 


Dokoni. . . 87. 

Dotsira . . 


Dokonimo. . 87. 

Ftddri ni . 


Doko ye . . 87. 

Firuni . . 


Doko yori. . 87. 

Fisdsii dto 








Fkdsttot . . 134. 

Ippai ni . . 


Kon-nitsi . . 151. 

Mo-haya, -ha- 

Fit-dziyoo . . 187. 

Ippan ni . . 


Kono aida . 147. 

yau . . . 117. 

Fttdtsuni . . 64. 

Iraiva . . . 


Kono goro . 145. 

Moo 117. 

Fit-zen . . .187. 

Isasaka . . . 


iTono hodo . 146. 

Moppara . . 48. 

Fodo-fodo. . 49. 

I s-so ni . 29, 


Kono i-go. . 144. 

Motfi-ron . . 190. 

Fokd ni . . 98. 

Itsi-bun va . 


Kononde . . 60. 

Mi-da ni. . 56. 

Fotondo . . 48. 

Itsi-dziyoo. . 


Kono tokoro ni 90. 

Mttdi nt . . 105. 

Fu-d6 site. . 196. 

ItsUdemo . . 


Kore-kara. . 136. 

Afatdn. . . 122. 

Fvr*i ni. . . 76. 

Itsu-ka . . . 


Koto-gotokH . 25. 

Afikdti yori. 122. 

Fu-sin ni . . 195. 

Itsumo . . . 


Koto ni yottard 200. 

ATfiiui*!^. . 57. 

Fu-soku ni . 54. 

Itsu ni . . . 


Kotsira. . . 89. 

.VMTI.W . . 190. 

Fu-tosite . .173. 

/fs# ra'va . . 


ftfaOrftt,-** 8. 

Jfrfti-miuifo 18. 

Geni , Geni-geni 183. 

Itsu zo . . . 


Mabara ni . 38. 

lfato. . . 18. 

Guru-guru . 104. 

lya-nagara mo 


Mada . . . 113. 

M+ydt*m . 56. 

Gururito . . 104. 

lydtflk&md. . 


Madzu . . . 115. 

Nakabdca . 83. 

.ff&, //a . -178. 

Ka-ndrazu . 


Makdtoni . .182. 

Naka-naka . 49. 

Haydku . 4, 116. 

Kasanete . . 


Makotordrtki 199. 

A^a m . . 97. 

Haydu . 4, 116. 

Kata-gata . . 


Mareni. . . 168. 

Nana-mtni . 106. 

Sayoo . 4, 116. 

Kdtakn . . . 


Masani . . . 182. 

Nani-fodo. . 19. 

H&, Hthi . 178. 

Katani . . . 


Matd. ... 81. 

N6r&-<iake . 72. 

Hi . . . . 178. 

Kdtqu . . . 


Mata its&niva 82. 

H7 / 1 _/ . AA 

AftgovoJcu to 1 1*. 

Hisd-bisd . . 134. 

Kdtoo . . . 


Mattakt . . 27. 

Nenyoro m . 61. 

Xi I'SCtSvlC'Ut XOTT. 

Katawara ni. 


Mavdri ni. . 103. 

JVbAom. . 26. 

Idzukunzo. . 88. 

Kds1k6 ni . . 


Maye-kata . 115. 

Notn-hodo . 143. 

/M/a .... 194. 

Kdtsu-gdtsu . 


Maye ni . . 99. 

Notfi'in. . . 90. 

liya-iiya . . 194. 

Kdtsu-mata . 


Jfigri wi . .102. 

Hotfi-notn . 143. 

/*y .... 194. 

Kdtsu-te . . 


Mina ... 23. 

OHtadMk* . 177. 

/Woo . . . 137. 

Keo .... 


Miyoo-dta. .158. 

M fa h . '-." 

Ikura ... 19. 

Kesa. . . . 


I/ - ; !"" 

Oo-kata. . . 44. 

i //in . . . .111. 

Kesstte . . . 


Miyoo-gM . 159. 

0<Mhm ... 42. 

Imdda . . . 113. 

Kinou . . . 


M\yoo-go-nitti 161. 

OJ*i lofo'ra . 170. 

Ima-made. . 112. 

Kioo .... 


Miyoo-nen. . 160. 

On-y*^i . . 17i 

/wu nt . . . 111. 

Kitt6. . . . 


Mttei . . 157. 

OnWri. . . 171. 

/ma yon . . 111. 

K in ni . . . 


> no <iM 158. 

Orf-mifete. . 24. 

Inisihe 1 . . .121. 

Koko ni . . 



0fetf. . 5, 118. 



Os 6u, Os6o . 5. 

Sono toki . . 141. 

Ta-^o ... 92. 

Ya-bunni . . 167. 

Otte .... 125. 

Sono tokdroni 90. 

Tatsi-matsi . 131. 

Fa^rafe ... 132. 

OttJU . . . 126. 

/Sono ueni . 86. 

Tau-zen . . 192. 

Yara-yar.a . 17. 

Oy6so ... 39. 

00 . . . . 179. 

To-kaku . . 75. 

FdVfiJfe*.. . . 7. 

Rai-g fasti . . 165. 

Soro-soro . . 16. 

Tokini yotteva 200. 

Fasww ... 7. 

Rai-nen . 164. 

Soro-soroto . 16. 

To-mo kdku-mo 7 5 . 

Ya-tsiu. . .167. 

Ron-ndku . . 190. 

&-&>. . \ .93. 

Tomo ni . . 63. 

Yau-yaku . . 130. 

Ron-ngu . . 190. 

/Sbtoni ... 98. 

Tonto . . . 23. 

Yqu-yqu sitd. 52. 

Sai-s^yo ni vd 78. 

Subfae . . . 23. 

Tooku . . . 95. 

Yen-fooni. . 95. 

Sai-zen . . . 135. 

Sudani ... 138. 

Too-zen. . . 192. 

Yo/odo . . 46. 

Saki-goro . . 149. 

Sudzi-mukdmni\. 7 . 

Tsikd-dzikdni 120. 

Yo-fodo . . 22. 

Saki-hpdo . . 150. 

Suguni . . . 127. 

Tsikd-goro. . 120. 

Yo-kei ni . . 33. 

SaMni .- 99, 148. 

Sui-bun. . . 35. 

Tsikdku. . . 94. 

Yokoni. . . 106. 

Sdku-gfasu. . 154. 

Sukdburu * . 45. 

Tsiyoto . . . 140. 

Yoko-samani. 106. 

Sdku-nen . . 155. 

Sukosi - . . 38. 

T'Sfcfeto. . . 140. 

Fi&M.. ... 1. 

Sdku-zits . . 153. 

Suku-naki toki 169. 

Tsito. . . . 51. 

r^ ..... i. 

Sa-ndku-tomo 71. 

Sukundku m6 50. 

Tsitto . . . 51. 

Yoo-yaku . . 130. 

Sappari . . 191. 

Suku-ndku-tomo 71. 

Tsiyau-do . . 47. 

Yoo-yoo siti . 52. 

Sarani . . . 84. 

Sumiyakdni . 11. 

Tsiw .... 97. 

Yori-yori ,. .171. 

Sasuka . . .193. 

A ST/ *y*^/ o v 

Ts6ito . . . 140. 

Yorosiku . . 2. 

$a?/0 ,- . . . 67. 

Suzi-kai ni. . 107. 

Tsoo-do . . 47. 

Yordsiu. ^ .. 2. 

Sa-yoo . . .179. 

Ta-bun. . . 199. 

Tsm'm . , . 123. 

Foso ^ara . 91. 

Setsu-setsu. . 174. 

Tabi-tabi . .175. 

Tsumdbirakdni 10. 

Yosoni ... 91. 

Sibardku . . 129. 

Tada. . . . 66. 

Tsftnt-dzund . 176. 

Yosoye ... 91. 

Sibd-sibd . .174. 

Tadd-ima. . 114. 

TsUne,ni . . 176. 

TOM , ., ., ., 1. 

Sidzukdni . . 9. 

Tai-gai ... 42. 

Ukegatte . . 59. 

ZG-III ... . 73. 

Sikdto ... 180. 

Tai-soo ... 41. 

Urdni . . . 98. 

Zen-zenni . . 15. 

Sikirini. . . 124. 

Tat-to' ... 43. 

Usironi. . . 99. 

Zi-gi ni yottara 201. 

/Sftdm . . . 100. 

Tdkusdnni . 40. 

Utdgqvurdkuva 202. 

Zi-gini yotte. 201. 

Siyo-siyo . . 93. 

Tamasakani . 13. 

[J'j'Q't Wf Mo 

Zikini ., * .128. 

o&a m . . 101. 

Tama-tama . 77. 

Uydni . . . 100. 

Zitsuni ., .. . 182. 

Soku-zini . . 133. 

Tasikdni 12, 181. 

Wadztikani , 37. 

Ziyu-bunni . 36. 

<S0wo fokdni . 85. 

Tasinde. . 61. 

-TTdrufe* . .. 3. 


/S0wo noise . 142. 

Ta-styo . . . 92. 

H/ /7*?/ ?/ 
t rtr.*CI(7 ivCv 4 * *-'* 

dai . . . 203. 




60. Our prepositions which show the relation, in which the chief idea 
of a sentence stands to other objects or ideas, are superseded in Japanese bj 
postpositions. We call them words expressive of relation. 

Chief among these words are the inflections (see Chapter I, p. 61), ris: 

-^, ve, he, or x, ye, e, = wards, to. Dative and Tenninative (see p. 68). 

= , ni, = with relation to, in, to (see p. 68). 
K, to, = to (see p. 70). 

- , ni; T, te, Local, Modal and Instrumental (see pp. 68, 


, j 

= 7" , nite ; 7" , de (pron. nde) , J 70). 

5 >; , yori; #2, kara, = out of, from. Ablative (see p. 71). 

61. All other relations are expressed either by: 

1. nouns which, as such, are declinable and have the further attributive 
definition, as genitive, before them, as Yama Uy4 or Yamano 9y4, the topmost 
of a mountain; Yama tiydni, on the top of a mountain; or 

2. verbs, which being, either in their radical form, or in the gerund in *, 
te, in proportion as they "govern the accusative, the modal, or the dative have 
their object with the inflectional termination 7 , iw>, or =, m, or ^, w, before 


them, indifferently, whether this object is a noun -substantive or a verb used 

62. Nouns, used as expressive of relation, are: 

1. Uv6, uye, _t^. 8 j:> 1) above, upon (with reference to a place). 
Tsukdno uv6ni kiwo uyuru, to plant a tree upon the grave. Tsukdno uveno 

ki, a tree upon the grave. Aru uydni mata fttotsu, above which there is 

still one. Kono tiydwa deki-masdnii, - what is above that, does not happen, 

= more I can not give for it 1 ). Sono uyewa nai (or ari-masdnti) , there is 
nothing above that 2 ). 

2) upon, after (with reference to time). 

Gin-mi (or Taddsi) no tivd fattowo motte bassu (8^-^ f^f* 2 " ( or j^H" " ) ' K ^. 
$f3 )$<, Y ? J^i^T ittf?*)' upon inquiry punish according to law 3 ). Un- 


ziyau nou-saino uvdvd ($j^/ \~ t 7fS$J */ ^^^/ _t^->0' upon payment of the 


duty 4 ). Sina-monowo uke-totta ftydde (dai-kinwo) age-masoo, after having 
received the goods I shall pay (the price) 5 ). 

L i* 

Chinese compounds with r v ziyqu, zoo, upon. 

ill v _tx upon mountains. ^^ JlX' u P ori clouds. -- J^ ^ JlS'' 
upon the throne. J^t^ _t ^ ? upwards, prior to a time, = sore yori mave. - 
San nen i-ziyau, prior to three years ago. 

2. Sitfc, ~f^^, beneath, under, below. 

Sitd~ni sitd-ni, down! down! = kneel! Sitayori waki-idzuru midzu, water 
springing up from beneath. Sdkuno sitd, what is under a foot measure, the 
divisions of a foot e ). Wat&kusiva andtayori sitdde gtizdru, = I am beneath 
you, I am less thou you. 

Chinese compounds with ~f**o^ ^* 

^v ~T** ^^ ~T*^ Ten-ka, U-ke, what is under the heavens, under 
the firmament, the earth. J&^ ~f^^ under (in) the earth. |_Lj vl^^i 
San-ke , the foot of a mountain. Jj[ ^ ~JC * , = /Sono ato , after , since. San 
nen i-ka, three years since. 

1) Shopping-bialogties , p. 38. 2) Ibid. p. 29. 

3) Treaty f. 1858. Art. V. al. 2. 4) Ibid. III. 6. 

5) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 13. 6) Ibid. p. 29. 


3. Mave, Maye, vulgo Mai, lHfX.2 (of ma, eye, and w, side, direction), 
before, local or temporary. 

Matsu-maye, - before the pine-trees. Yei-ziwo mtnJno martni takavete im- 
you su, she holds the suckling to the breast and suckles it. Itm-ka mat urst 
m, a year previous ') - - Kaviko idzuru mayeni, before the silkworm comes 
out. Go nen yori mave, - from the fifth year forward, i. e. before the fifth 

Chinese compounds with j^"i> zen, before. 

v|0v before the front of. P*| * |f*;, before the door. - J# f |frf. 
previous to. Kono fi-giri aruiva tono i-zen nite mo, at this date or even earlier *). 

4. Notsi, ^gf , (from no, back, whence mUti, retreat, and ft, place), be- 
hind, after, with a definition of time, refers to a time which is behind, with 
reference to the present, future, 

Kaze okiru notsi, after the rising of the wind. Kaxega fuL-ite noirf, after 
the wind has blown. Sono notsi, thereafter. I ma yori oyoto ^iyu/atn ha jstsi 
no notsi yori fttdtsu minatowo JiraktL bdgi, after the lapse of 18 months from now 
a harbour shall be opened 3 ). - - ^ ^ , }% Y fa *", from now for the future. 


5. Omote, ^Qf ^, the face, the countenance, the fore-side, before. 

6. TJra, 1||! >ji)J!. the internal, the inside of a garment; the reverse of a 
coin; the opposite. 

Iy6no urd, the inner side of a house. Ur&m won no trd nan', disgust is 
the reverse of inclination. 

7. TJsiro, ^2x> after. 

Yamawo usironisi, kavawo omotenitu, (the Tillage) has moan tains for back- 
ground, a river for fore-ground, = it has mountains behind and a rirejr before 
it. Also the inside of a garment, as reverse, is called uriro. 

8. Saki, ^\ lU , point, with reference to time, beforehand, past 
Sakino tosi, a former year. Sakim, earlier, before. -- Go nm baUri told 

yori o, only since the last five years. J^jl* jfcj, soii/ yon beforel 
first! after you! 

9. Ato, gltT- t ft}, footstep; behind. 

Fttono atoni tsuite yuku, go behind any one. Amo ato afterwards. 

1) Treaty Art. X. .L I. 8) XI- ' ) * "- 


10. TTtsi, pj| ffl. within. 

lydno utsini arti, to be within the house. Kiyo-riu-bano Utsini ( ^j| 3 w ^ 
^ '* ^ j^J ^ = ) , within the ground , where one has residence J ). Riyoo k6ku no 
tttsiyori, from out both empires 2 ). -- Utsiyori fokdwo ukdgavu, to spy from 
within what is without. Madono tttsive fairu, to go in by the window. 
Tekino utsive seme-iru, to press into the enemy. Yumtno ittsi de avu, to meet 
in the dream. Fuyuno utsini, as long as it is winter. San-nenno utsini, 
within a space of three years. San nitsi utside deki-masu , it may happen within 
three days' time 3 ). Hiydkn me utside wa ure-masdnu, within (under) ten 
taels will I not sell it 4 ). Kono ni zi no ntsi idzure naritomo motsiyu be"si , of 
the two signs each (whichever it be) may be used. Kuvu Utsini , while one is 
eating. Sina-monowo uke-tordnu utsiwa, dai-kinwa agerare-masdnu, = within 
the not receiving of the goods (as long as I have not received the goods), no 
payment will be made 5 ). Men-kiyo nakdrisiga ntsi nite, as long as there was 
no permission. 

Much in use also, are Chinese compounds with j^j ;JT , dai or nai: Kai-dai 
( '/$ ? ft iF) > wna * i 8 within the seas , the continent. K6ku-dai ( |f| f ft ?^) 
within the borders of a country. -- K6kft-daino dai-itsino gakH-stya, the first 
scholar of the empire. Kono deu (deo) va Nippon kokti-daive furd-watdsu be"si, 
this article shall be made known throughout the Japanese empire 6 ). Bu-nai 
("0$^ ft -f) ^ e i 1111108 ^? interior. Nippon no bu-naiwo riyokqu-su, to travel 
over the interior of Japan 7 ). Ka-nai (^* ft ), what is within the house, 
the family. 

11. Foka, Hoka, ^f[*, besides; except, without. 

Kono fokd hokft-kdku kisini 6ttd fitotsu minatowo firakft, be"si, besides on the 
north coast a harbour shall be opened ). Ydku-siyono fokdve uru-bekardzif,, 
except to the government may not be sold 9 ). Kei-sdno fokd onna\ women 
except wry castles (prostitutes). To wo fokdyori todzuru, to shut a door from 
without. Dai-ku sono fokd s6ku-nin wa kane-zdkHwd motsii-masu, carpenters 
and other workmen use the iron-foot. Tan-mono to ara-mono sono foka ari- 
mastt, there are piece-goods, and raw materials and so forth. 

1) Treaty. Art. VIII. al. 1. 2) Ibid. X, I. 3) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 9. 

4) Ibid. p. 4. 5) Ibid. p. 13. 6) Treaty. Art. II. al. 17. 

7) Ibid. Art. I. d. 3 , 5. 8) Ibid. II. 2 9) Ibid. IL 18. 


Chinese compounds with #[, gwai, outside, without, out of: 
PI ^ [%' Mon-gwai, without the gate. P [, Koo-guai, out of the 
mouth, out of the mouth of a river or harbor. 

12. Soto, #[^, originally the back door, at present generally: without 
Sot6-mo for Soto-omo, the back- or winter-side of a mountain. Sato no Mrfoiti, 

without the village. 

13. Miikavi, Mukai, fnj |, |, vulgo also Muka.u, Mukoo t as substantive, 
the opposite quarter, the direction opposite anything. 

Karega stimi-kava waga-iydno mttkaini dru, his dwelling is opposite my house. 
Mukduno kisive fttdwo watdsft, to put people over to the opposite side (of a 

on 7 7 

14. Avida, Aida, pjj e 3 , the interval, space between things, between; 
space between two points of time, while. 

Aulano fima, pause, leisure, opportunity for anything. Kono alda, be- 
tween. Sono cttda, meanwhile. Yamano aidani mid;6 <irttwo taxi-gava to t'rf . 
the appearance of water between mountains is called a valley-brook - ' ' 
ik-ka nenno a?Wa, for the time of one year 1 ). Tada tiyau-baiteo na*u aiilami 
nomi, tou-riu-suru koto wo u-t^t, only while they carry on trade, may they hold 
residence (there) 2 ). 

Chinese compounds with 55* tT' ^' aM ' ff fn: 


B3 v M*' between rice-fields. - 51 B8 * = 3lJ* * 8 row between 
rocks. - X v Pfl v' Nin-gen, among men; mankind. 

15. Naka, *Jj J, the middle, in the midst of, amidst; among. 

Tano nakano tyd, a hut in the middle of the field. -- Kiy$* *t*o mdkamo 
riu-sui (fgv |Jjt/ ff^ fo 5|C?) *ta n n S water J ^ hrtween two 
mountains. -- Yo-naka, the middle of the night, midnight 
ndku kera, crickets that chirp in (between, among) the grass. 

Chinese compounds with f|l^, '*''". in the midst: 

Sm-tsiuni (^C? #?=) "^ ^^o, beings which lire in fresh water. 
'/S? ^ J / $0' 2TaH.vmo mono, something that in in the wa, a prodnetioB 
of the sea. Kai-tsiuni trite aedbiwo torn, to dire into the sea and fetch np 
pearl-mussels. - *fc* ^ $., TW-tomm, in the earth. - * 

1) Treaty. Art. IV. al. 3. ) H*. " 


in the ground. 5|f)|f ty$i Dau-tsiu, - mid-way, half-way, on the way. 
H?i/ Pfl^, Un-tsiu, in clouds. 

16. Sob a, ^'];^ / ffi (from sdvit, come near and ba, place), the neigh- 
bourhood, next, at the side of, by. 

Fino sobani koi, come next (or by) the fire! 

17. Kata, ~^j\ v3f|;|i side, near; with reference to time, as much as 
about, against. 

Figdsi-kata, Nisi-kata, Kita-kata, Minami-gata , the east-, west-, north-, south- 
side. Kita-katano kazd, wind from the north. Yo-ake-kata, = the side, on 
which the night goes open, i. e. about the dawn of the day. Sono fino yuvu- 
katani, against the fall of the evening. Sore yori kono kata, = from there to 
this side, i. e. since that time. 

Chinese compounds: $E^ jj-jgvi Kai-ben, on (near the) sea. Kai-benno 
min, people that live on (at) sea. JA !/>>> >?fC? ^t^= ^JlXx*' -Asiva sni- 
benni siyauzu, the reed grows on the water. 

The spoken language often supersedes Kata with the Chinese P6o (H6o), 
~)j * , side, quarter. Dokoni ide nasdruka? wither are you going? . . . san 
no hooni (or h6oye), to Mr. N's. Andtano hooni, at or to your side, by or to 
you 1 ). Sono f6o, his side, you. See p. 84. 

18. Fotori, jgg, 1 :, round, round about. 

Ike no fotorino tsutsumi, a dike round a fish pond. 

19. Mavari, fcj^ $H) ^11 > circumference, round about, round. 
Yasiki-mavarini, within the compass of dwellings. 

Chinese expression. ^ ^ OH ^, Siu-i, round about. ^^ ^ ^ ^'*^ 
^3 ^ ^ ^ = f ^ v irai ? Wt 2 X"' roun( i about their dwelling place people place 

>7 ^p 

neither gate nor fence 2 ). 

20. To, BJiL *", with, Lat. cum, indicates the express coupling of two or more 
objects; it is a declinable sufiix and, so far, a word expressive of relation, 

Dare-to ondzlkoto (^^ h $1^ Pff*"l) - identicalness with which? - 

Yebisu-to wa-b6ku sitd, peace has been made with the barbarians. Kimi-to 
tomoni sum, to hold with his master, to be attached to him. Hana, tori, 
= flowers, birds. Hana-to tori wo yekaku, - to paint birds with (and) flowers. - 

1) Shopping-Dialoguet , p. 16. 2) Treaty. Art. II. al. 10. 


Hana tori-to wo yekaku, to paint flowers and also birds. Swt, lion; Tbra, tiger. 
Sisi-to tordwa, as for the tiger with the lion; or also: as for the lion and the 
tiger, provided the principal accent be placed on > tiger." Kane-tfydkA-to ku- 
zira-ziydkuwa doo-kawari mdsuka? = as for the whalebone and the iron foot, what 
difference is there? J ). Atsi, there; Kotzi, here; At*i kotri-to, there and also hare. 

... to ... to, repeated after two nouns coordinate, anwera to our both . . . 
and..., as well, as... also.., Lat., que..qut.. Hana-to tori-to, both 
flowers and birds. Olanda kdku-wauto Dai Nippon Tai-kunto rlyau-koktno kon- 
sin kdtsu siyau-baino tsindmiwo jirdkti-sen kotov>6 h6stHte^ the King of Holland 
and the Tai-kun of Japan wishing to extend the relations of friendship and 
commerce of both countries etc. a ). Nippon-to San-kan-tono attikaino koto, ne- 
gotiations of (between) Japan and the Three states. Hana-to tori-to wo yfkdkv, 
to paint flowers as well as birds. -- Yuku-to kaveru-toni matoico fru, in going 
to and fro to shoot at the mark. Faravu ni Nippon to gicai-kokft to no ktca-fatwo 
motsiiru koto samadake ndsi *) , = there is no obstacle to using either Japanese 
or foreign money in payments. - - The characteristic of the coupling ia necessary 
here, as without that it does not attract notice. 

Remark. If, as in the expression: a valley with or with oat water the 
presence or absence of one object near the other is intended, then the Tartu 
dru, present and ndki (see p. 108, n. 30), not present, are used, thus: 
Midzu dru torn', a valley with water; MidzH ndki tani, a ralley without 

21. Tonari, ^ f (from to, door, family, and waraW, row), neighbourhood; next, 

close to. 

Ydku-siyo no tonarini, next the government house. Kin-miyo (*mJo), 

2v)9rS' a place near ' nei g nbournootl - 

22. Si-dai, ^^H?*i rank, following, in proportion to. 
Negai-si-dai, according to wish, in proportion as it is wished 4 ). 

23. To6ri, jft^, passage; along. 

Waradano feri toarini witarli kdtko, silkworms lying along the edge of the 
straw-tray. Fama todrino mrd mina . . . , all the villages along the strand. 

Shoppy-Dialog^, p. Si. ) Tmty, rt tW 

3) Treaty. Art. IV. al. a. *) I**- IV - 


ilJLV' ^1 '' / *S^=' dau-rino todrini, according to right. J^|] ^f jffi$ / 
j|f| t _, following a separate writing 1 ). Waga kokdroyeno todrini, after (IL) 
my opinion. 

24. Tame, ^^, purpose, aim, end, the destination of a thing. Tameni, 
for, for the service of, on behalf of, for the sake of, on account of. 

Fit6no tameni, for, on account of others. Waga-tameni, for my sake. 
Simo kamino tameni su, the less is for the service of the greater. Tate-monono 
tameni kari-uru ikkano ba-siyo, a place hired for building 2 ). Kono okitewo 
kataku-sen tameni, for the maintenance of this article 3 ). Uru tameni, for sale. 

25. Kavari, ^^^ / fv ' barter. Kavarini, in exchange for, instead of, 
for. Kono fitono kavarini, for (instead of) this man. 

26. Made, ^TJ^ O J? |^ ? the aim towards which a movement is directed; 
to, into, till, until, with reference to place or time, opposed to yori, from. 

Firato yori Nagasaki made sanziyu fatsi ri ari, from Firato to Nagasaki it is 
38 ri. Itsu made watdkusi mataneba naranuka? till when (how long) must I 
wait? Asu made, till to-morrow. Ten-si yori mdtte siyo-zinni itdru made, 
- from the emperor himself till one comes (itdru made) to the common man 4 ). - 
I-fuku, ya-gu, tabino rui made ge-saru, clothes, bedding, even to shoes, are 
distributed. Kokondtsu han doki yori nandtsu made utsini, = within one till four 
o'clock, between one and four o'clock 5 ). Tok-ka madeni deki-mdsu, by the fourth 
day (of the month) it will be ready B ). 

63. Verbs in the gerund, used as words expressive of relation, are 
A. With a previous accusative , ^ , wo : 

1. Motte, Jj[ _?, using, by means, with, the gerund of Motsi, to seize, 
hold, use. 

The object that is seized, or taken with the hand, is either the object di- 
rect of an action later to be mentioned, or the means of carrying it out. 

It is object direct in sentences as: 

7J|^2 JJijf ^^ _J||l * ij< Jvij- * i/~] > Siwo vnotte namini tsutauru koto na- 
kdre, i. e. literally: Taking the poem let it not be abandoned to the waves! 
= let not the poem be abandoned to the waves. 

1) Treaty. Art. III. al. 1. 2) Ibid. II. 8. 3) Ibid. II. 6. 

4) Dai Gaku, 6. 5) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 17. 6) Ibid. p. 10- 


The object of Motte is used as the means of carrying out an action in sen- 
tences as: 

vJ^I A ix/pj A.^' Fit6wo motte ftt6wo worn*, to treat mankind as 
mankind. Irovawo motte rui wo wakdtett, to divide the classes according to 
the Irova. 

2. Tovorite, To6rite, contracted Tootte, JS|* ^, going through or along . . . , 
the gerund of Tovdri, go through, pass. 

Monwo to6tte, going through the gate. Fino nakawo to6tU, through the 
midst of the fire. Mitsi-suziwo todtte yuktt. go along a way. 

3. Tsiitaite, vulgo Ts'tatte, the gerund of Trftdi, go along. 
Kai-ganwo Uutdtte itsi ri bakdri yukdba, if one goes a rt along the coast. 

4. Pete, $g, through, along, during, the gerund of Fe, Ftru, to go away, 
to go along. 

Sono fa fuyuwd fete sibomazu, the foliage does not fade in the winter. 

5. Noz6kite, Noz6ite, $^7^ setting behind, excepted, except, the gerund 
of Noz6k)i, u (contracted from notsini oki, to set behind). 

Nippon siyo kwa-feiva, tou-zenwo nozdku, yu-syut*-u Wri ( ^ 3lC* 9j^ 
^^ M? ^ IPI^ t? $fe$ ^^ ttj^^^t al 1 Japanese money, except 
copper money, may be circulated J ). 

B. Verbs, used as worths expressive of relation, with a previous local or 
dative, c= , ni: 

1. . . ni 6ite, in, at, strengthened local form, of m (in, at) and <#//, or wSM, 
(^1 "J 1 ), = establishing, Fr. en tiablissant , the gerund of oki, flf, to place; 
establish, erect. When merely ni and when ni 6Ite is used, will appear from 
the following examples. The expression: >The Dutchmen staying in Japan, = the 
Dutchmen in Japan," is rendered by Nipponrd rfr* Oranda-an *); in the expres- 
sion: this document shall be exchanged at Nagasaki," on the other hand the 
local is expressed by ni 6ite, and the translation runs: Kono /on-Wvo ro JVo- 
gasakivi dlte tori-karjdsti-le'in*}. In the first case the definition of place where? 
is governed by the dm or <?ru, dwell, immediately following; in the second caw 
the definition of place, where?, because not dependent on the verb, exchange, 
it is, by the addition of Mte", made an adverbial phrase. -- This remark agrees 

1) Treaty v. 1858. Art. IV, al. 4. 1) IWd. VII. J. 

3) Ibid, after the Japanese text Art, XI, al. I; after the Dutch tot Art. X , al. 4. 



with all the definitions of place, occurring in the Japanese text of the docu- 
ment cited. 

The object of 6it6 may also be an action, one is engaged in, e. g.: Fau-s6kuw6 
okdsitni dttevd (J3f MlJ 7 5? ^11* = t^ ) ^y violating the Regulations 1 ). 

The derivative from oki, viz dkdru, = to be fixed or placed, preceded by a 

local in ni, answers to the expression: the position with relation to; e. g. : 

fill $3 - -?f"v Kun-sino mononi tikdrft, korewo ai-siie zin-sezu, rela- 

*$J^ "til ~^^ tion of the philosopher to the creatures: he loves them, 
is however not humane towards them. Hia Meng, Cap. 

vii, 6i. 

* t 3 3 i-f~A J. v j > , ^ 

2. Yorite , Yotte , ^ !! o _? o ^ fjf| pq , = having its point of departure 
and thus also its point of support in, from, in consequence of, on the 
ground of, the gerund of yori, yoru, to get out from. Compare p. 71, 72. 

Korera navo siro ni yorite , teki ni kuddrazu , those yet relying on a castle , do not 
submit to the enemy. Koreni yotte, in consequence of that, therefore. Tsi- 
Mrani yotte, in proportion to his strength. - - Tokini yotte vd, in proportion to 
time. Ironi yotte nedanga kawari mdsu, as the colors are different there is a 
difference in price 2 ). Negaini yotte 3 ), on entreaty. Aruni yotte, because 
there is. 

3. TsuMte, vulg. Tsuite, ^i,,!,, |^, concerning, the gerund of Tsuki, 
concern, come to. 

Fun6 kisini tsuktt, the ship touches the coast. Koreni tsuki, or tsuite, or 
tsuiteva, concerning that, what concerns this. 

The attributive form is Tsuite no, e. g. 7^^^|f ^= -f>j"l / ^^ f^V' ^ u ~ 
zini tsuiteno soo-ron, dispute concerning (about) religion 4 ). 

Remark. To Tooteva also, for which the written forms: Tbttewa and Tat- 
tewa 5 ) have crept in, the meaning of: concerning, quand a, have been 
given, without reference to the limitation of its use. As gerund of Tov)i, u 
(^jjJ;), to ask, Tooteva means: if one ask, to the question; and the ex- 
pression: Ooseva mottomo naredomo, waga-mini tooteva, kanai-gdtai, thus 

1) Treaty. Art. V. al. 4. 2) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 34. 3) Treaty. Art. VIII. al. 1 

4) Ibid. VII. 4. 5) COLLADO. p. 57. RODRIGUEZ, p. 86. 



means: the command is indeed reasonable, but if one ask me, it is not 
easy to be carried out. 

4. Itarite, vulg. Itatte, Jg|? |r> = coming to, respecting; with defini- 
tions of time; against, towards, the gerund of Itdri. 

Taikunni Matte vd, does it come to the Taikun, what concerns the Tfcikun. 
Fdritni Matte vd, towards the spring. 

5. Tai-sXt6, J^-^^^, standing opposite, towards, the gerund of TOI-M, to 
be opposite, being the further definition, opposite to which, characterized by its 
or ve, sometimes also by to. Compare p. 68. 

Oranda-zinve tai-si fouwo dkdseru Nippon-zinva , Japanese, who hare trans- 
gressed the law, towards Dutchmen. Nippon-zinrdtai-n fouwo okasitaru Orando- 
zinva, Dutchmen, who have transgressed the law, towards Japanese 1 ). 

6. Mukavite, Mukaite, also Makavute, Mukootte, |S) |T. |HJ * ?, against, 
the gerund of Mukavi, to be pointed against something. 

Fitoni mukdite (or m&kdotte) ku-ron-zuru, to contend against some one. 

Mtlkdrite, Mukdtte, [Sj * f ^ ne g erun d of Mtikdrt. be turned against some- 
thing ; e. g. Kazdni m&kdtte hdsiru , to run against the wind. 

Mukitt, Muite", |wj $, against, the gerund of J/ut, to turn against /typ* 
bau ni muite", towards both sides. 

7. SItag|ute, Sltagoote, ^^^7 ^, according to, complying with, the ge- 
rund of SMagavi, Sttagai, to submit, to yield, to follow. 

Sttagdtte, $&% wf, according to, the gerund of Sltagari, to be subordi- 
nate. (N't motsuno) atavini sitagatte un-ziyquwo fatimu 6e, according to the 
value (of the goods) shall customs be paid 1 ). - A -int titagatte ( J("* JJ Y * 
^^}, according to the noble (i. e. yonr) pleasure. 


Aida - Avida . . 62. 14. 
Ato, behind. . . 62. 0. 
Avida, between . 62. 14. 
Ben-Kata ... 62.17. 
Dai - Utri. 62. 10. 

De = Nite . . . 
Fete, through . 63. A. 4. 
Fokd, without . 62. 1 1 . 
Fotori, round about 62. 18. 
Ge = Sltd. . 62: 2. 

.62. 4. 
. 62. 11. 


. 60. 11. 
IMte^lttite. 63. E 4. 


1) Treaty. Art. 5. al 1, 2. 

S) Ibid. III. 3. 



Itdtte, to, concerning, 
respecting . . 63. B. 4. 

Ka = Stta . . . . 62. 2. 

Kan-Aida. . . 62.14. 

Kara, out. . . . 60. 

Kata, next, to; 
against, about 62. 17. 

Kavari, for, in- 
stead of .... 62. 25. 

Ke-Sita. . . . . 62. 2. 

Made, to .... 62.26. 

Mai Mave . . . 62. 3. 

Mavari, round 
about 62. 19. 

Mave, May e, before 62. 3. 

Motte, by means 
of, with. . . 63. A.I. 

Mukdi = Mukavi 62. 13. 

Mnkdite = Mukdvite 

63. B. 6. 

Miikdvi., contrary 62. 13. 

Mukdvite, against 63. B. 6. 

Mukdrite, against 63. B. 6. 

M&kdtte = MuMriteGS. B. 6. 

Mukau = Miikdvi 62. 13. 

Mukavute, against 63.B.6. 

63. B. 6. 
Mukitd, against 63. B. 6. 
Mukoo- Mukau 62.13. 
Mukdote, against 63. B.6. 
Nai = Utsi . . . 62. 10. 
A 7 aa,inthemidstof62. 15. 
Ni, at, in .... 60. 
Nite, in, with . 60. 
Notsi, behind, after 62. 4. 
Noz6lte=Noz6kite 63. A.5. 
Noz6kite, except 63. A. 5. 
Oitd, in . . . : 63. B. 1. 
Omote , before . . 62. 5. 
Saki, before nand 62. 8. 
Si-dai, following 62. 22. 
Stta, beneath. . 62. 2. 
Sitagdtte, accord, to 63. B. 7. 
Sitagaute, 63. B. 7. 
Sitagoote, 63. B. 7. 
Siu-i, round about 62.1 9. 
Soba, next. . . ; 62. 16. 
Soto, without . . 62. 12. 
Tai-site, towards 63.B.5. 
Tamd, for , on ac- 
count of . ... 62. 24. 
Te, in, with . . 60. 

Tsiu = Naka ... 62. 15. 
To, to, with : . 60. 
To, with, together, 

and 62.20. 

Touari, next . . 62. 21. 
Todtte- Tovorite 63. A. 2. 

Tooteva 63. B. 3. 

Todri, along . . 62.23. 
Tovorite, through 63. A. 2. 
Tmate = TsuMe 63. B. 3. 
Tsukite, concerning 

63. B. 3. 

Tsntdite, along . 63. A. 3. 
Ts'tatte - Tstitdite 63. A. 3. 
Urd, inwards . . 62. 6. 
Usiro, behind. . 62. 7. 
Utsi, within . . 62. 10. 
Uve = Uyt, up . 62. 1. 

Uyt, up 62. 1. 

Ve, wards, to . 60. 
Yori, out, from 60. 
Yorite, on the 

ground of . . 63. B. 2. 
Yotte-yorite. . 63. B. 2. 
Zen - Mave . . . . 62. 3. 
Ziyau - Uy6 . . . 62. 1. 



Man begreift nichta, domes EaUtehuag BU uefct tiiriill 

In the treatment of this chapter, the question, which presents itself most 
prominently, is, what are the conjugations! forms of the Japanese verb, and 
what do they mean. Included in it is the answer to the question, how are the 
conjugatioiial forms of the Western languages expressed in the Japanese. 

64. The Voices of the Japanese verb are: 

Transitive, Factive or Causative. 
Passive, but in the form of an Active. 

Negative, since the verbal terminations contain in themselves a negative 
element, n. 

65. The Moods are: the indefinite Root-form; the Imperative which, at 
the same time, is the basis of the Optative; the indicative doting form; the 
Substantive-form (Infinitive), at once Attributive form (Participle), and a deri- 
vative Adverbial form (see 107). - The Root and the Substantive forms are 
declinable, and by declension express the mood definitive of time and cause (Sub- 
junctive) and the Conditional etc. 

198 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 66, 67, 68. 

66. The Tenses are root-tenses (Present, Preterit, Future, 
Gen-zai; j^ ^^ i Kwa-ko; 7J^ a 3J? ? Mi-rai), and derivative tenses. A 
root- tense is indefinite (aorist), when the action with reference to the speaker 
is present , past , or future , and is not , with reference to a given period of time , 
represented as perfect or imperfect. The Japanese verb pays attention to this 
distinction, and also expresses the beginning, the continuance and the ending, 
as well as the repetition of an action by peculiar forms. 

67. Person and number are not noticed in the verb, whereas the gram- 
matical distinction of three persons (I, thou, he) as well as that of singular 
and plural, have remained foreign to the language. (See pp. 73 and 53). 

Instead of a grammatical distinction, a qualifying one steps in, noti- 
ceable by the choice of the verb, by which the speaker distinguishes his own 
being or acting from that of another person, but particularly noticeable, because 
he adds the augmentative prefix On or O , which plays so important a part in 
the domain of the pronouns (see p, 75), to the verb also, as soon as the action 
that it expresses, proceeds from a person, to whom he bears respect, or is a con- 
dition imputed to that person. The want of a grammatical distinction of three 
persons is fully made good by the manner in which a courtly speaker qualifies 
his own being or acting and that of another. 

The way in which courtesy expresses itself in the verbs , is further explained 
in an Appendix to this chapter. 111. p. 311. 

68 The verbal root. Every verbal root (the essential part or the root 
of a verb) terminates either in e or i (compare the Latin doce and audi). These 
terminations are the verbal element proper, which is subject to transformation 
or declension. Whereas we, by means of the European letters are able to dis- 
engage these elements from the verbal root and treat them separately, the 
Japanese syllabic system of writing represents them as bound to the final con- 
sonant of the verbal root. 

As the element i undergoing a strengthening, in certain cases becomes a or 
o, whereas the element e, in the same cases remains unchanged, this leads natu- 
rally to a division of the verbs into two conjugations: a nondeflecting one 
in e, and a deflecting one in i, called by some a regular conjugation in e 
and an irregular one in i 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 68, 69. 199 

There is a group of about forty verbs derived by a nonde fleeting element 
i, which in respect of their transformation are ranked under the nondeflecting 
conjugation in e. They are enumerated and explained in 99. 

The verbal root or the root-form answers logically, but not formally, to 
our Infinitive. Ake, to open; Kaki, to write; YuJd, to go. 

A verb is in the indefinite root-form, when it is the first member of 
a compound verb , as well as in the coordinate connection of propositions which 
has the peculiarity , that only the last of the propositions linked together expresses 
the definition of time and manner, whereas in the preceding sentences the verb 
is left in the indefinite root form (compare p. 46). 

The dictionaries of Japanese origin do not point ont the root-form. Bui as 
a knowledge of it is necessary to being able to conjugate a verb, we, here, as 
in our Dictionary, place the root-form on the foreground. 

The root-form is equivalent to a substantive, it is declinable by means of 
suffixes (see 7) and can be preceded by a genitive. 

Akeid, to the opening, to open. Dative and Terminative; Supine. 

J.yfoniva, = Akenba, = Akeba, while one opens. Local, Modal. 

Akete, by opening. Instrumental, Modal. 

On this principle forms are obtained, which answer to some of our moods. 

69. The imperative mood, Ge-dzino kotoba (~fC J9I J fjj). The Im- 
perative terminates in the accented e. 

In the nondeflecting verbs the root is at once imperative: Akt^ open! in 
the deflecting the termination i changes into e: Kdki, to write; A'lAV, write! 
Kuvi, to eat; Kuv4, Kuy4, eat! /m, to go away, 7w, go away! 

This form may ce strengthened by suffixing the exclamation ya, ai, yo (see 
p. 62), for which in the eastern countries ro is in use ') AMyo or AMro, open! 
YuMyo or Yuktro, go! Seyo or Sero, do! 

Instead of eyo the conversational language of Si-kok uses el also, thai AHi 
for AMyo, open! Sei for Seyo, do! Y6ku Old* tuuaret, for na*mr, = well may 
your arrival happen, i. e. be welcome! - - A"/, come, has Koyo, Act, in SUcot 
Kei*), come! From Aft, to see, and A'M, to hear, appear also in the old- 
Japanese Miso and Kikiso (%* JL y . |i|| t JL y ) as imperatives. 

1) Wagwi titoori, uudcr Ro. 

200 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 69, 70. 

The termination f-, tsi (=ti) changes into ? te\ from Matsi, to watch; Utsi, 
to beat, becomes MaU, Matey o, watch! Ute, Uteyo, beat! 

The imperative thus obtained is with respect to its form the vocative of the 
verbal root (see p. 62). The categorical imperative, used only to inferiors, is 
avoided in polite conversation and superseded by more elegant expressions. 

The imperative, followed by kasi or gana, has the force of our optative. 
{de nasarei kasi, oh that you came! 

70. Closing form of the verb. 

If a verb clpses the sentence in the quality of verb predicate, i. e. as finite 
verb, then the termination e or i of the root form passes over to the mute u. 
From Ake is Aku, one opens; from Yuki, Yuku, one goes. Logically this form 
answers to our indicative present. The historian uses it for the past also, which 
he, in his relation, represents as an event taking place before his eyes. (Prae- 
sens Historicum). 

In the application of this rule the following phenomena present themselves: 

The terminations ai, ei, ii, oi, ui pass into 

au,eu, iu, ou, uu, which in the spoken language re- 

solve into ao, eo, iu or iyu, ou, uu. Compare pp. 12, 13. 

Ai becomes au, it suits; Ei, eu (^.^f or xy), one gets drunken; li (1 * ), 
{yu (1 ^-), one says; Oi, oyu (tf 2 -), one grows old; Kui (?1), Kuyu (? 2.) 
one regrets; ^ (:.), to get. u (]>), one gets,- lyd, iyu (-f i), it heals. The 

ke, ?, and ki, % , become ku, ?. ge, ^, and gi, , become gu, ? 

se, ^, si, ^, su, %. ze, ^, zi, ^, zu, $ 

te, ? , tsi, f , tsu, ?. de, ?% dzi,ir, dzu,?* 

ne, % , ni, , nu, %. ve, -^, vi, t, vu, 7 

The terminations TC, 2 C, ^ t, ^C, ^t (am, evi, ivi, ovi, uvi), for 
which the spoken language uses ai, ei, ii, oi, ui 1 ), pass into 77, Z.7 , 17, 
X 7 ', 2?? (avu, evu, ivu, ovu, uvu), in the spoken language au ($o), eu (eo), iu, 
QU, uu. See pp. 12, 13. 

(Kirdvu, one shuns) and 3-tf7, (Negdv% one wishes) sound in the 

I) Compare p. 16, line 7. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB, 70, 71. 201 

street language of Yedo Kira-u, Nega-u, but in the mouth of a polite person 
Kirao and Negqo l ). 

The difference between au and ou, for which LEON PAGES uses o and o 2 ), 
mostly remains unnoticed in the spoken language, and both forms are then 
expressed by oo; fop the sake of etymology, however, a distinction of the two 
is highly desirable. 

To the deflecting verbs of this class belong: 

Avi, vulg. Ai, to like; /warn, to pray; Kanavi, to be sufficient; Kandvu, 
it is sufficient; Samurdvi, pron, Soordi, wait on; ^L^y, Samurdvu, pron. 
Sooroo, vulg. soro ("fj^o ^1?)' one wa its on, is at the service of 3 ). 
Em, vulg. ei, to get drunken, zz.? or 2.^, one gets drunken. 
Im, vulg. ii, say; -f ? , ww or -f 3- , ^^^t J one says. 
Om6vi, vulg. drwdi, think; dmdvw or tfmow, one thinks. 
FMW, vulg. t/m', bind; ywvw or yuu, one binds. 

6e, ->s, and bi, t*, become Jw, 7*. me, J* , and mi, 2. , become mw, A. 
re, i^, H, 9 , w, nx. 

-4n, toH and wan (to be), remain, when they close the sentence as verb 
predicate, unchanged. See 96. 

71. The substantive and attributive form. 

Used as noun substantive (Infinitive) and attributive (by way of participle) . 
the nondeflecting verbs supersede their termination e with eru or urii, i with 
irii, and the deflecting their i with u. 

Ake, to open, becomes Akuru or Akeru. 
Mi, to see, Miru. 

Yuki, to go, Yuku. 

The terminations eru, iru, oru have more or less continuative force, Akeru, 
Akuru and Miru being equivalent to Ake-te-oru, Mite-iru or Mite-6ru, see 78. 
The form uru of Akuru belongs to the written language and in Kiusiu to 
the spoken language also; dru, less in use, is confined to the spoken lan- 
guage 4 ). 

1) From an oral communication by the native of Yedoj KITAROO. 2) See p. 13, note. 

8) On account of the important part, which Soro plays as auxiliary verb ia the epistolary style, it will 
be treated still more particularly hereafter ( 102). 

4) From an oral communication by TSUDA SIN ITSIROO. 

202 CHAPTER VII. THE VEEB. 71, 72. 

As noun substantive, the verb is, like every substantive declinable, e. g. 

To6kini yukuvd, going into the distance. Kun-sino mitsi tatrfyevd tookini 
yukugb g&tdst, the way of a philosopher is, to use an instance, as a going 
into the distance. Terawd miruvi yukti, to go to see a temple. Ki druw6 
mdtte , on account of the presence of trees , because there are trees. Age-masu 
kara, after presentation. Stkdruni yotte, = on account of its being thus; 
since it is so. Yuku yoriva yukdnuga masi, it is better not to go than to 
g O< Se^ to do; Suru, the doing; Surnnivd, in the doing. Mi, to see, Mini, 
the seeing; Mtrunivd, as one sees. San fao y6ri miruni (or mir&nivd) ydmano 
sugdta ondzikdto nari, on looking out from three sides, the form of the mountain 
appears to be the same. Compare 73, page 206. Remark. 

Kawdkitdru, the become dry, is substantive in Fan6 kawakitdruwo m6mu, 
- what has become dry of the leaves one rubs; on the other hand in; Kawa- 
kitdru fa wo te nite m6mu, one rubs the foliage become dry, it is attributive. 

All the relations , which in a noun are expressed by the forms of declension , 
may, thus, by the same means, be attributed to a proposition, just as it may 
be desired to characterise it as subjective, objective or adverbial. 

The substantive form with ka as suffix is the form of the question direct. 
Aru ka? or Ari-mdsu ka? is there? Ari or Ari-mdsu, there is! 

The verbal substantive becomes attributive by its mere subordination to a 
noun following. Akuru-koto, the deed of opening, the opening. - - Yuku-mono, 
the going something, that which goes. 

72. Gerund. 

1. The inflectional termination 7 , te, or 7* , de, which in substantives indi- 
cates the local, modal or instrumental relation, added to the verbal root forms 
a gerund, which characterises the action expressed by this verb as a subordi- 
nate local, modal or instrumental definition of another action succeeding it. 

Ake te, by, on or at opening, Fr. en ouvrant. Mite, on seeing. Yukite, 
on going. Oydbi, to come to. Kure-gatdni oydUte wagiytni kahe'riki, = when 
it came to the evening twilight, or, in short, at evening, one returned home. 
Tewo agtie" fitdwo maneTd-y6bu, raising his hand (he) winks and calls people to 



2. Modifications introduced into the original form of the gerund by the spo- 
ken language: 

a. The polysyllabic verbs ending in the deflecting ki or gi, mostly drop the 
k and g; kite or gite becomes ite. Thence: 

Yaite for Yakite, from Yaki, {l|g^, to burn, trans. 

1% , to burn, intrans. 
\ * , to hear. 
[ ^ , to place. 
'^ , to like. 
I" ^ , to come to. 
\% , smell, 

Kaide Kagide, 
Soite Sogite, 
Toite Togite, 


Takite , 







0^'te , 









The nondeflecting Dd-k)i, iru ( [jj 
(see , 99. N. a), has 

S , grind, 
to come out of, proceed, happen 

5. In verbs in tsi and ri, tsite (^7*) and rite (9 7") change into tte, that 
is written y 7- but not pronounced istite 1 or tste. Thence : 

Tatte, ^y*^, for Tdtsitd, from Tatsi, to rise, to stand up. 

Matsi, to watch, to wait. 

Motsi, to hand, to take. 

Art, to exist, to be. 

On, 1. to dwell; 2. to break. 

Nari, 1. to be; 2. to sound, intr. 

Yori, to go out from. 

Kahe'rite', Kahdri, to turn back. 

MiisMte, > Musiri, to pluck. 

Tsttndritd, Tsnndri, to be steady, steadfast. 

Here, after the suppression of the weak termination i an assimilation of ts 
(originally t) and of t with the t succeeding takes place. 

c. In deflecting verbs the forms bite, tT?- , and miti, ^ ? , dropping the weak 
t, in prononciation change into nde. Thence: 





Mdtsite , 
J^ i sftfi'p 



Erdnde, JL?*?, 

for Erdmi-te, 

from Erdmi, to select. 

Ayunde, 7 3- *?, 


Ayumi, to walk. 

Y6nde, 3 &?, 

Yomt-te , 

Jomi, to read. 

Nonde, S &T? ', 

> Nomi-te , 

Nomi, to drink. 

Nomikonde, S L 3 t/y 

, Nomikomi-te , 

Nomikomi, to conceive, to under- 

Monde, ^ ^y, 


Momi, to rub. 


Susunde, X > *?*, 

Susumi-te , 

Susumi, to advance, 

to go fowards. 

Musunde, >% ':?% 

MusuHi-te , 

Musubi, to tie. 

Yonde, 5 ^r, 

Yobi-te , 

Foftz, to call. 

The nondeflecting in mi and 6i retain mite, bite. Hor6bi, to ruin, v. i., Ho- 
r6Ute. See 99. N. 24. 

As the old manner of writing used I* instead of a', thus A y instead of &?*, 
and L also passed for ^ , for the terminations ande , onde , unde , the forms 
aude , oude , uude , were obtained ; which in the pronunciation pass into aode (oode) , 
oode, uude; thence: Erqode or Erande, Yoode for Yonde, Ayuude for Ayunde. 

d. In the deflecting verbs in y t , avi, X C , ovi, (in the spoken language 
<M, oi) the substantive form is really 7^, % 7 , pron. ao, oo, to which the ter- 
mination te is added. 

Avi, pron. Ai, to meet, becomes T?7", dvutd, in the spoken language 
aoto, oote. 

Nardvi, pron. Nardi, to learn, becomes f">,'7;r, Nardvutd, in the spoken 
language Nardote. Naroote. 


SVmdvi, pron. Stmdi, to cease, becomes 
language Simdote, Stm6ote. 

Wardvi, pron. Wardi, to laugh, becomes 
language Wardote", Wardotd. 

Fardvi (Hardi), to sweep away, remove, becomes 
in the street language of Yedo Hardtte also J ). 

Omdvi, pron. OmJz, to think, becomes ^^^ 
language dmdote'. 

Nuvi, pron. JVw, to sew, becomes X^r, Nuvutt, in the spoken language 
Nuute, Nute. 

Simdvute", in the spoken 
Wardvute 1 , in the spoken 
, Faraote (Saroote), 
Omdvitte', in the spoken 

1) See E. BKOWN, Colloquial Japanese, X. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 72, 73. 205 

But if it be admitted, that after dropping the weak i, the remaining semi- 

/ v A 
vowel v equivalent to u , with the preceding a or o passes into ao or oo (o , o), 

then the forms Aote, Naraote, Omoote, also, are only euphonic modifications of 
the regular forms Avtte, Nardvtte, Omdvtte etc. 

Instances of the use of the gerund. 

Kasirdwd ~iddsit miru, to stick out the head and look. Idasl, to produce, 
the causative form of the disused "idi, to appear. Kuddwo mdttd tenwd ukdgdo 
(P&J ^^y" 7" &J ^^^^),to observe the heavens with a tube, i. e. not 
to have a broad view. M6tte, from Motsi, deflecting verb, to catch hold of 
with the hand, to use anything. Oy6so fitdno sao-foowo dkagduvd, kasiraw6 
mottd siyu t6 sit, he who pays attention to another's appearance, considers the 
head as the principal; literally: taking the head, he makes (it) the chief or the 

Isolated by va the gerund becomes an adverbial phrase definitive of time, 
te va being equivalent to dbd. See 73. Examples: 

H'itdno kimi to ndtte va, zin ni 6ru l ), if he becomes another's lord, he 
dwells in (his position is that of) humanity. Natte - Narite , from Nari, = io 
be, and, when an appositive definition with to precedes, = to become. See 
100. III. FVbdri takdku tdndd ameni ^itdri bu-mei-su; kwtdVirdtevd, tobi-s&gdritd 
kusd-murd ndkdni trM, the lark, soaring high, goes to the skies, dances and 
sings; if he is tired, then he descends and goes into his grass dwelling. Tonde, 
gerund trom Tobi, to soar. Kutdbirdte vd, = by fatigue, the gerund isolated 
by va, from Kutdbire, to grow tired. -- Tobi-sagdri, literally: fly-descend, i. e. 
fly downwards. Iri, iru, go in, with the local, where? one goes in. - 

Instead of the isolated gerund Ndtte vd (by the being, or becoming) often 
occurs the expression Ndtte stkdusttt, = becoming, so, etc. 

73. The verbal root in the Local for the forming of adverbial phrases 
definitive of time (Conjunctive or Subjunctive form). 

The predicate verb of subordinate adverbial sentences, which describe a time 
really present, or supposed as present, in the past, and which in our languages are 
connected with the principal proposition by conjunctions such as when, since, 
as, in the Japanese is placed in the Local in ni, followed by the isolating 

1) Dai Gaku, III. 3. 

206 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 73, 74. 

particle /> va. Thus is obtained ni -f- va as termination , which fuses into /^*, ba 
(=nva, nfca). The subordinate precedes the principal proposition. 

This termination in the nondeflecting verbs in e and i is joined to the root 
form, thus Akdbd, on opening, as or when he opens; Nedz)i, iru, to twist, 
Nedzibd, as one twists; Moisi, to use, Motsiibd, as one uses; Sii, to die, Siibd, 
as one dies. 

In the deflecting verbs the verbal element i first undergoes a strengthening 
of sound , and changes into e , by which eba is obtained in the same manner ; Yuki , 
to go, Yukdbd (vulg. Yukiya) on going, as or when one goes, or when one went. 

H6ssi, ^,'V, to long for, ffosseba. 
Tatsi (- Tati), to arise, Tateba. 
Matsi (= Mati) , watch , Mateba. 
Tat6vi, serve for example, Tatdvebd, for 

Ivi, to say, Ivebd. 

Yomi, to read, Yomebd. 

Ari, to be, Ar&)d. 

Nari, to be, Nardbd. 

Ndkeri, not to have been, Ndkerebd. 

Examples of the use of this form. 

Satoow6 mazebd tsya-yu adziwdi amdku ndru, = by the mixture with sugar the 
tea becomes sweet of taste. Maz)e, uru, mix in. Mlw6 osdmuru yuenwd sire'bd, 
sunavdtsi fttdwo osdmuru yu&n w6 sirtt, if one knows the means to govern oneself, 
then one knows the means to govern others. Sir)i, u, to know. Titsi si-seru 
toki sao-siki w6 su-beki tsikdra ndkerebd. waqa-mi w6 urite sao-reiw6 itondmu. at the 


time of his father's death not having the means to bury him, he (the son) sold 
himself and performed the funeral rites. 

Remark. In nondeflecting verbs in e and z, instead of the form eba, here 
explained the substantive form of the verb with the isolated local termi- 
nation niva, vulgo niwa is also used. Motome, to strive for, to seek; Mo- 
tomuru, the seeking; Motomuruniva, in the seeking, as one seeks. See 71. 

74. The concessive form. 

The concessive adverbial phrase, which we connect with the principal propo- 
sition by means of conjunctional adverbs such as though, although, how- 
ever, but, is characterized in Japanese by the strong accended form-word m6 
or tom6 (= Lat. quoque) and precedes the principal proposition. 

Opposed to Ama-gum6 ariteva (pron. attewa), amega furu, = while rain-clouds 
are present, rain falls, and Ama-gumo ar6ba, amega furu, = as rain-clouds are 


present, it rains, is: Ama-gumo arite-m.6, (dttemd), furdzu, - also in the pre- 
sence of rain-clouds it does not rain, that is: although there are rain-clouds, 
it does not rain. 

Consequently the following forms are opposite to each other. 

The verb as substantive. 

Akuruvb, the act of opening. Akurumo, or Akurutomo, the act of 

opening being granted. 
Tatsuruvih, the act of erecting. Tatsurumo, or TatsurutoTao , though 

Miruv&, the seeing. Mirumo, or JftVMtomo, also (or even) 

the seeing. 
Yukuvb, the going. Yukumo, or Yukutomo, also (or even) 

the going. 

Akurunivb, on opening. Akuruni'mo, even on opening. 

Tatsurunivk, on erecting. Tatsurunimo, even on erecting. 

Mirunivb, on seeing Miruni'm.o, even on seeing. 

Yukunivb, on going. Yukunimo, even in going. 


Akdtdvb, on opening, as one opens. Akdtdmo, though opening, or even if 

one opens. 

Tattevb, by erecting, as one erects. Tattemo, though erecting. 
Mitevb, on seeing. Mite mo, even if one sees. 

Yukitevb, (pron. Yuitivd), by going. Yukite (ym'te)-mo, though going. 

Time-defining local. 

Akebb, contracted from Ake-ni-va, as ^l^domo, contracted from Ake-ni-tomO) 

one opens. Akendomo, though one opens. 

Tate'tob, contracted from Tate-ni-va, as Tatedomo, contracted from Tate-ni-tomo, 

one is erecting. Tatendomo, though one is erecting? 

Yuk^& , contracted from Yukd-ni-va, as Yukddomo , contract, from Yuke-ni-tomo, 

one is going. Yukendomo, though one goes. 

Tatsurel>&, contract, from Tatsure-ni-va, Tatsure domo , contracted from Tatsure- 

as one is erecting. ni-tomo, though one is erecting. 

208 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 74, 75. 

From this analysis it is evident why it is necessary at one time to say and 
to write vd and tomo, and at another M and domo. Just as the impure b in la 
is a fusion of n 4- v, so the impure d in domo is a fusion of n + t. The Japanese 
themselves seem not to appreciate this distinction and forget to characterize /- (va) 
and h (to) by adding the Nigdri-mark l ) as /*, ba, and K, do. 

Instead of domo, iedom6 (-f ^ K<fc <> -( a: K*e) is also used. This is the conces- 
sive form of conjugation of Im or Jt (-f K "J * ), to say, to be called, and there- 
fore means: though one says, though it be called. This verb is preceded 
by the definition, how or what one calls something, as opposition with the suffix 
to 2 ); e.g. Kuni ari, sono nawo Nipp6n to wu, there is a kingdom, its name is 
called Nippon. Sorewa nanito iu ka, how is that called? If the apposition 
is a verb, then this stands in the substantive- or in the root-form: Akuru to ivu, 
Yuku to ivu, it is said that one opens, it is said that people go. Akuru to fadomd, 
Yuku t6 tidfond thus means: though it is said that one opens, or that one is 
going, expressions which answer to: although one opens, or might open, although 
one is going. Ari to Vedomo, even granting the existence, although there is. 

75. The form of the Future (^^ jfc%, Mi-rai). 

There are different expressions, that signify that an action or state which 
is still in perspective, is objective to the willing, being able, having permission 
or being obliged. Here the derivative form, which expresses the effort, the incli- 
nation or tendency to realize what the verb points out, comes first under notice. 
As it at the same time includes the uncertainty, if anything is happening, has 
happened or will happen, it has been called Futurum dubium. For convenience' 
sake we retain this name, even were that of modus dubitativus better fitted. 

With regard to the form we distinguish the simple and the periphrastic future. 

I. The simple future of J"awafo-language has for characteristic the termi- 
nations me and mu, which in nondeflecting verbs in e or i are immediately 
added to the root, in the deflecting in i, however, only after this i by a strength- 
ening of sound has been changed into a (or sometimes for vocal harmony into o). 
The termination mu, according to the oldest writing ^p: A -or J^. A3 ) and pro- 
nounced m, has been in later times superseded by f, n, and in the spoken 
language by 3? , u. In measure this f (n) counts as a syllable. 

1) See p. 9. 2) See p. 70. V, 3) As in the chronicle Nippon-ki and in the oldest poems. 


Ake, to open, future AJcemU (7;Jr), Aken (7 fr* 1 ), in the spoken language 
Akeu ( 7 >r 2? ) , passing to dked. 

Mi , to see , future MimU ( 2. L ) , .A/w ( 2. ^) , in the spoken language Miu. 

Yuki, to go, future Yukamti (3-J? A), Yukon, in the spoken language Yukau 
( 3. # *? ) , passing to Yukqo , vulg. Fw&oo also. 

Remark. The Japanese writing of the forms of the spoken language varies: 
to express the pronunciation of 7^^, 2-#$s some write T^"^ 3.%?, and 
others 7^"^, 2-^^, and even 7^3^, 2.^^; and instead of 7 > >> (aroo, 

shall be, from ^1H, to be), 73-^, 7tr^, 7tr^7, and even Q is written. 

<S)i, w, to do; future SamU, San, in the spoken language 00, at Yedo soo, 
expressed by ^r . 

Mas)i, u, to be present; future Masamu, Masan, in the spoken language 
Masqo, Masoo, at Yedo Masoo (Eng. Mashoo). 

Afatsi, *~?^r, wait; future Matamti, Matan, in the spoken language Matqu, 
Matao, Matoo. 

Avi, pron. Ji, to fit; future Avamii, Avan, in the spoken language Avgu, 
Avoo, Awoo. 

Negdvi, pron. Negdi, to wish; future Negavamu^ Negavan, in the spoken 
language Negavqu, Negavqo, or Negawoo. 

S&mi, to nestle, sit up; future Sftmdmft, Sumdn, in the spoken language 
X"??', Sumao, for which the written form X ^^ also appears. 

Ni, to be (see 100. I); future Namii, Nan. 

Ari, to be (see 96); future Ardmtf,, Aran, in the spoken language Arau, 
Arao, Aroo. 

The termination mu , as characteristic of the Future , is according to my idea 
the regular indicative closing form and the substantive form of a verb mi, that 
expresses a striving to be or to do something. Ardmu, =Aran, the derivative 
of Ari, consequently indicates a striving after existence and what is called the 
dubious future, is according to its form, a present. The nondeflecting verb Mo- 
tom)e, M, uru ( jj^ i-), generally considered as equivalent to to acquire," but which, 


as the regularly formed derivation from Mots)i, u (^|), = to hold, really has 
the meaning of strive to hold, shows the nature of Me, mu in its full power. 
In the same way: Akari, red light, glow; lighten, to glow; Akaram)i, u, strive 
to glow, in particular, the gradually becoming red and ripe of fruit. 




In my opinion, there is also a connection between the form me, mu treated 
here, and the verbal derivative forms mi, mu, which from a number of adjective 
root-words cited on p. 107 forms a deflecting intransitive verb, that expresses 
the becoming such , as the root word indicates and is equivalent to a Latin in- 
choative verb in -sco, for instance: 

Siro, white; 
Kuro, black; 
Kura, dark; 
Taka, high; 
Fir a, flat, 
Firoj roomy, broad; 
Kata, hard; 
Nuku, warm; 
Maro, round; 
Ao, green; 
Kubo, hollow; 
Naga, long; 
Ydsti, easy, quiet; 
Sige, tight; 
Arata, new; 
Ara, wild; 

Sirdmi, albescere to grow white. 

Kurdmi, nigrescere, to grow black. 

Kurdmi, to grow dark. 

Takdmi, to grow high. 

Firdmi, to grow flat. 

Firdmi, to grow broad. 

Katdmi, to grow hard. 

Nukumi, to grow warm. 

Mar6mi, to grow round. 

A6mi, to grow green. 

Kub6mi, to grow hollow. 

Nagdmi, to grow long. 

Ydsumi, to grow easy or quiet. 

Sigdmi, to grow tight. 

Aratdmi; to grow new. 

Ardmi, to grow wild. 

If we put in the place of mi nondeflecting me, mu, muru, then the intran- 
sitive verbs cited here become transitive or properly factive: Sirom)e, u, uru, 
to make grow white , = to whiten ; Kur6m)e , u , uru , to make grow black , to 
blacken; Nukum)e, u, uru, to warm, to incubate; Ydsum)e, u, uru, to make 
rest, whence Yas&me-zi ($C* ^^)> = rest- word, an expletive particle, like 
mo, which causes a rest, but does not rest, itself. The difference between mi 
and me is frequently overlooked by the Japanese themselves. 

We return to the Future. According to Japanese philologers the termination 
en or an of the Future signifying uncertainty , appears particularly in connection 
with a previous interrogative, i. e. in interrogative sentences, whereas the ter- 
mination me is used, when the sentence has a definite subject, which is fre- 
quently strengthened by a successive Koso (= this here); a difference I have not 
found actually confirmed. 


Examples of the use of the forms cited. 

y? > y Yezova fumiki kotoba ni miyetarazu. Yemisino ten-go naran, 
^ the name of Yezo does not appeal 
W It may be a corruption of Yemisi. 


the name of Yezo does not appear in the old language. 

Tamino nn-k6ku yori ohokar&n koto wo nozdmu koto nasi 1 ), 
there is no prospect , that the population (here) will become 
more numerous than that of neighbouring states. 

Ohokdr}i,u, contin. form of Ohoki or Ooki, much. Noz6rn)i,u, to hope 
on.... Nasi, there is not. 

>^*|x ='i* s ^ /5owo jisdsiu sitd tagav&n koto wo osJrw 2 ), he feared that it 

V x 

iii 1 tfil y ^ ^ (t ne doctrine) might degenerate in time. 

Ivaku: Kau-rai tsuini forobimu sirusi ka 3 ), behold, he said, a sign that Corea 
will at last perish. 

Forobi, nondeflecting verb, to perish. See 99. 24. 

Imd sardnto dmovu, k*)Ima sarauto om6i-mdsu, now I think of going. & |5^ -^ . 

Niva-toriva suman to SM, A Niva-toriga sumau to surtt (^| ^J ; j^^)) the 

|X rjr w J 

court-bird (the cock) is about to go to his roost. Sumav^i, w, to roost. 

Nisiyd wataran (A wataravu) to su ($$ pt| ^^), I shall go westwards. 

Idzurdno tokdro ni kd tewo kudasan ('foj* ^ ~~J\ -^*), where shall I lay down 
my hands? = A Dokowo tekakdrini siyau-(so-)zo? = which part shall I take for 
handle? i. e. where shall I seize it? S)i, M, to do; future *Y, /o. 

A K v% > ^ &t *? y\ Dorekara fazimeo zo? where shall I begin? A Do 
tsutsiye nigeyou zo? whither shall I flee? (Zo, an emphatic suffix). 

Nanika aran (^ ^$)i what may there be? = A Nanno si-nikui kotoga arau 
zo? what may there be, that you do not gladly do? = A Nanino nardnu to ivu 
kotoga arou zo? = what should there be, that you blame? 

Ani korewo nasanyat what, should I do this? 

A Naniwo meni kake-masoo ka? what shall (or may) I show you? Sake 
wo age-masoo ka? shall, or may I offer you something to drink? 

I) Meny-tsze, I. Book I. 3. 2) Tschuny-yung. 3) Nippon-ki. 

4) The sistn A indicates that the words and expressions, to which it is attached, belong to the spoken language. 


A Kitano Accra kuro-gumoga ats' matte orimas' kdra, Yedonohoowd tmd amega 
ftte ori-masoo ! ) , as in the north black clouds are heaped up , it will be raining 
at Yedo now. If the definition of time 1md (now) is superseded by sdkuya 
(last night), then the after sentence takes the signification of: it will have 
rained at Yedo last night. A Sdku-ban ittaroo, he will have gone yes- 
terday evening. 

The certain Future of the written language. 

The adverb Masdni, - indeed, certainly ( j ^), in connection with 

a future followed by to su, gives the expression the meaning that something 

will certainly happen or is at hand. (103). Masdni sardn t6 su, will certainly go. 

O Ten-ka no mitsi naki koto Jisdsi. Ten masdni Fuu-siwo 

_"T* 7 "7^-t- =L ? Jt ^ motte b6ku-tdku to sen t6 su 2 ) , it is long that the 

~^w 4* tjtf ^ t " '* -t 

tpw ^ irW = "tfii h empire has been deprived of the way of truth and 

| __ j> * V| ^ JJl ^ - "^ 

/^ ? -X* ^ s\ |^ ^ ^ righteousness ; but Heaven will certainly use the mas- 
t *P^ 7C^ ^ V^T ter (CONFUCIUS) for a signal bell (for a herald). 

_/tf^ fe g S^ Koku-ka masani okordnto surebd, kanardzu tei-siyou-ari 3 ) , 
-s^^ ^ ^^ * if a nation or a family is indeed on the way to raise 

> t '*d& 7 itself? then there are certainly signs that give notice of it. 

II. The periphrastic Future. 

A. The periphrastic Future of the written language is formed 
1. by grafting 7> ^, aran or 7 > ^ , arame (= shall be) on the substantive 
form of a verb, by which aran by aphaeresis becomes ran. E. g.: 
Mi, Miru, to see; Miru-ran, the seeing will be, videns erit. 
Kik)i, M, to hear; Kiku-ran, = the hearing will be. 
Iv)i, u, or li, lu, to say; lu-ran, = the saying will be. 
As the Japanese find these words expressed in the old rebus writing by 

^t>Rv B3J K^ r H? idv "? S^' tliev consider raw as a 

particle standing alone. RODEIGUEZ also, on p. 66 line 27, cites ran and, on 
line 8, uran as particles of the future. 

1) B. BROWN, Colloq. Jap. XII. 

2) Lun yu III. 24. See J. LEQOE, Chinese classics, Vol. I. pag. 28. 

3) Tschung-yung , XXIV. 

CHAPTER vn. THE VERB. 75. 213 

2. By suffixing naramu, = naran, or narame (= will be) to the substantive 
form of a verb. Miru-naran, Kiku-naran, lu-naran, = will see, hear, say. 
A . . va B . . narito iveru narame , people will (narame) have said (iveru) that A is 
equal to B. 

3. In combination with negative verbs by suffixing aranan a euphonic modifica- 
tion of ari -H nan, shall or may be, to the substantive form of the negative verb. 
Kaswmi tatazumo aranan '), = also the not rising of fog will happen. See 84. 

4. By grafting su, suru, fat. suran (= to do) on the form of the Future, by 
which the s passes into the impure ns-z. Mi-tari, have seen; Mi-taran, I shall 
have seen. Mitaran-zu, = visurus est, Mitaran-zuran , = visurus erit. 

5. By grafting the auxiliary verb mas)i, u, (= to dwell, reside, see 101) on 
the form of the Future of deflecting verbs, . . amu, . . aw, by which . . am' -+ masi 
or . . an + masi passes into . . amasi, e. g. : 

Ni , to be , becomes Namasi (( -{^ * $j^ =?,) , contracted from Nan + masi. 
Ari, to exist, becomes Aramasi. 

Nari, to be, becomes Naramasi (-f >^^ -|j^ r ^^ ^C^ ih^)' 
Ktivd-siMri, to be fair, neat, excellent (page 120), becomes Kuvd-sikdramdsi. 
Siri, noscere, becomes Siramdsl, sciturum esse. 

Mavusi (pron. Mqosi), to mention, becomes Maviisamasi, Moosamasi. 
Iv)i, u, to say, becomes Ivamasi ('ZJ'^ 'fjjf ^)- 

Tamav)i, w, to grant, to bestow or confer on, becomes Tamavamasi. 
Sak)i, u, to unclose itself, to open, becomes Sakamasi. 

Hitomo naki " Yadono sakurava " saru tosino " Haruso sakamasi, the plum- 
tree of the inn, though there was nobody, would nevertheless open in the spring 

of last year. The definition of time: saru tost, = last year, also transfers masi to the preterit. 

If we compare the periphrastic Future Iva-masi with the periphrastic Present 
Ivi-masi (see 101. 2. a), it will appear, that the difference of the two forms is 
not in masi, but that it is in the verb connected with it, in the one case being 
the Future, and in the other the root-form. Thus when the native, on old autho- 
rity, seeks for the force of the Future Ivamasi in the termination st, and cha- 
racterises it as the Mi-raino si (%* ^$3 J JJb^i * e ^ e OT ' f *^ e Future, 
he errs. His Mi-raino si does not exist s ). 

1) Hiyaku-nin, N. 73. 

2) This has reference also to the Mi-raino si, adopted in RODRIGUEZ filemens. p. 6<> line 8 and line 16-22, 


In the rebus-writing this Masi is expressed by 59^ ^ an d * ne derivative 
form Masik)i, u, by ^J v ll&l^ forms to which the Japanese philologist him- 
self 'attributes the force of ffi% , Hossi, = will, and ~flj*2x, Best, - may, and 
which are to be distinguished from Mazi (59^ ^ see 95. 2. 2) ). 

B. The periphrastic Future of the spoken language. 

It is formed 1. by grafting (zi) zu (X), zuru, zureba, on the form of the 
Future, proper to the spoken language, zi t zu etc. being the euphonic mo- 
dification of si, su, sum, sureba, = to do. T^^X Akeo-zu, aperiturus est. 
Miu-zu, visurus est. Yukoo-zu, iturus est. 

2. By masoo or aroo, the Future of masi and ari, = to be, the first suffixed 
to the root, the second to the gerund of a verb. Kaki-masoo, I shall write. 
Kakite (or Kaite) aroo, I shall write. 

Remark. 1. Let us now just review the nine particles for the Future" quoted 
by RODRIGUEZ EUm. pag. 66 lines 7 and 8. 

Be)ki, si, = may, is a verb. See 101. 

Nan, the Future of Ni, 1. to go away, 2. to be in. . . See 84. 

Nuran, the Future of Nuri. See 84. 

Tsuran, a variation of Nuran. See 85. 

Taran, the Future of Tari, to be continually. See 78. 

Taran)zu, zuru, Future zuran, from Tari. See 78. 

Ten, - Tariken. See 82. 

Si, the Mirainosi, based on a misunderstanding. See p. 213. 75. II. 5. 

Bay a is a fusion of m or n, the characteristic letter of the Future, and haya, 
an exclamation, which, as an expression of complaint (Nagekino kotoba), ans- 
wering to our Alas," suffixed to a Future, indicates that what is at hand is 
execrated (Bay a negavi-sutsuru kokorono teniva nari). Kanasiki mono to nara- 
laya! Alas he will become a pitiful man! 

Consequently Motome-baya, Se-baya, Mi-bay a signify, he will, alas! strive 
for . . , he will, alas! do, or see. The same may be said of Yoma-baya, from Yomi, 
to read; Narawa-baya, from Naravi, to learn; Nara-baya (not Naruwa-baya) , from 
Nari, to be or to become. 

Remark. 2. The Future is used as a softened Imperative. Thus the poet says: 
Yakazu tomo " kusava moye-nan H Kasuka-no va N Tada faruno f, ni " maka- 
setaranan, even if it be not burned off, the grass will grow luxuriantly, therefore 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 75, 76. 215 

only leave the field of Kasuka to tlie vernal sun. Makasetari, he has left it to. 
Makasetaranan, he shall or may have left it to, is used, according to the Wagun 
Siwori, for the Imperative Makasetareyo. Just so in the colloquial: ide nasareo 
for ide nasarei, may your arrival happen, please come. 

Remark 3. For so far as they point to something future, the verbs which 
express the permission or liberty, the power or the obligation to do 
anything, come under notice here. They are Be)si, H, ku, I may; Ata)vi, v#, 
I am able, can, and *jjf $ $f$v^ 9 Too-sen tari, it ought to be, it must be, 
it shall be. 

Further illustration of them is given in 104. 


76. The terminations eba or iba of nondeflecting, and aba of deflecting 
verbs are the characteristics of the suppositive adverbial proposition, which, as 
a rule , precedes the principal proposition. They are , in my opinion , a fusion of 
the form of the future en or in and an with the local termination ni and the 
isolating va. From Aken-ni-va comes Akeba, T^'^ 1 )? pronounced as Akenba, 
on being about to open or as one will open; from Min-ni-va, Miba, 5. '"*, (Minba), 
on being about to see; from Yukan-ni-va, Yukaba, 2-#/^, on being about to 
go; from Maran-ni-va , War aba, :f">'^, in the spoken language even fusing into 
Mara, -f >, on being about to be, might it be. 

In the deflecting verbs, clearly noticeable is the difference between the sub- 
junctive Yukeba and suppositive Yukaba; not so in the nondeflecting verbs, 
since Ake-ni-va and Aken-ni-va both fuse into Akeba. For the definite indication 
of the suppositive character the help of the adverbial Mosikuva, vulgo Mosi, 
- albeit, in case of, is called in, and it is placed at the beginning of the suppo- 
sitive proposition. Mosi to wo akeba, might one open the door. 

In the ordinary style of speaking the form Nara is used not only for Nardba , 
but for Nareba also, thus with the signification of if it is," and as it is," as 
appears from the examples following: 

A Sore nara (or Sore de wa) kai maloo, as it is so (= then) I will buy it 2 ). 

1) The points, which characterise the impure 6a (/<) are commonly left out by careless writers, 

2) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 4. 

216 CHAPTElt VII. THE VERB. 76. 

Firu-mayeniwa mairi-ye masentt, before noon I cannot come. Sore ram*, firu- 
goni, then (the answer is), in the afternoon ') Nokordzu 0-kai nasdrti, warn, 
ondzi nedan d4 age-masoo, if you buy all, I will sell them for the same price 2 ). - 
Ydsui (- Yasuki) nara, tori-mdsoo, as (if) it is cheap, I will take it 3 ). 

The future in the Local and isolated by va (Aken-ni-va, on being about to 
open, if one shall open) mutates with the substantive form in the Local isolated 
by va (Akuru-ni-va, on opening), as appears from the passage following, taken 
from the introduction to a Japanese-Chinese Dictionary: 

at- J* K o 

J -tt* J A v. F~it6 to iu zi 100 ractfcwienniva, Fino buno ki- 

:- t ^^ Ab 

OP' }* HP 7 ^ giyoo-mon no sitawo miru besi. 

"ZT ^ "ZT7 Fdna to iu zi wo raoitomuruniva, Fa no buno 

*& Sx 3Pit *j?* ** 

"T* -rts ~T" sei-sw6ku mon no sita wo miru besi. 

p. ^ HB ^E -Bs ^ -^ one ^iH see ^- ^ or *^ e WOI> d FUo (man) , then 

JC h f i v >}C - 

2, y ^ one ought to look for it in the division Fi, under 

*,-' P ^ - ^ ne c l ass : breathing beings. 

If one seeks for the word Fana (flower), one 
ought to look for in the division Fa, under the 
class: plants. 


That the unfused forms J.^w-m'-va and Yukan-ni-va appear in the written 
and spoken language as Terminatives as well, equivalent to the Latin ad ape- 
riendum, ad eundum, cannot surprise us, since the local termination ni is also 
used as characteristic of the Terminative. (See 7. IV. b. g.) 

Remark. When in the Proem eener Japansche Spraakkunst of 1857, p. 146, I first explained the 
origin of the subjunctive and the^ suppositive form , I raised the question whether or not the Japanese 
themselves were clearly conscious of it, seeing that they so frequently confound the two forms. 
Mr. E. BEOWN, who has adopted my theory, at p. VII gives the following as answer to it: ,,Ja- 
panese Teachers know nothing of the rational of these formations and constantly affirm that the 
conjunctive is the same in sense as the conditional, and that Yukaba and Yukeba have the same signir 
fication; but Mr. HOFFMANN has ably and clearly demonstrated the distinction as above given. Indeed 
it is remarkable how many obscure points in the structure of Japanese words have been elucidated by 

I) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 17. 2) Ibid. p. 36. 

3) Ibid p. 3?. 

CHAPTER vn. THE VERB. 76, 77. 


one who has derived all his knowledge of Japanese from the study of books." I admit the last, 
provided Japanese books'" be understood. Before that time I had not had the opportunity of inter- 
course with Japanese, which I enjoyed afterwards, in 1862. 


77. The deflecting derivative forms ari, iri, ori, uri, as I have shown 
formerly l ) , are continuative forms of the verbal element i ( 68) , and express 
the continuance of movement or being in a condition or in an action. The choice 
of them was originally, and still is under the influence of a vocal harmony, 
which requires that the vowels of the subordinate syllables be accommodated to 
that of the principal syllable. 

Ari, Iri and Ori occur as substantive verbs with the signification of 1) to 
bo or exist ( ^ ) , and 2) dwell , stay ( ffi o J ^ ) , and have i , = to go , 
and i or # , wi , - seat , as root. These three verbs will subsequently be treated , 
further in 96, 97, 98. 

Examples of the derivation of continuative verbs. Here is to be remarked, 
that the forms between [ ] have not hitherto occurred to me, yet they must be 
supposed as basis of the derivative forms. 

Aki, light. 

Kdki , hook ; to hook , v. i. 

Satyi, u, unclose itself, 

to open, v. i. 
[Ag)i, u; rise.] 

[Sag)i, u, droop, hang 

, w augment, v. i. 
. . . zi (= n + si), not to be. 
Miz)i, w, not to see. 

Kak)e, w, uru, fasten, 
hang, v. tr. 

Ag)e, M, uru, raise. 

Sag)e, u, uru, cause to 

Akdr)i, u, shine, beam. 
Kakdr)i, u, be hanging. 

Sakar)i, u, be in blossom 

or bloom. 
Agar)i, u, be rising, 

Sagar)i, u, to be drooping. 

Masar)i, M, to be supe- 

. . . zar)i, u, continually 
not to be. 

Mizar)i, u, not to be 

1) Prone eener Jap. Spraakkunst, 1857. $ 37, 41. 

218 CHAMEfc VII. THE VERB. 77, 78. 

Araz)i, u, not to exist. 

[Sadam)i, w, to be deter- 
[Fazirn)i, u, to begin, v. i.~\ 

Tsidzim)i, u, wrinkle; 


Firom)i, u, to widen, v. i. 
Tsum)i, u, to accumulate, 

v. intr. 
Ok)i, u, rise. 

Ok)i(= Iki),u, breath; flame. 
Nok)i, u, recede. 

Nob)i, u, stretch, to be- 
come longer or taller. 

Mdts)i, u, wait, trans. 

Ne, sleep. Nem)i, u, to 
be sleepy. 

Sadam)e , u , uru , to deter- 


Fazim)e, u, uru, begin, 

v. tr. 

Tsidzim)e, u, uru, to crimp, 

v. tr. 

Firom)e, u, uru, to widen, tr. 
Tsum)e, u, uru, amass, 

v. tr. 

Nok)e, u, uru, to put back , 

to bequeath. 
Nob)e, u, uru, stretch, to 

make longer or taller. 

Arazar)i, u, not to be 

Sadamar)i, u, being deter- 

Fazimar)i, u, to be be- 

Tsidzimar)i, u, to be 

Firomar)i, u, to be widened. 

Tsum6r)i, u, to be amas- 

6k6r)i, u, to be rising, the 

8k6r)i, u, to be flamming. 

Nok6r)i , u, to be re- 

Nob6r)i, u, to be growing 
higher, to ascend, as 

smoke. * 

Mdtsur)i, u, to be wait- 
ing: ** 

Nemur)i, u, to be sleep- 

f Thence: Famani (not Yamawo) nobdri, to ascend a mountain. 
* JTontfwo mdtsuru, attend upon a god, make him a feast. Mdtsuri (not 
matsuri), the attendance, the feast. 

It is obvious that to this category the derivative adjectives in karu and gam 
also belong. See p. 113. 10. 

78. ..te ari, ..te ori, ..te iri. 

I. The continuative verbs Ari, Ori, Iri (= exist, dwell), in connection with 
it preceding gerund, form a continuative verb, to which the idea of a perfectum 
praesens also is attached. Akete-ari, Mite-ari, Yukite-ari, (he) is in the act 
of opening, he is seeing, is going, = aperiens est, videns est, iens est. Mdtsttt- 
Irn (pron. Mdtte-fru, or Matsite-6ru, he is in the waiting, Sltd-oru, = he dwells 
in the doing, he is doing. 


In the choice of Art, Ori or In, in the case before us, the vocal harmony, 
or rather the easy cadence, is noticeable, which had influence on one dialect 
more than another. In writings which pass for pure Japanese te-ari is found 
exclusively. If the assertion of a Japanese scholar 1 ) is just, which I may not 
doubt, the dialect of Yedo uses by preference, iru, seldom drii, whereas that 
of Miyako generally uses 6ru 2 ). Tab4te-6ru, to eat; Normte- (Nomde-, Nonde-) 
6ru, to drink; Strife- 6rtt , to know. Besides, the dialect of Nagasaki has 6ru. When 
the same writer at one time uses te-dru, then again te-6ru, he seems to pay 
attention either to the difference of signification which exists between ari and 
ori, or to the ease of the cadence. Kotode aru, the fact is. Sobdni dru 
fitd, some one who is near to. On the other hand: Tono soba-ni 6ru fitd, some- 
one who stands near to the door. Iritsthdno koto wo kondnde 6ru fitd, some one 
who is fond of antiquities. 

Ari, Ori and Iri are inflected as deflecting verbs. See 96, 97, 98. 

II. ..tari, ..taru, the contracted form of te-ar)i, u, in connection with a 
precedent noun, whether Japanese or Chinese, answers to our verb to be, or 
exist, when, connected with a word expressing a quality, it forms the predi- 
cate, e. g. he is glad. Forms of inflection, the same as of Ari ( 96); tari is 
the closing form, tarn, the substantive, as well as the attributive; taran, ta- 
ran)zu, zuru, zuran, frequently occur as forms of the future. 


Kind kimi tareba, sin sin 

tari, if the master is a 
master, then is the ser- 
o vant a servant. 


IIT 2 Wau-siya t&ru fitd, a man 

* u 

who is a ruler. 

^ ^t jdfo AU. Dai-kinwo faravu sets 1 mo dou-you taru besi 3 ), also at the 

^ e price, it shall be just so (it shall be done 

in the same way). 


2) A native of Yedo also told me: ',,0lokowa OOfi-masu to mouti mast; kodomo onna wa &i.-masu to 
mousi-mdau," i. e. The men say ori-mosu, women and children, Qxi-mdsu. 

3) Franco- Japanese Treaty of the 9 Oct. 1868, Art. VIII, al. 4, 

220 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 78, 79. 

^ Ttikto, sei-zin tari, tattdki koto Ten-si tari, as to virtue he is a 
? saint, as to worthiness he is a son of heaven (emperor). 

The spoken language changes this tari into dza, ^"^ , by some written 
(Engl. orthogr. ja, Fr. gia) Kore sai-siyo ziya (dza) = JTore sai-siyo tari or 
nari, ;& >? j^f, this is my home. Korega makotoni sen-nin ziya, this is really a 
genius. Soo ziya, nai, is it thus or not? li ziya, naika, is it good or not? Fataraku 
inonoka, is he an active man? Fataraku mono dziya! , he is an active man *). 


* 3 ' Kwa-ko). 

The form- words of the past tense are auxiliary verbs of time, by means of 
which derivative verbs are formed. 

79. . . tari, . . taru, in the spoken language ta, contracted from te-ari. It, in 
connection with a verbal root, expresses continuance in the condition or action, 
which, by the radical form of the precedent verb, is named as something just 
becoming. E-tari" and I have gotten" are both what is called the com- 
pleted present tense. 

The spoken language shortens tari and tdru to ta, which ta has also been 
admitted into the familiar written language. Opposite to Ta yd sonovd fUrubitdri, 
field or garden have become old, is, in the spoken language: Ta yd sonogdfu- 
rubitd; opposite to FurHbitdru ta yd sono, field or garden become old, is, in the 
spoken language: Fiiriibitd ta yd sono. 

Since it is the form of the gerund in te or de on which, after dropping the 
e, ari (or in the spoken language a) is grafted, the rules given ( 72) for the 
gerund are of application to the perfectum praesens also, in other words: the e 
of the gerund is, in the spoken language, simply superseded by a. 
Akete becomes Aketd. Yonde (= Yomite) becomes Yonda, read. 

Mite Mita. Naraote (Naravute) Narqota, learned. 

Yuite (= Yukite) Yuita. Atte (= Artte) Atta , been there. 

Maste(-Masite) Mas'ta, =been. Maitte (= Mairite) Maitta, has come t 

Compare RODKIGUEZ Elem. p. 84. 


Whether the perfectum praesens formed by tari have an active or a passive, 
a transitive or an intransitive signification, depends on the precedent root-word. 

Fund kisini tsuku, the ship comes to the shore, it lands; tstiMtdrt, has come 
to shore. Kisini tsiikitdru fund, a ship that has come to shore. F&ndwd 
kisini tsukdtdrt, one has brought the ship to shore. Kisini tsuketdru fund, a 
ship, that one has brought to shore. Sina-monowd mdtsi watdri, to import 
goods. Motsi watdri tdru sina-mono, goods which one has imported. 

Instances of the use of the Perfectum praesens. 

Koy)e, uru, to become thick, fat, corpulent. M'me ameni koyu, the plum 
becomes thick from the rain. M'me koydtdri, the plum has become thick. Ameni 
koyurii mme, plums, that become thick from the rain. Koyetdrti mme, plums, 
that have become thick. Tsuyu kuvdni tsukitdri, dew has attached itself to the 
mulberry leaf. Tsuyu (or Tsuyuno) tsukitdru kuvd, leaves to which dew has at- 
tached itself. Kai-fenwo isi-kabewo tsukite tsiyau-kawo tsurane tari, along the 
sea-shore one has built up a wall of stones and placed the houses of the place 
in a row. - - Mitsi wo satoritdrn fit6 , some one who has understood the way 
(the doctrine). Amanand kftni y6ri kitdru fit6 fitaini tsuno ari, fundni ndritd 
Yetzi-zennd Fino-urdni tsuki-tdri; yueni kono tokorowo Tsnn6-kd to nddznku, men 
come from the country of Amana, have had horns upon the forehead and sailing 
in a ship reached Fino-ura in Yetsizen; that is why people call that place; 
Tsunoka (hornshill). Ameno yamitdru dsa, in the spoken language; yanda 
asa, a morning when the rain has ceased. Watdksd tanomini maitta, I have 
come to beg you. ^-^ J$^ 3/^?$<'2, oo-tsi si-mas 'td, I have understood 
it, I shall not fail. 

Remark. The perfectum praesens in tari, formed from transitive verbs, as 
Ake, to open: Tsug)i, u, to pour in; Ir)e, uru, to make to go in, remains 
transitive even though expressions, as Tova aketari, Tsiyava tsugitari, Fiva 
iretari, because they are found translated: the door has been opened, the 
tea has been poured, the fire has been put in '), seem to plead for the 
passive signification. Opposite to the subject, isolated by va, door, tea, or 
fire, stands as predicate: one has opened, poured, put in. 

1) Japanese and Dutch Dictionary, by the Prince of Nakats. 


80. The form- word ..dri, ..6ru, 6reba, deflecting, when in deflecting verbs 
it takes the place of their verbal element i, expresses the continuance in the past, 
or the praeteritum praesens. Mds)i, u, to be; Masdri, has been. 

Er)i, u [to be distinguished from Er)i, u, that as a substantive verb means 
to choose] is a variation of ar)e, u (see 96), and, just as cm, is indicated in 
old- Japanese by ^ . Eri is the closing form , era the form of the substantive or 
attributively used noun; erame, eramu, = eran, the form of the Future. Exam- 
ples: Fdna sib6mH^ the flower fades; Fana sibomeri, the flower has faded; Si- 
bomdru /ana, a flower which has faded. Um)i, w, to bear; Umeri, to have 
born. Kisakino umeru ko, the son that the Queen has born; Kisakino umeran 
ko, the son that the Queen shall have born. 

Remark. The eru used substantively , or attributively is, particularly with 
the nondeflecting verbs in 0, superseded by esi ( 81), etaru ( 78) or erisi 
(thus Akesi, Aketaru or Akerisi), because the form Akdru already exists as 
a variation of Akuru, thus, as participium praesentis. 

If it be admitted that, behind eri as I suppose, the form Keri ( 82) is hidden, 
and thus that Masdri, by ellipsis has arisen from Mdsikdrt, with the meaning of 
which it is equivalent, then its signification is clearly explained by the origin 
of the form. 

Application of this rule. becomes ker)i, u. 

Kiki, to hear; Kiktri, 

Yuki, to go; Yuktri, ^ 

Saki, to open, v. int. Sakdri, 1 

Siki, to spread; Sikdri, 
Iki, to live; IMri, 

Kate, to write; Kdk6ri, 

. . si becomes ser)i, u. 

Nasi, to make be; Nasdri, J|J r ^=f ^. Yaddsi, to lodge; Yddose'ri, jffi 

Nok6si, to make stay behind, to post- Utsttsi, to remove; UtsusJri, ||| 

pone; N6kos4ri, ^3^^. Terdsi, to make shine; Terasitri, ffi 

Remark. The seri noticed here is arisen from si, the termination of factive 
verbs, and eri; it is to be distinguished from the derivative form ser)i, u 
which is a fqsion of the Kwa-konosi and eri. 


..tsi (= ti) becomes ter)i, u. 

Tdtsi, to stand up; Tatdri, 
Mdtsi, to watch; Matdri, t 
Mdtsi, to take; Motdri, ] 

Ivi, to say, to be called ; Iveri , 

Omdvi, to think; Omoveri, 

Sttagdm, to comply, to suit; 


Kdtsi, to overcome ; KaUri, \ 
Utsi, to strike, beat ; Uttri, '. 
Fandtsi, to let loose; Fdnatdri, 

. . vi becomes ver)i , u. 


Nivovi, to smell, v. int.', Nivovdri, 
Avi, to meet; Avdri, 

Tovi, to ask; Tovdri, 

Naravij to learn; 

..mi becomes mer)i, u 

Stimi, to reside; Sumdri, 
Sidzttmi, to sink; Sidzumdri, 
Kumi, to bail out; Kumdri , 
Umi, to bear; Umdri, 

r .< 

SUsumi, to advance; 


SVbomi, to fade; Stbomdri, 
Tsttbdmi, to bud; Tstibomdri, 

..ri bacomes rer)i, u. 


^? to become; Nardri. 

Tsumdri, ^ T , to accumulate ; Tsumordri. 


scatter; zw^r-.; Tsirdri. 

Komdri , 

ij , to stick in, int. Komordri. 
i) , to exceed , Masardri. 
, to fall down , Furtri. 

Examples of the use of the forms, u, 

[7sfo?z#&)i, w, to succeed]. Tovi-ya akindvi-ya f$t6 sUdsini tate-tstidz'ttkdri. 
Sdredd tokdro dokdroni tird-mdtsimo ari, the custom-houses and shops (of Simo- 
noseki) succeed one another in one line. Although there are back-streets also. 

[Mds)i, u, to be; Masdri, has been]. JV. . . fim6no kamiva NN . . . nusino 
kami ya-firo-wani ni narite, miavi-maseri , as regards the goddess N., the god NN. 
having changed into a crocodile eight fathoms long, has. paired with her. 
Amaterdsu kamiva fiddrino mi me-wo aravi-tamdvi-si tokini ndri masdru kami nari, 
the heaven-illuminating god is a god, that came into existance (ndri-masdrit) , 
when (both the creators) had washed their left eyes. Kova tsueni ndri-mas^ru 
(or tsu&ni narerisi) kami nari, this is a god that has become a staff. 

1) To be distinguished from the auxiliary verb, Mn-i, explained in $ I US. 

224 CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 80, 81. 

Kakar)i, u, to be suspended. | 3 s h J M ~ 

'{ffj^, Kami-yoni ameto tsutsito no avidani kakarera. fasi, the bridge (rainbow) 
which in the ages, when gods allone existed, was suspended between Heaven 
and Earth. 

\_OTcds)i, u, violate.] Oranda-zin ve tai-si fouw6 okdsertf, Nippon-zinva, Ja- 
panese, who against Dutchmen have violated the law. Nippon-zimai tai-si 
fouwo okasi-tdru Oranda-zin va , Dutchmen, who against Japanese have violated 
the law *). 

[Tamav)i, M, to condescend, to grant, German geruhen, applied to princely 
persons]. Mikotono faki-tamaveru hoii-ken, the costly sword that the prince 
has or had girded on. 

[Sir)i, M, to get to know; ?Wn, he knows. Mitsino okonavarezaru ware 
korewo sireri, that the way is not practised, this I have gotten to know (this 
I know). 

[Itdr)i, M, come to (the point any one will reach); Itdrdru, the having got 
at, having reached]. Sono itareruni oy6nde, getting at it, having reached it, 
= reaching the non plus ultra. Tsiu you sore itareru kana! oh that one had 
reached the middle way! 

[Nok6r)i, u, to be left], Nokdrit mono, something that is left. Nokordru 
mono or Nokori-si mono, something that has remained over. 

81. The form-words (^f) or (s/), grafted on the verbal root in e 
or i, in the narrative style and in poetry characterise the simple perfect absolute, 
and, like the Aorist Indie, of the Greek, express the action as completed at a 
fixed time and without continuance or repetition. Ki is the indicative closing- 
form (= he was); si, which passes under the name of Kwa-kono si and is to be 
distinguished from the Gen-zaino si (page 107), the form in which the verb 
appears as noun substantive or even as attributive (as participle, = been); kerne, 
kemu, ken, the future (= shall or may have been). 

Ake-ki, Mi-lsi, Yuki-ki, ^4n'-ki, = aperuit, vidit, ivit, fuit, he opened, he saw, 
he went, he was there. 

.4fo-si, Mi-eit Yuki-si, Ari-si, to have opened it, to have seen it, having 
gone etc., or, attributive, the having opened, the having seen, etc. 

1) The Treaty between the Netherlands and Japan. t858. Art. V, al. 1 , 2. 


Ake-lzen, Mi-ken, Yuki-ken, -4n'-ken, = aperuerit, viderit, iverit, fuerit, = he 
will have opened, have seen, he will have gone, have been. 

The action defined by the Kwa-ko no si is one, perfect or completed, with 
relation to the period, that is defined by the predicate verb which closes the 
sentence. With relation to a present, the time indicated by si is thus a simple 
preterit; with relation to a preterit it becomes, logically, our plusquamperfectum , 
with relation to a future on the other hand our futurum exactum. 

Remark. The elements ki and si are verbs which signify coming and 
going and with the precedent verbal root, on which they are grafted, form 
compound verbs. Ari-ki and Ari-si thus mean the arrival and the departure 
of existence; forms which express the idea of having been. Compare the ex- 
pression: Nous venons de le dire J ). 

In the pure Japanese style the ki of the past tense is found explained by 
2f (ldi, = io come), or also by ^, e. g. Kaheri-ki, 6^-^ 2J"v*> he returned, 
and it mutates with nu and tsu (see 84, 85). 

As substantive verb with the meaning of come, Ki has the forms of Ku, Kuru, Kite etc., whereas 
Si with the meaning of go away occurs in Sin^i, u, uru, die; Siv)i, iru, to be dead; whence 
Sivi-ne , dead rice (Oryza sterilis); Me-sivi, dead to the eyes, = blind; Mimi-sivi, dead to the 
ears, = deaf. Derived from Si, is the continuative form Sar)i t w, to go away. 

Ken, old-Japanese Kemii (= shall have been), is indicated in writing by 
JSjj ^ (Kan) , and - - by Japanese scholars themselves explained as a word 
that brings the past into doubt" 2 ). 

Examples of the use of Ki as closing form: 

rBJ ft* 1ft? 

-l ^H i h """*- K no m i fasirano kamiva mina fttdri garni narl-masite , mi 
f^Pi Jjiftlf ^*^ mi wo kdkftsi tamavi ki, these three Kamis were solitary 
Jfp a fij/" ^ ^jft % Kamis , and kept their persons (themselves) concealed. 

1) Here, is to be remarked what is mentioned by The Notitia linguae Sinicae of Premare , by J. o. 
BRIDGMAN, page 54, about ^ lai and d> k'iu. 

2) //% ^- 3 ^ t > * ^ ^ v Wa-ffw Sitoori, under Ken. 



a) Examples of the use of the form in si as noun substantive: 

Ko-zinno iveri-aimo samo arinu ben, also what the ancients have said (of it), 

must have been of this nature. Iveri, continuative past form of Ivi, Ii, to 

sa y. _ Samo, = Slkdmo, so, in this manner. 

As noun substantive the form in si is declinable, thus: 

1. Ari-siva, the having been, or what has been. Ari-simo, also what has 
been (subjective substantive proposition). Nokorisi kavikono siyau ('^^ ) asiku 
nari si mo kono y%e naran, this may be the reason why the silkworms remaining 
have become bad of nature. 

2. Ari-sini, 3. Ari-siniva, 4. Ari-site, while there has been. 

5. Ari-si yori kono kata, since there has been. 

6. Ari-si-yu6, Ari-si-kara, 7. Ari-sini yorite or yotte, while, or as there has been. 

8. Ari-sikaba (= Ari-si-sikaba) , whereas or since there has been. Motome- 
sikaba, Yomi-sikaba , Narai-sikaba , Mi-sikaba 1 ), as one has sought for, read, 
learned, seen. Ari-sika-tomo , though there has been. 

9. Ari-si nari, = it has been there. 

10. Ari-si koto ari, Ari-si to ari, = it is fact (koto) that there has been. - 
Ari-si to kaya, it may be that there has been. 

b) Examples of the use of the form in si as noun adjective: 
Nokori-si kaviko, the remaining silkworms. Sari-si Fotdke, the departed 
Buddha. Sar)i, u, to go away. Kono tanewo motome-si fit6 mare nari, people 
who have procured this seed, are rare. Kan-kiwo sinogisi (or sinogittau) 
reino koto, the manner in which people have kept off the frost. N. . . ga norisi 
fund, the ship in which N. . . had sailed. Ame furazu " fi-no kasanareba, " 
take-si ta mo, " maki-si fatake mo " asa gotoni sibomi kare-yuku, - when there 
is a repetition of not rainy days, then not only the burned field, but also the 
sown plough-land fades, and dries up every morning it becomes more faded 
and drier every day. Sikdruni Ten no kakoni ya ariken, he will thus have stood 
under Heaven's protection. 

The Kwa-kono si shows itself also in both the words Figdsi, pron. Fingdsi 

1) By this, is what RODRIGUEZ page 66 line 7 from bottom says explained: ,,Le conjonctif a encore une 
forme particuliere a la longue ecrite, c'est sikaba, que Ton ajoute aux raclicanx de tous les verbes, comnie 
molome sikaba, yomi sikaba, narai fifc 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 81, 82. 227 

and Nisi, = East and West, FVngdsi being a contraction of Fmo-mukdi-si kata, 
= the side on which the sun has come to meet, and Nisi an abbreviation of 
F4no Vm'-si kata, the side to which the sun has gone away. 

82. ..ker)i, u (= ki-|- eri, = has been), the deflecting continuative form of 
ki (=was), characterises the perfect present tense. Forms of inflection, the same 
as those of eri, thus: 

Keri, Kesi, closing-form, = has been. 

K6ru, form of the verb, used as substantive and adjective, = the having been, 
or having been; . . . Keru nari, has been. 

Kerebd, as, when, since it has been. 

Keredomo or Kerutomo, although it has been. 

Keran, commonly Ken, shall have been. Keraba, if it has been. 

Kerdku, adverbial form, = as has been, e. g. li-keraku, as it has been said. 

Keraz)i, u, negative, = has not been. 

ATI, there is; Ari-Jd, there was; Ari-keri, there has been. 

Ideographically keri, keru is expressed by >5J^ ~j" , phonetically by Jj|, the 
name of a bird ; that cries gM gdri and therefore is called Keri in Japan. Jj^ ~T J||J 
stands for Kereba. 

The adjectives in ki and stki (pp. 105 107 and 109), which form a continua- 
tive present in kdri, instead of kari assume keri for the form of the praesens 

Taka)ki, ku, high; Tdka-kdr)i, u, is high; Tdka-keri, was high. 

Be)ki, leu (Ijf" 4 ), possible; Be-kari, is possible; Be-keri, was possible. 

Nd)ld, ku, (^^), without, ..less, Na-kdri, there is not; Na-keri, there was not. 

Distinguish: Urdslsd kayiri nasi, = the joy is boundless; kagiri nakdri, = ia 
continually boundless ; - - kagiri nakeri or nakesi, = was boundless ; - - kagiri 
nakari-keri, = has been continually boundless. 

Since this distinction is confirmed by the Japanese spoken and written lan- 
guage, as will be seen by the following examples, we hesitate to agree with the 
opinion of those J ) , who declare kari and keri to be identical. Nevertheless , we 
leave the spoken language of Ye"do full right to use keri, where kari is meant. 

1) K. BKOWN, Grammar, XXIII. $ 20. 

228 CHAPTER vii. THE VERB. 82, 83, 84. 

Examples of the use of these forms. 

[Ydsukii light, easy]. Nippon sei vd tsudzukd ndku ki-teu suru koto ydsu- 
kdri kdri, the unmolested return of the Japanese army was easy. 

\Nari (Nare), to become]. Sono rei-kon ke site kaviko-to narikeru to kaya, 
her soul transforming will have become a silkworm. 

[Sir6ki, white]. Sei-nei Ten-wau mumare nagaranisite mi kusi sirokari kereba, 
Siragano Ten wau to nadzuke tatematsuru, as Emperor Seinei's hair was white at 
his birth, they have called him Emperor White-hair. 

[Tsiisaki, small]. Mayu tsiisakereba, ito fosokusu, if the silk-cocoon was 
too small, the thread is too fine. 

[Asiki, bad], Kore yori te-ire asikereba, notsini iro-irono yamam to nari, 
as from that point, the treatment (of the silkworm) was bad, afterwards it gets 
to different diseases (different diseases arise). 

\Yor6siki, good]. Ano kodzukaino tsiitdmega yordsikerebd, watdk&siwa na- 
gdku tstikde-masoo t6 tim6i-mdstt J ), = that servant's services having been good, I think 
I shall keep him. 

Nanu-ka tatsu-besi to ari-kereba, mina-mina yorokobi isami-keri, as we were 
to depart on the seventh day, every one was full of joy and courage. 

83. . . tari-ki, . . tari-si, fat . . tari-ken; . . te-ki, . . te-si, fut . . ten. By graf- 
ting the form- word ki, si, keri on the continuative form tari ( 79) the forms 
tari-ki, = he was being; tari-ken, = he shall have been; tari-keri, = he has 
been, are obtained. 

The poet supersedes tari-ki, tari-si, tari-ken with te-ki, te-si, ten, also 
Om6vi-tesi and Tsikdvi-tesi are considered to be equivalent to Omovi-tarisi (having 
thought) and Tsikdvi-tdrisi (having sworn) 2 ). 

Wasuraruru " miwoba omovdzu; " tsikavi tesi 
Fitono inotsino " osikumo aru kana! 3 ). 

I do not think of myself as being forgotten; oh! the charmingness of the life 
of the man who has sworn (love) to me, exists still! 

84. [], nu, future nan; [nuri], nuru, nureba, future nuran. 

Ni, a deflecting auxiliary verb of time, come, by aphaeresis, from *ro, tnu 

1) E. BROWN'S, Japanese Colloquial N. 689. 

2) Wa-gun Siwori, unter Tesi. 3) Hiyafai-min, N. 38. 



= to go away ( o ), and expressed in the old written language, by - 
(to go or pass away) , grafted on the root of a verb , by which its termination e 
fuses with %nu into enii, and the termination i, with %nu into inii, implies the 
passing away of a condition or of an action, i. e. the action coming to an 
end. Whereas Ake denotes the opening" as an action first beginning, and 
Akete-oru continuance in the opening," Ake-taru to have opened:" AMnu proper 
to the old written language, denotes the ending of the opening." Sidz&mi, to 
sink; Sidzuminu, it sinks away, it goes away into the depth. Fate, disappear; 
Fi iri fatinu, the sun sets (and) disappears. Iri, to go in, appears here as 
coordinated, in the indefinite root-form (see 68). The rule on coordination 
excludes the use of the root-forms ni and nuri; since, however, they form the 
basis of further derivatives, they must be first brought under notice here. 



Aorist of the Present. 

Continuative Preterit. 

Aorist of Preterit. 

Continuative Preterit. 



Ni-ki, 4^ 3fc, 

Ni-keri =^ 3fc, 

Nu, ^t**. 

** , ST**' 

went away. 

has gone away. 
Ni-keri, Ni-kesi. 

Noun substantive or 

0.1 U, " 

Nuru , : 4-* %s) 

Ni-si, (U^, 

Ni-keru , having 



passing away. 

gone away. 

gone away. 

* s ffip. 

Nureba, on pas- 

Preterit. . , 

Ni-tar)i, u. 

sing away. 

Conditional form . 


Namii, T L , 

Nuramu , 

Ni-ken , shall 

Nan, ~Y &, 


have gone away. 


shall be going. 

shall go. 

Naba 4fa, ill , 

Nuraba, if the 

0.1 a uai , i^tf^ ^ij j 

/ < ^o. 

passing away 

shall be. 


have gone away. 

230 CHAPTER Vii. THE VERB. 84. 

The auxiliary verb Ni, Nu, Nuru (to go away) is distinguished from the 
substantive verb Ni (to be) in-as-much as the latter has the appositive definition 
what something is, before it in the form of a noun. (See 100. L). 

Remark. 1. Attention must be paid to the three forms of the future nan, nuran 
and niken. From their derivation, as it appears in the synopsis, the logical result 
is, that they must have the signification there noticed: and this conclusion is 
confirmed by the definition which the Wagun Siwori gives of the three forms. 

1. Xfenva mi-raiwo kakete ivu kotoba nari, i. e. Nan is a word used with a 
view to the future. 

2. Ranva gen-zaiwo utagavuno kotoba wan', i. e. Ran (= Aran) is a word which 
brings the present into doubt (should it be?). 

3. Kenva kwa-kowo utagavuno kotoba nari, i. e. Ken is a word which brings 
the past into doubt (should it have been?). 

Remark 2. Since r -J- n by assimilation becomes nn, Owari-nu (= it ends) 
passes into Owannu, X *9 &"% , being the auxiliary verb nu (^* 5? ) with a view 
to this example, called Owannuno Nu or the Nu of Owannu. 

Instead of Ari-nan (there shall or may be), in the dialect of Yamato Ara-nan 
also occurs for euphony. 

Examples of the use of the auxiliary verb ni, nu. 

\TSn.~\Fatovatdkanitiwardte Sjakson-no fudoMro-ni tdbi-iri nu, the dove, pur- 
sued by the falcon , flew into S'akya's lap. Soreyori Sado ve tsuki-nu. Mata zyun 
fuu arazareba, ni zyu fi-meyo tou-riu-su, thence they came to the island of Sado. 
As again there was no favorable wind , they stayed there till after the 20 th day. 
Umi-nite kazeni aterare, kwan-gun riwo usinavUte, Zin-muno mi iroje sannin 

>/L Z^.v yVv) tok6ro dok6ro nite use-tamavinu, as they were overtaken by 
wind at sea, and the government's troops lost the advantage, Zin-mu's three 
elder brothers were lost at different places. Kami-agari-si masi-nu, he (the 
prince) has gone on high (died). Agari, going up; Si, do. Ko-zinno iverisimo 
samo an'-nu besi, also what the ancients have said, will have been so. 

[Nuru.] Yau-sanwo set-loo (^J> >fcf) no waza kok6roye-nwo. fito mo arinu 
besi, it may be that there were people, who considered the breeding of silkworms 
a murderous occupation. Flsdsiku kai-dei ni fanberi-vxan. aida, > during my 
long stay at the botton of the sea," the beginning of a speech by the sea-god, 
when he showed himself before the other gods. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 84, 85. 231 

[Nan.] Midzukara matsurovi-sitagavi-n'&mvi, or: Midzukdra mdtsur6vi-ndmu 
( ^ y _ Jjjl? ^CA) ne w iH come under subjection of oneself 1 ). The poet, 
instead of Matsi-nan, he will wait, uses Matanan also. 

[Naba.] M'mava fikare-nabs,, asiki mitsinimo iri-nu besi, if the horse is led, 
it may have turned into even a bad road. 

[Nureba.] Fide-yorimo Tsiyau-zen suddniyabure-nureba,, sadamete Dai-Min yori 
sukuvdn-kotowd om dnhakdrite , Fide-yori considering that, when Tschao-sien should 
at last have been brought under subjection, help would certainly come from 

[Nuran.] Furuki way a iku-yo /0-nuran? the old stone house, how many ages 
may it still last? ~fe Jjj ^ jffi ^ J^. From the Chinese translation annexed, 
it appears that by fe-nuran the future (may last) is intended , whereas by fe-niken 
the fiit. exactum (shall or may have lasted) would be indicated. 

The poet, instead of nu, uses yuku (^7), = goes, probably to fill up his 
verse, e. g. Mdkisi fatdkemd sibomi kare yuku, even the corn land, where one 
has sown, goes to fade (and) to dry up. 

85. . .tsu, tsutsii (^ ? ^ ); . . tsur)i , u , eba , future an, an auxiliary verb 
of time proper to the Yamato dialect and the narrative style, and as such, 
grafted on the root, as well as on the future form of a verb, it expresses the going 
away of an action, or of a condition, and characterises the past time absolute. 
Tsu, tsuru passes as a variation of nu, nuru z ) (84). As predicate closing-form 
of a proposition tsu (or mostly dzu, ^*) is in use by preference, in the dialect 
of the districts from Owari to Yedo s ). 

Tsutsu, as a doubling of tsu, implies the repetition (iterative form), om6vi- 
tsutsu being made equivalent to om 6vitsu-om dvitsu , = I thought and thought. 
Tsuri, continuative, = has been; tsuru, = having been; tsurdn (tsurdmu), = shall 
have been. 

In the old rebus-writing tsuru lurks under the character )^, which means 
tsudzuru, to sew to; Mi-tsuru, to have seen, is denoted by J^ )^ ; Kiki- 
tsuru, to have heard, by ^ $&. Most common are the expressions "XTe ^i 

1) Nippon-ki> 

2) Tsuru is also considered as a modification of te-aru. >,Te-aru, teare" 1 tco isudzumete ,,tsuru, tsuri* 
to ivu, i. e. contracting Te-aru and te-are , one says tsuru, isure. Wagun Siwori under Tsuru, 

3; Wa-gun Siwori, under Tsu. Vol. 16. p. \. recto. 

32 CHAPTER vii. THE VERB. 85. 


litsu, said; ^ fy~ y , Mitsu, seen; ^^ ? , Kikitsu, heard; ,J| :?, omdvitsu, 
thought; Hj|ff ^, Kurdsltsu, become dark. 
Examples of the use of these forms. 

^e .,d || . Kova keqare wo nikumi-tamavu mi-tama ni yorite ndri 

4u ^^ J I , . % II*' 3 ^ 

___. = ^0 7 -^ masitsii , this (goddess) has arisen , as an emanation 
fffl - it" " 

tP-t- 1^^ fr m * ne spirit detesting uncleanness. 

Remark. In the same author, instead of nari-masitsu (- has arisen), 
maseri, nari-maseru nan, and nareru nari alternately occur. (Compare 80). 

Inuru tosi NN. ni tovaresi koro, kasikono fuu-doioo kiki tsu, when, last year 
inquiry was made of NN., I heard of the manners and customs of that country. 
Kono Kamino mi sudzi simoni sirusitsu or also sirusdri, = as to the pedigree 
of this Kami, one has made mention of (it) below 1 ). Dasa yosasi tokoroni 
yuite, Ten-wauno sono ts&mawo tsukavasitsvra. koto wo kikite, tasukdwo moto- 
mento omdvti*), when Dasa, going to the place of his destination, heard, that 
the Emperor had had his wife sent to him, he begun to think of seeking help 
(for her). 

Fotot6gisu " ndki tsiiru kdtawd " ndgamureba, 

Tdda dridkend " tsukizd nokdrerti 3 ). 

If I look towards the side, where the cuckoo has called, 
Then, there only the moon has remained shining by clear daylight. 
Nokordru fdnava H kevu mo tsiri tsutsu, 
Waremo ukitaru " yowo sugusi tsutsu. 

The remaining flower, has been strewed to day (leaf for leaf). 
Oh I too have passed the floating time of life (step by step). 

Fuzino takd-neni H yukl vd furi tsutsu. 
On the high top of the Fuzi it has snowed (repeatedly). 

Remark. In writing, tsutsu is frequently expressed by ^, a sign used 
for Nagdra, - in the midst of, while (Chapter VIII. III. 2). Probably some 
identify this tsutsu, with the dzutsu, = at a time, treated in 35, p. 145. 

1) Sudzi, the object of the transitive riruri, to mention, is, by inversion, placed before the verb. 

2) Nippon-*, 14, 12. 3) |J ^ -^ - Hiyaku-nin issu, N. 81. 




Nondeflecting conjugation. 

Deflecting conjugation. 

BOOT-FORM, declinable. 

AKE, open. 

MI, see. 

YUKI, go. 

Imperative ^= Vocative 

Ake, open. 

Ynke , go ! 


Miyo, see. 




Akeni, to opening, to 

Mini, to seeing, to see. 

Yukini, to going, to 

Instrumental , Modal 

Akete , by opening , 

Mite, by seeing, seeing. 

Yukite (Yuite), by 


Akete va, as one 
Akete wa, opens. 
Akete mo, though one 

Miteva,| as one 
Mitewa, ) sees. 
Mite mo, though one 


going, going. 
Yukite va , ] as one 
Yukite wa, ) goes. 
Yukite mo, though one 


With suffixes definitive 
of time. 

Akete kara,") 
( after the 
yori, > 
I opening. 
notsi, J 

Akeba (- Ake -f- ni -f- 
va), as one opens. 
Akedomo (- Ake-j- ni 
-|- tomo), though one 

Mitekara, ) 
/ after the 
yori, > 
I seeing. 
notsi, ) 

Yukite kara,) after 
yori, f the 
notsi, ' going. 
Yukeba (=Yuke + ni 
-(- va) , as one goes. 
Yukedomo (- Yuke + 
ni + tomo) , though 


one goes. 


Aku, one opens. |Miru, one sees. |Yuku, one goes. 



Akeru or Akuru, I. the 
opening, 2. opening. 
Akeru va,] the opening, 
Akeru va,J thato.opens 
3> mo, though opening. 


to open. 

Miru, 1. the seeing, 2. 

Miru va, the seeing, that 

one sees. 

Mirum6, though seeing. 
Miruni, to the seeing, 

to see. 

Yuku, 1. the going, 2. 

Yukuva, the going, that 

one goes. 

Yuku m6, though going. 
Yukuni, to the going, 

to go. 



Nondeflecting conjugation. 

Deflecting conjugation. 

Lkunini va , on the 

Miruniva, on the see- 

Yukuni va, on the going, 

opening, as one opens. 

ing, as one sees. 

as One goes. 

Akureba, as one opens. 

Mireba , as, or if one 


Akuredomo, though 

Miredomo , though one 

one open. 


Akuru to ledomo, 

Miru to ledomo, though 

Yuku to iedomo, 

though one opens. 

one sees. 

though one goes. 


Akeki, he opened. 

Miki, he saw. 

Yukiki, he went. 

Attribut. and declina- 


Mi si. 

YnMsi, Yukesi. 

ble substantive form. 

Akeker)i, u, has 

Miker)i, u, has seen. 

Yukiker)i, u, has gone. 


Yuker)i, u, eba. 

Akeken. shall have 

Mi ken, shall have seen. 

Yuken, shall have gone. 


Aietar)i, u, 

Mitar)i, u, 

Yukitar)i, u, 

A Aketa, has opened. 

A Mita, has seen. 

A YuMta, Yuita, has 




Akenm (old Jap.) 

Mi mu. 

Yuka mu. 

Aken, shall open. 

Min, shall see. 

Yukan, shall go. 

A Akeo, shall open. 

A Miu, also Miyoo. 

A Yukao, A Yukoo. 

Aken to s)i, u, to be 

Min to s)i, u, to be 

Yukan to s)i , u , to be 

about to open. 

about to see. 

about to go. 

Aken tote, syncope of 

Min tote, syncope of 

Yukan to te, syncope 

Aken to site, being. 

Min to site, being 

of Yukan to site, 

about to open. 

about to see. 

being about to go. 

Akeba (- Aken + ni -f- 

Yukaba (= Yukan +ni 

va), on being about 

+ va), on being about 

to open , if one open. 

to go, if one go. 




87. The causative verbs, which denote a causing to take place or a car- 
rying out of the action, such as our raise (make rise), drench (make drink), 
are formed by means of the deflecting verb si, su, future san (^^), = to do. 
In nondeflecting verbs in e or i this si is suffixed to the root, by which the 
derivative forms esi or isi (or sometimes instead of isi , osi and usi) arise , whereas 
in deflecting verbs their termination i at the same time passes into a (or some- 
times, for vocal harmony, into o, see 76), by which the derivative forms asi 
or osi are obtained; e. g. Yuki, to go; Yukdsi, make go. Noki, to go back; 
Nokosi, to make go back. - The verbs, which have ori or uri as continuative 
form (see 88), have osi or usi as their causative form. In 103 Si, to do, 
is treated as a substantive verb. 

Sometimes nondeflecting se, suru, future sen, takes the place of S)i, u. Se 
passes for a syncope of sim)e: uru, future en, ^ff, = have do. See 88. 
Ivase, have say, Kikase, have hear, are at least in the Manyo siu, explained 

The following may serve as examples of the derivation of causative verbs: 

1. Kdy)e, eru, 

2. M)i, iru, 

3. N)i, iru, 

4. Yuk)i, u, 

5. Ugok)i, u, 

6. Nom)i, u, 

7. YdsUm)i, u, 

8. Si, 

9. S>', u, 

, to return, v. i.] Kayes)i, u, to make turn back , to return , 

v. tr. In Yedo: Kairu, Kaisu. 
Mis)e, eru, uru, to make see, to show. 
Nis)e, eru, uru, to make resemble, to 


Yukas)i, u, to make go. 
Ugokas)i, u, to move, v. tr. to make move. 
Nomas)i, u, to give drink (Fitdni mi- 

dzuwo, water to somebody). 
Yasumds)i, u', also e, uru, to rest, v. tr.', 

contracted Yasunz)i, u. 
Sas)i, u, ^f^ ^f^ to make go away, 

to send, to dispatch (a messenger). 
Sas)e, uru, to make do. Ne-sase, to make 

a , to see; 

~, to resemble; 

3% to move, v. i. 
, to drink; 

;^, to rest, v. i.; 
^, to go away; 
i 5 ^, to do; 

10. Kudz)i, uru, J))j .^, to fall , descend. Kudds)i, u, to make fall , to precipitate , 
Kuddri, ^f , go from above to v. tr. 

below; a line of Japanese writing. 



11. Av)i, u, 

12. ToZ)z, M, 

to unite, v. i.', Avas)i, u; e, uru, to unite, v. tr. 

to soar, fly; Tobas)i, u, to make soar or fly; 

13. Asob}i,u, jJI^, to play, to ramble. Asobas)i, u, to make ramble, to amuse, 

to please. 

14. Ni , to be ; Nar)i, u, to be continually. Nas)i, u , ffi ,, to make be , to produce. 

15. Nas)i, u, to make; Nasas)i, u, to make produce. 

16. Nar)i, u, R||rj\ to sound, v. i.', Nards)i, u, to make sound. 

17. Ter)i, u, )}f^, shine; Terds)i, u, to make shine, to illuminate. 

18. Dzi 1 ), yj ^i - ^dz)i, u, to come Das)i, u, or ^dds)i, u, to make go out off. 
out of; Fiinewo Vddsu, to make a ship start. 

19. Ni, ^Hf = , burden, load. Nor)i,u, to be Nos)e, uru, ^j, to make ride, to 
a burden; to ride, go in a carriage; carry, to convey. 

20. K)i, uru, 2J*, to come, Kos)i, u, to make come. 

21. Ok)i, iru, ^E^, to get up, to rise; Ok6s)i, u, to raise. 

22. Nok)i, u, JH,^, to go back, to re- Nok6s)i, u, to make go back; ^f , to 
cede, retreat; leave behind. 

23. Ots)ij iru, uru, ^^^ to fall; Otds)i, u, to make fall, to fell. 

to wax, grow; Ov6s)i, u, J^ ^ , to make wax or grow. 

^^, to bear (on Ov6s)e, uru, or 06s)e, uru, / (4J#, obsol. 

, to burden; a charge. 

24. Ov)i, uru, tf\ 

25. Ov)i\ u (0)i, u), 
the back); 

26. Uruv)i, u, JH! 

27. Or)i, iru, 

, to get moist; 
to descend; 

Uruvos)i, u, to moisten, quicken. 

Or6s)i, u, ~TC a , to make descend (z' 


28. Or)i, u, 

29. Kor)i, u, 

riwo, to throw out the anchor). 
Ords)i, u, ^ Jg, to make dwell. 

i, w, to make clot; to kill, ^f. 
Korosds)i, u, to make kill. 

f , to make go away, to 

to dwell; 
, to clot; 
Kor6s)i, u, to kill; 

30. /, to go away. Yor)i, u, to be going Tos)e, uru, 
away; send. 

31. Tstifyi, iru, uru, fr|, to get ex- Tstikus)i, u, 
hausted or consumed; sume. 

Remark. If we do not, as Japanese etymologists 2 ), reduce Nasi (= to cause 

, to exhaust, to con- 

1) The root *p is preserved in the family name J * [jj 
The change of ? into ^ is very common. 
2} Wagun Siroori, under Nati. 

J , K ni yama, =: sunrise mountain. 


to be, to give existence to anything) to Na (^*), = name, but derive it from 
Ni, = to be, the soundness of such a derivation is pleaded for, not only by the 
analogy of the Latin factivum facio , which comes from fio , or the Sanscrit bhd- 
vaydmi derived from bhu, to be; but the Japanese causative verbs themselves 
concur in supporting it. Thus we are of opinion also , that Asobasi (= to please) is 
a causative form, whereas the Japanese philologists l ) see in it a contraction of 
Asobi-{-masi (^^ ^p = * b e pleasing oneself; an opinion with which we 
could agree, if the passive form Asobasare, = be pleased, an ordinary expression 
of politeness, did not make us suppose a causative Asobasi (= to please), as a 
logical necessity. 

The causative verbs derived from intransitive verbs have the object, which 
is made active, in the accusative before them. Tsnkiva sir o wo terdsu, the moon 
makes the castle shine, enlightens it. 

Examples of the use of the forms. 

Tsitsi korewo nasi, ko korewo n6bu 2 ), the father originates it, the son con- 
tinues it. Kimi takawo tobdsti,, the prince lets the falcon fly. Is-sekiwo 
motte korewo tstikuri nasi-tdri, one has made this out of one stone. Tomiva 
dkuwo ur&vdsi, tdknva mi wo ur&v6sti, 3 ), riches moisten (quicken) the house, virtue, 
the person. - Zin-siyavd saiwo mdtte mi wo okdsi, fu-zin-siyava mi wo motte saiwo 
okdsti 4 ) , the humane man uses his fortune to exalt himself, the inhumane man 
his person to push his fortune higher. Midare, sidzumarazaruwo yasunzi otdsu, 
he quiets and subdues those, who behave disorderly and unquietly. Sekt-siwo 
yasunzilrw ga gotdsi 5 ) , it is as if one quieted a suckling. Kimi ni tsukdyuru 
tokiva stinavdtsi tndtsiwd tsukusu, when (I my) prince serve, then it is with all 
my life. Kotobawo tsukiisu, to exhaust his language, i. e. say all that is to 
be said. 

t' Iraf^ ~& Sono kotobawo tsukusu koto wo dzu (pron. ddzu)*), he does 

-* * 3 ~^nff. ~2 i/ t / / ' 

_H^>* ^ fll^ n0 ^ e ^ ( ne ^ oes n0 ^ succee d in) exhausting his reasonings. 

1) Wagun Siwori, under Asobasv. Tamato Kotoba, II. 42, r. 

2) Tschung yung 13. S) Dai Qaku. VI. 2. 
4) Dai Qaku. X. 20. 5) Ibid. IX. 2. 

6) Ibid. IV. 1. 


^fff ^ X >v ^|^ i; , Ge-dzi-suru kotoba.) 

88. The causative verbs in sime denote that an order, or in a less com- 
manding tone, inducement is given to do an action or realise a condition. They 
are formed according to the same rule as the causative verbs in si, i. e. the 
causative si or se is superseded by the verb Sim)e, u, uru, ureba, gerund Simete 
(contracted site), future Simen, to charge, ^^ ^^ '. 

Ake, to open; Ake-sime, to make open. 

Tairag)e, uru, to subdue; Tairage-sime 1 , to order to subdue , to make 


. . . s)e, uru, do (termination of verbalized . . . se-sime, to charge to do, contrive that 

Chinese words); one does, have done. 

Nasas)i, u, to have made; Nasa-stme, to order one to have made. 

Ye-sas)i, u, to cause to get; Ye-sasime, to contrive to have gotten. 

Ari, there is; Ard-sime, to order that there be. 

Nakari, there is not; Nakard-sime, to order that there be not. 

Mdtsuri, wait upon, to worship; Mdtswrd-sime , to order to worship. 

When Sime unites with the causative verbs in si a sincope takes place: from 
Kavdsi -\-sime comes Kavdsime, to have sent back; from Yukds~i-\- sime 1 , Yuka- 
sime", to order to let (him) go. 

Examples of the use of the forms. 

Kuniwo tairage-smiu , he orders the country to be subdued. Tsukaviwo kave- 
simu, he orders the ambassador to be sent back. Kava-kami korewo mite, ~itsu- 
kusiki onna narito omovi, tddzusdvete is-syuku ( -^ Tjj^aT^') se-simu, Kava- 
kami, seeing him, he thinks that he is a beautiful maiden, leads him by the 
hand, and charges him to stay the night. Yase-kiwo nivakdni sei-teu- ( ffi | -^| ^) 
se-simen to te: koydsiwo tsuy6ku-sti bekardzu, to make lean trees grow quickly, 

one may not manure too strongly, 


=> 4 =7 i/*y*X Ondregd mi wo tassento hossiirebd 

ufi* ^"^ *&y Mddzu ta-ninwo tasse-sime yd. 

II = ^b 5? ^ Will you advance yourselves , 

7 *. ^ P * ^ rst let oiiliers nel P themselves forward. 



Fit6ni yeki (^>) am-siniurut0($ sen-itsi (^fp ) t6 su, to manage that there 
be much advantage for others, I consider the only object. KUvandkiwo kiru 
koto nakard-sime, order that the chopping of mulberry-trees do not take place! 
Kami wo mdtsuri, to worship a Kami; Kami wo matsurd-simu , he gives order to 
worship the Kami. Tor)i, u, to take; Tord-svme, to have it taken. Sore 
takava karini motsivite, toriwd tord-simuru tori nari, the falcon is a bird, that 
is used for the chase, and (by which) people have birds caught. Fakdri, to 
consider; Fdkard-sime, to charge to consider. KUmdosowo utsU kotowo fakara- 
sime *) tamavu , the Emperor has it taken into consideration to beat the (hostile) 

Ni, to be; Nas)i, u, to make be; to produce; Nasdsi, make produce; Nasd- 
sime, charge to have made. He, who orders, charges a second person to have 
something done by a third. That then is the reason, why Nasdstme plays so 
important a part in the courtly style; it is the same as if it were said that 
a prince gives order, to take measures that something be done. Kaku- 
teiwo nasdsimeri t6 dri, it is (said) that the Emperor N. has given order, that 
the wrestling games be held. Tsurugiwo sadzukete, Ten-kwauwo korosdsimento 
SM, handing him a sword, he will have the Emperor murdered. 

Remark 1. The object, which precedes the verb in sime in the Accusative, 
Dative or Local, is, as appears from the examples quoted, the object of the action 
ordered, not the person who is ordered. If the latter is admitted into the sen- 
tence then the old style allows him, as a remote definition, to precede in the 
Accusative, e.g. Sukunevro fakdru kotowo ok6navdsi,mu , (the prince) orders Sukune 
to hold council. The new style uses the turn of phrase: by ordering Sukune he 
has council held," and supersedes simete (ordering) by the syncopated form site; 
thus Sukune wo site (= simete) fakaru-koto wo okonavdsimu. Ten-wau Nunaki Iri- 
fimewd sit6 N.N. kamiwo mdtsurdsimu, the Emperor charges the Lady Nunaki 
and has the god N.N. solemnly whorshiped. 


? liCtlT Ten-kano fttdwo site . . sai-sini tsukavu matsurdstmu 3 ), the 
2 ~fc v people of the realm are let pay their respects at the feasts. 

I) Not fakarisime, as in the original state. 2) Tschung-yung . XVI. 

country and people, calamity and misfortune rise to the top. 

240 CHAPTER, VII. THE VERB. 88, 89. 

, Seu-zin w6 site, koktt-ka wo osame-sunurebd , sai-kai narabi 
] ^ ttdrti, 1 ). if one let a man of mean character govern the 

MfcJfcJ & 

I '* 

jflfoo 2M ( -jj^ J flr? i) wo m to-wi wo t/e-sasimen fa?n^, to manage that one gets 

the foundation of a long life. JV. . . wo tsukavasite Idzumono Oho-y astro ni osd- 
murtt, tokdrono kan-takdrawo tadasdstmu , (the Emperor) sends N... and lets the 
Kami-treasure be inspected, which is kept in the Great chapel of Idzumo. - 
Tamim takavesi uyuru koto wo osivdsimu, he (the Emperor Shin-nung) lets the 
people be taught ploughing and planting. 

Remark 2. Site, - simdte, is also superseded by mei-zite (ffjj $ ^T) or rei- 
site ('&i ^^") = giving order to..., with a precedent Dative. M.. to ivu 
Dai-siyau-ni mti-zit4 N. .wo Utdsimu , giving order to the general named M. . he 
lets N.. be beaten (battle be given him). fffclT^v ^ ^Y ^^" ^ t 3 ^ 
# /^ s/j. 2^7 , (the prince) giving order to the people, lets silkworms be bred. 


89. The Japanese language expresses the idea of to be rewarded" by an 
active form, which answers to get reward" and by means of the nondeflecting 
verb e (^^i = to get, appropriate) forms derivative verbs, which signify the 
appropriating of an action coming from without. The Japanese passive verbs, 
thus , in nature and form , are derivative active verbs ; therefore mention can be 
made only of the manner in which they are derived, but, by no means of 
passive forms of inflection, for e follows the nondeflecting conjugation. 

According to their derivation the passive verbs are arranged in three classes: 
I. 1. All deflecting transitive verbs in i can become passive, when their verbal 
element i is superseded by e, u, eru, uru, e. g. : 

YaJd, -Y^, to burn; trans. Yake 1 , ^jr, to be burned, to burn oneself. 

Kiki, % * , to hear; KiU, % >r t to be heard, to sound. 

Saki, f-=^f, to tear; Sake", yr>r, to be torn. 

1) Lai Gaku, 3.. 23. 


3 s. , to read; Tome, 3 ;* , to be read. 
Um-i, 2? 2. , to bear , bring forth ; Ume , *? , to be produced or born. 

Arij 79, to exist; Are, 7 -', to become. 

Nari, ~jr 9 , to be; Nare, ~j~ ^, to become. 

On, tf 9, to break, v. fa\ Ore, )t ^, to break, mfa-. 

E/W, 2? ] ) , to sell; 7re, $> i^, to be sold, to be for sale. 

Tstikttri, ? ? } ), to make; Tstikiire, y >? v, to be made. 

2. The nondeflecting transitive verbs in i, chiefly monosyllabic, attach e to 
their root-vowel , either with or , according to the dialect of Yedo , without inter- 
position of the y. The writing has x, 2., x v, 2. >i forms, which are fre- 
quently confounded with -^, ^ 

Mi, i, (Mirti, Mitd), to see. Miye, 2.X (Miyu, 2. 2.; Miyuru, i 3- 1^; 

Miydte, L X 7- ; Miydtari; or Jf{)e, w, wnt, 
6<e, etari), become visible, appear. 

7, # (/rw, ^ n^; tie, ^y'ji, to shoot. Iye,#3~(Iyu,#-3-',Iyuru,#-3-iV',Iyete, 

#:c 7-), to get a shot, be shot. Thence 
lyu-sisi, a shot stag. 

JVz', i (Niru, s >v/), to boil; fa-ems. JWye, ^=x (Niyu, ^ i; Niyeru, i=x V; 
Tsyawo mrti, boil tea. NiyUru, ^Z-n/', Niyete, ^17-), boil; 

mir. Niye-yu , boiling water. 

Remark. If a nondeflecting verb followed by the verb e (= to get) remains 
in its radical form in i, the e retains its inherent signification of get; it 
is equivalent, however, to the expression: get something done, i. e. the 
being able to realize; thus Mairi-yenu (or in the spoken language Mairi-ye- 
masenu ^j?o: T^X) 1 )* I cannot come. 

II. Some deflecting verbs in i have &ye or 6ye for their passive form, being 
the verb e suffixed to the root in i, after the i, by strengthening has become a 
or, on account of vocal harmony, has become o. This form comes from the old 
Japanese, and is considered particularly elegant. 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, page 17. 



Ivi, -f , to say; to be called; Ivdye, -f ^x, or Ivae, to be said or named, jSJf gj| . 

Siri, 2/y , to know; Siraye 1 ), ^>3:, to become or be known. 

Ari, 7'J, to exist; Ardye, 7>x, to become existing. 

Kiki, ^ ^ , to hear; Kikdye, % 3 x , to be object of hearing, ffi [^] . 

Thence Koy6, the sound, voice. 
Omdvi, X t (timdi), to think; Omdvoye", )t t^>^ (timdoye), to be thought of or 

cogitable. Jyf ^gj^ . 

Inflection, regular: Kikoy)e, u, uru, ete, etari etc., e&a, future rmm (= wrw 
+ aran) , thus Kikoyuran , to avoid Kikoyen , which too much resembles the ne- 
gative Kikoyenu, not to be heard. Kikoyeken (j^ ^ ^ ^), it will have 
become loud. 

Remark. The substantive forms Ivdyuru, SirdyftrU, Kikdyuru, Omovoyuru, 
mean that which has been said, called, heard, thought, Ardyuru, that which 
has gotten existence, that which appears, and exists. Used attributively, they 
are equivalent to our passive participle of the past time. Sirdyeru mono is , what 
has been brought to knowledge Kono mi fasirano kamivd ivdyurii Save no 
kami ndri, these three Kamis are the so called Leading-gods. Ano tera 
no kanega kokomade kik6yu (in the spoken language Itik 6ye-mdsu) , the bell of 
that temple is to be heard here. Ardyuru mono , fU6 , Hotdke , the things , 
people, Buddhas that exist, - all the things, people etc. 

The forms quoted, Ivdyurn, Sir ay uru, Ardyiirn agree perfectly with the 
Chinese expressions: Wr gjf So wdi, 

III. The most usual derivation of passive verbs is effected by means of the 

nondeflecting verb Ar)e, u, eru, uru, ete etc., = to become, which is suffixed to 

the substantive form of a transitive verb, by which its weak termination u 
is elided; thus: 

Ake, to open; Akdru, opening; passive Ak6ru-\-dre Akerdre, to be opened. 
Mi. to see; Miru, seeing; Mirn -{-are = Mirdre, to be seen. 

Fiki, to draw; Fiktt, drawing; Fiku -\-dre = Fikdre, to be drawn. 

1) The etymological dictionary Wagun Siwori, vol. 37 p. 2 recto splits siraye into si and raye, declares 
raye as a lengthening of re, and siraye as a lengthening of sire. What the lengthening means, the author 
does not say. 


According to this rule the passive verbs following are formed. 



Ag)e, eru, to hoist, raise, lift; 
Wak)e, eru, to share; 
Tat)e, eru, to erect; 
At)e, eru, to touch, hit; 
Sadam)e, eru, to define; 
Sim)e, eru, to charge, to let; 
Ir)e, eru, to receive; 
J, Iru, to shoot; 

Agerar)e, u, uru etc., to be hoisted. 
Wakerar)e , u, to be shared. 
Taterar)e, u, to be erected. 
Aterar)e, u, to be touched. 
Sadamerar)e, u, to be defined. 
Simerar)e, u, to be charged. 
Irerar}e, u, to be received. 
Irar)e, u, to be shot. 


/, u, verbal element, to be; Ar)e,u, uru, to get existence , to become. 

N)i, u, to be; Nar)e, u, to become. 

Nag)i, u, to throw anything forward Nagar)e, u, to stream. Kava, fata na- 

at its full length. Knsdwo nagu, gdru, the river, the banner streams. 

to mow grass. 

Nuk)i, u, to draw out; Nukar)e, u, to be drawn out. 

Kog)i, u, to burn, scorch; Kogar)e, u, to be burnt. 

Nas)i, u, to cause to be, to produce; Nasar)e, u, to be produced. 

Idds)i, or Das)i, u, to bring to light, Idasar)e, u, to be produced. 

produce ; 

Kndds)i, u, to drop; trans, to let fall; Kudasar)e, u, to be dropped, to descend. 

Os)i, u, to press; Osar)e, u, to be pressed. 

Kor6s)i, u, to cause to clot; to kill; Korosar)e, u, to be killed. 

Watds)i, u, to set over; trans. 
Fanas)i, u, to loosen; trans. 
Otos)i, u, to make fall; to fell; 
Fanats)i (tsi = ti), u, to loosen ; 

Watasar)e, u, to be set over. 
Fanasar)e, u, to be loosened. 
Otosar)e, u, to be felled. 
Fanatdr)e , u, to be loosened ; to be 


Utdr)e, u, to be beaten. 
Motdr)e, u, to be held. 

Uts)i, u, to beat; 

Mots)i, u, to catch hold of; 

Iv)i, u, (li, lu), to say; to be called; Ivdr)e, u, to be called. 

Ov)i, u, to pursue; Ovdr)e, u, to be pursued. 

Kdv)i, u (Kai, Kau), to change, barter; Kavdr)e, u, to be or may be changed. 


Kttv)i, M, to eat; Kuvdr)e, u, to be eaten, to be eatable. 

Usinav)i, w, to lose; Usinavdr)e, u, to be lost. 

Ok8ndv)i, w, to act, treat, perform, Ok8navdr)e, M, to be treated, performed 

commit; or committed. 

Yob)i, u, to call, Yobar)e, M, to be called. 

Musub)i, u, to knot, to tie; Musub6 (not bd) r)e,u, to be tied, to be 

knotted together. 

Yom)i, w, to read; Yomdr)e, w, to be read. 

Um)i, w, to bear; Umdr)e, M, to be born. 

Nom)i, M, to drink; Nomdr)e, u, to be drunk, to be drinkable. 

z, M, to sell; Urdr)e, M, to be sold, to be for sale. 

i, M, to chop, to cut; Kirdr)e, M, to be cut. 

, M, to know; Sirdr)e, w, to be known. 

Remark 1. Has the Japanese passive verb a potential force? Implicit, yes, 
but not explicit! Just as our expression: vegetables that are eaten," includes 
the idea, that they are eatable, so the Japanese verb, especially its attributive 
form, may, in the idea of the speaker, have a potential force, and Kuvareru 
into, = a turnip being eaten, may mean that it is an eatable one. Compare the 
Sanscrit Amltab'a, - immensa vita, unmeasured and unmeasurable life. 

Thus when the proposition : Cloths imported from foreign countries , can be 
sold cheaper than those made in Japan" *) , translated into the Japanese spoken 
language is: Nippon de tslcuremasta tarn-mono yori, gai-k6k& kara watarimas'ta 
tarn-mono wa yasiiku urare-mas' 2 ), it declares, that cloths, which have come from 
foreign countries, are sold cheaper, than cloths which are made in Japan, and 
the Japanese text has a fact in view, that includes the possibility, whereas the 
English can be sold" speaks of the possibility merely. Not understanding any 
thing" the Japanese says: Wakdri-masdntf, , = I don't understand it; not being 
able to understand it, he says Wakdri deki-masdnti. 

Remark 2. The language of courtesy, which gives to the predicate verb the 
passive form, although logic requires the active (in treating the forms of courtesy, 

1) R. BROWN, Colloquial Japanese, p. 8. N. 60. 

2) Why not rather: Gai-koku kara watari-mas'ta tarn-mono wa Nippon de tsiikure mafia tarn-mono yori 
yasuka ware-mas'. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB. 89, 90. 245 

we shall discuss this question further), gives a passive form to intransitive verbs 
also. Verbs of that character resemble the Greek Middle voice, or even the Latin 
Deponent Verbs; names, however, with which we shall not embarras the Japanese. 
To the passive verbs derived from intransitive verbs belong, e. g.: 

/, iri, iru()jlj^), to dwell, stay; passive Irarje, uru. 

Mair)i, u (^^), to enter; Mairar)e. 

Aruk)i, u (^pJis^J*), to step; Arukar)e. 

Ner)i, u (JH^), to sleep; Nerar)e. 

Wak)i, u(ffi%), to become divided; Wakar)e, uru, to be divided. 

Remark 3. Our method of deriving the passive form, first made known in 
1857, and afterwards (1863) adopted by Mr. R. BROWN, does not agree with the 
original Japanese method, according to which for ages a verb Raruru (i. e. Rar)e, 
u, uru), has been imagined and been inserted in the dictionaries of the country, 
as equivalent to the Chinese verb ^? p l t 


90. 1. The object, which suffers an action, is subject (Nominative), and the 
verb passive, its predicate, e. g. MidzU ug6kasdru, the water is brought into 

2. The verb passive is considered impersonal and the object undergoing the 
action, remains as object to the action, in the Accusative, thus MidzUwd 
ugdkasdru. Compare 112. 

3. The verb passive stands in its substantive form and has its complement, 
as a genitive, before it: Midzuno ugdkasdruru, the becoming moved (the move- 
ment) of the water, or even that of the water, which is moved, which gets 

4. The object, from which the action proceeds, precedes as complement, cha- 
racterized by the termination ni. or by . . . no t&mdni, = in behalf of, for the 

sake of If no object is mentioned, the passive form may also include the 

idea of the Greek verb, medium, or the Latin v. reflexivum. 

5. The definition of the material, from which any thing derives its existence 
or origin, assumes the genitive or even the ablative form in yon or kara. 

Examples of the use of the passive forms. 

Midzuvd ftgdstyd nagdru, the river flows eastwards. S$ri&n6 de wd itr6- 


masenu, for this price it is not sold *). Watdkusi kono sindwo sond ndddndewd 
tiri masdnu, I do not sell these goods for that price. Kdvlko umdre-tari, the 
silkworm is hatched. Umdretartf, or Umaresi kaviko, silkworms hatched. 
Sirusaretaru mono, things made known. Kono mitsi sakdnni dkondvardru t6 
miydtdri, it seems that this way is much practised; Okona)vi, vulg. i, to practise; 
exercise; Mi, miru, to see; Miye, to appear, seem. Wau-ziva idaki tortte, ma- 
nukaretari, the prince is taken into the arms and saved (from the fire). Manuk)i, M, 
to draw out. Asdgdvo asani umdrete yubeni sisu, the morning-face (the flower 
of the winds) is born in the morning and dies in the evening, Umdre from 
#ra/, to bear. F$t6wo moto-kuniye tsukdvasaru, = the man is sent to his own 
country. Mikovro tsukdvasaru besi to sata ari, it is reported that the prince 
will be sent. Ziyau mon ( ^j v | ^ v) wo seme ydburdruru toki , tou-siya 
( ~J$ Si ^0 nite fusdgu nari , when the gate of a castle is broken by assault , it 
is shut by means of a scythed chariot. Yabur)i, u, to break. Mukdsiva takawo 
migini suesaresi to nari, it is a fact, that formerly the falcon trained to sport was 
made perch on the right hand. Su)e, uru, to roost; Sues)i, u, to make roost; 
Su6sar)e, u, to be set up, placed high. Toga-ninno kubiwo kiru, to cut a 

criminal's throat; Eubi wo kiraretaru (or kirareta) mono, one whose throat is cut. 

' r 

, Aku-fuuni fanatarete tsdku-gan-si-taru yosiwo tsin-fao-zu, the 

^9 _ report has been spread, that (the ship) has been set adrift 
JL if 

f-^-*" Y 

by an ill wind and driven on shore. Fanatsi, set free. 

Hbfir*, ^ T 

**x ? 2 

Fttdni tasinameraru , he is vexed by others, ( ^ A }f BR ) , = Fyto ni 

V^" ' " ^ ' ^ \/f J f i-"-l / 7 

nan-giwo serdru, = difliculty is caused by others. Ten-wauni korosdru, he is 
killed by the emperor. Inuni kamaretdrU fit6, a person bitten by a dog; 
Kam)i, u, to bite. Kazdni ordru take no ko, a young bamboo cane, which is, or 
can be, broken by the wind. Koreni y6tte . . . fi-youni idzu. Mata fiyaku-siyqu 
ni yadowarete, ta-sftki, k&sd-kari, ine-karite, do-minno mononi avi onazi, there- 
fore (the Bonzes of Corea) go out at day-wages. And while they, hired by any 
one, plough the fields, mow grass, cut rice, they assimilate themselves to the 
husbandmen. Yadov)i, u, to hire. Fatova takani ovdrtte Syak'-sonno fudokdro 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, page 4. 


ni tobi-irinw, the dove pursued by the falcon, flew into S'akya's lap. Ov)i, w, to 
pursue. Mimana tsuini Sinrano tameni forobosdru, the state of Mimana is at 
last demolished on behalf of (= by and for) Sinra. Forob)i, w, to perish; Fo- 
robos)i, w, to demolish. Fono tamdni yakarete sinu, burnt by the fire, he 
dies. ^ fe ffi tyfy ffi. Yak)i, u, trans, to burn. 

O Kono fit6 kanardzu onino tamdni madovasarento ivaku. it is 
& ^2 - 
32* =/= * sa i(J that, that man will certainly be misled by the devil. 

^Eife HMC f?~ 
_7S* TEL XE Madov)i, w, to err, to wander; Madovds)i, w, to make err; 

yv Madovasar)e, u, to be brought so far, that one errs or wan- 

Sivo-nawano kori nardru sima, an island caused by the clotting of sea-foam. 
Kova Fino-kamino tsino nareru nari, this (spirit) is produced out of the blood of 
the Fire-god. 


91. I. Theory of the Derivation. 

In the negative sentence, the Japanese language attaches the negative to the 
predicate word. It denies that an action or state exists; but it does not deny 
the existence of the subject or object, while the action or state, in which 
both are concerned, is existing as positive, as in: no one comes; he hears no- 
thing." Therefore it unites the negative element, n, with the verbal element i or 
si (see 98 and 103) and thereby gets the forms n -h i = Ml and n +- si = ZI, j $/, 
pronounced as ndzi or dzi; two root-forms, of which the former is proper to the 
spoken, the latter to the written language. 

These terminations, in nondeflecting affirmative verbs, are immediately added 
to the root (Ake-zi, 7^" ^, Mi-zi, L ^), whereas in deflecting ones in i, this i 
at once mutates into a (Yuki, to go, Yukdzi, ^^ ffi [fc S?, not to go). Ni 
and zi follow the deflecting conjugation, while the closing form X nu and 
X* zu, at once serve for the substantive and the attributive form. The Nigori- 
mark , so necessary to distinguish 2. # X from 2. # X (to make go) , is frequently 
omitted a . 

1) For instance, in the official publication of the Treaties concluded with Foreign powers. 



The root-form ni, which we are obliged to adopt as the basis of the negative 
conjugation, is not in use and, in poetry, appears to be superseded by ne. 






^ ' ' 

Ak)e, uru, to open. 

Akez)i, u, *?)&, X\ 

[Akeni] , Akenu , T ^ X . 

M)i, iru, to see. 

Miz)i, u, 2.)^, X. 

Minu , i X . 

Muku)i, yu, yuru (nondefl.), 

Mukuiz)i, u, A *?-^ ) &, X. 

Mukuinu , A ^ -^ X . 

to requite. 

not to requite. 

Yuk)i, u, to go. 

Yukaz)i, u, 3-#)s>, X*. 

Yukanu , 2. # X . 

Slk)i, u, so to be. 

Slkaz)i, u, !/%)&, X* 1 )- 

Nas)i, u, to cause to be. 

Nasaz)i, u, ~f"f)^-, X*. 

Nasanu, ^"^X. 

Tats)i, u, to arise. 

Tataz)i, u, ? O^ X*. 

Tatanu, ^? ^ X. 

Av)i, u, to meet. 

Avaz)i, u, 7 /)'>, X*. 

Avanu , 7 /^ X . 

Sorov)i, u, become equal. 

Sorovaz)i, u, y tt n) &, X. 

Sorovauu , y o /'v X . 

Soorav)i, u, to serve. 

Sooravaz)i, u, ^-^>/^^. 

Sooravanu, ^2?$'^%. 

A Sor)ai, o, 

Soravanu , X > / X . 

Nukum)i, u, to warm, v. i. 

Nukumaz)i,u, X ^ ^) ^, X* 

Nukumauu , X ^ v X 

Nukum)e,uru, to warm, 


Nukumenu , X ^ ;* X . 

Ar)i, u, to exist, be. 

Araz)i, u, T>)^, X'. 

Aranu, T3-X. 

In the same manner, every affirmative verb, whether it be active or passive, 
may assume the negative form; there are, however, a few verbs which depart 
from the general rule of derivation, to wit: 

Ki, Kuru (nondefl.), to come; K6nu, at Ye'do Kdnu, not to come. 

Defy, iru (nondefl.), to be achieved; Dekinu, vulg. DeUnu. 

Mits)i, uru (nondefl.), to be filled; MiUnu (for Mitsinu), not to be filled. 

Mds)i, u , (not Mas)e, uru), to be; Mase'nu, not to be; thus also: 

Mi-mas)i, u, to be seeing, to see; Mi-masfau, not to see. 




Synopsis of the negative forms of inflection, compared with the affirmative. 
YUK)i, -u (deflecting), go; YUKAZ)i, -u, not to go. 








Root-form . . . 

-i, go. 

-zi, 3-# 2>, not to go. 

-ni, -ne. 

-ite, going. 

-zite, not going. 

-nite, not used. 

by elision . . 


Yukaide, 3.#-f y 

Yukaide. (*) 

Closing-form . 

-u, goes. 

-zu, 2-^X, goes not. 

-nu, x#X. 


-u, the going. 




-uva , A -uwa. 

-zuva, A -zuwa. 


-uni, -univa, on 

-zuni,-zuniva,-zunba, on 

going,in ordertogo. 

not going, for not going. 

Gerund .... 

-ute, by going. 

-zunde, a. ##^5*, 

-nude, z-ftxy. 

2- % X y, contr.from 

-nde, i-**? (f). 

-zunite, by not going. 

Yukade, 3-%y. 


-nu ni oltewa, on not going. 

Causal- and 

-eba, as one goes. 

-zeba, 2. #^K, as one 

-neba, 3.^^/A 


goes not. 

Concessive . . . 

-utomo, also the 

-zumo, -zutomo. 


-Q-&om6, though one 

-ne-dom6, also 





-nuto iedomo. 


-aba, contract, from 


-ndeva, 2.)f^?V%, 


-an ni va^if one goes. 

-zunba, 2. # x* f'^jcontr. 

Yukadeva, x^r^n. 

from -zuniva, if one 

-uunaraba (Yddo). 

goes not. 

(*) Akezite and Mizite, derived from the nondeflecting Ake and Mi, likewise, 
in the dialect of Miyako, pass into AMde, 7?1 y, not opening, and Mitde, 
L ^ y not seeing. 

(t) Just so: Tordnu-\-te passes into K>7'*, Torddt, pron. Torande, not taking. 


Omovanu-{-te ( >f ,( ffij ) passes into tf *t /^ r% 8m8vdde,pj:. 8m6vdnde,nok thinking. 
Ardnu-}-te(^ jfij ) 7>r", .^racfe, pron. Jrawcfo, not existing. 

Sa (= stka) ra/2M-j-te(^^n5) ^ > 7% Sardde , pron. Sarande , not being as. . . 
&mu-|-te (^P^ M) t'7% -Swfe, pron. Se-nde, not doing. 

Om6voy6nu-\-te ^ ^ ^-^ 7", Omdvoydde, pron. timdvoydnde, not 

being thought. 


92. 1. The written language supersedes the termination zi by zar)i, u, 
which is considered a fusion of zu -\-ari. 

Akezi, not to open, becomes Akezdri, 7 ^1f 9> n t t ^ e opening. 

Jlfm, not to see, Mizdri, 2.^9? no * to be seeing. 

Yukdzi, not to go, Yukazdri, i#^f >J> not to be going. 

Masdzi, not to excel, Masazdri, ^ty* l ) , not to be the better. 

Stkdzi, not to be so, as Stkazdri, 2/^^9, continually not to be so. 
The forms for the moods and tenses are the same as those of ari; thus: zar)i, w, 
uni, eba, edomo; Future an; Condit. aba; Preterit zari)ki, si, keri, kern, keruni, 
kereba, keredomo; Future keran, ken; Condit. keraba. 

2. The written language attaches ar)z, M, to the negative gerund zi-de and 
opposes to the affirmative form Ake-te-ari, to be opening ( 78) the negative 
form Ake-zi-de ari, which, in the spoken language, passes into Akeide ar)i, u, 
to be in the not opening. 

3. The spoken language uses its negative gerund . . . nu-de in connection 
with ar)z, M. 

Akdnii-de ari, 7 tr % 7* 7 } ) , commonly pronounced as Akende ar. 

Minfi-de ari, 2. X 7^7 9, Minde ar. 

Yukantt-de ari, z-XZy?*), Yukande ar. 

From this derivation arise the very common Preterit Minu-de arita, pron. 
Minde atta, has not been seeing, and the Future Minu-de aran, A Min-de aroo, 
will not be seeing. 

4. The poet supersedes the negative termination nu with naki, A nai, naku 
(- without, see page 108); thence Ave-naku = Avenu, without daring; Omova- 
naku 1 ), = Omovanu, without thinking. 

1) Might not these be forms, connected with $ 107. 2.? 



The dialect of Yedo alike, and that by preference, uses nai (= nasi, naki, 
without) and the thence derived continuative form Nakdri and Nakeri, as nega- 
tive auxiliary verb, and supersedes Akdnft, Minti and Yukdnu with the forms Ake- 
nai, Ake-nakdr)i, u; Mi-nai, Mi-nakdr)i, u: Yuka-nai, Yuka-nakdr)i , u, = to 
be without opening, without seeing, without going. Thence t^Yukanaide for Yu- 
kdzuni, without going. With the derivative form nakari the negative verb follows 
the affirmative conjugation, as appears from the examples following: 

Ake-nakdrebd , as one is without opening. 

nakaraba, if one is without opening. 

Deki-nakareba , as it does not issue or 


nakereba , as it was without success. 
nakaraba, if it is successless. 
nakeraba, if it was successless. 
Mi-nakdtta, he was without seeing. 
kara, as he was without 

Mi-nakattdrabd , if one has not seen. 
Simava-nakatta kara , as or after one has 

not finished ; from Simavi (vulg. Simai), 

to finish. 
TsUkd-nakatta , one has not applied ; from 

Tsuke, to apply. 
De-nakatta, he did not come out; from 

De, deru, to go out. 
Toba-nakatta , did not fly; from Tobi, to 

soar, to fly. 

The written language opposes to the forms TsUke-nakatta and Toba-nakatta the 
forms: Tsukeru koto nakatta and Tobu koto nakatta, i. e. the beginning and the 
flying did not happen. Compare Sore futd-tabi kitdru koto nasi, it does not hap- 
pen (nasi), that he appears for the second time. 


93. 1. The Forbidding Imperative consists of the substantive form of the 
affirmative verb, followed by the forbidding na (- Lat. ne) or more emphatically 
nayo *) Compare 69. 

Akerund or Akeru nayo, don't open! 
Surund, don't do! 
Wasur&rund , don't forget! 
Tatdlcttnd, don't strike! 
Nasar&na, don't make! 

Kiku, hear; Miru, see; Kikuna, don't hear; Miruna, don't see! 
/Sw, doing, from Si; Suna (^^) 5 do not! 

Akeru, the opening; 
S&ru, the doing; 
Wasururit, forgetting; 
Tatdku, striking; 
Nasdrtt, making; 



"j- 3 . Wagun Sitoori. Compare $ 96. 


2. If the idea of continuance is associated with the forbidding, then, instead 
of na or nay 6, Nakare, f # ^ (fyj :), the imperative mood of Nakdri, 
= not to be ( 92. 4) , is used. The action which is characterized by nakdre as one 
that may not be, precedes as subject proposition characterized by koto (= thing); 
thus: Utagau-koto nakdre (tyl^jk.}, let the doubting not be!, for: not doubt! 

3. The forbidding proposition begins with Na (= Lat. ne), the predicate verb 
being in its affirmative root-form, followed by so (compare 69). 

Na iviso, say not. $fj gjf ^ gjf . Na yurusiso, grant not! ^ H| . - 
Na atasi tokdroni i so, go not elsewhere. Na motomeso, n'acquerez pas *). 
Nd nakdrisd, pron. Na nakdssd, not without! = it must be! Nakdr)i, w, to 
be without 

4. The forbidding becomes a wish (optative), when so is superseded by kasi 
(= Lat. quaesdj. Na ivi kasi, may he not say! 

Politeness does not allow a person bluntly to use the imperative to his equals 
or superiors. Instead of Miruna, see not, expressions such as Mi-nasdr&nd, or Mi- 
nasdre-mdsftnd, = let there not be seen, are used. JSJamaina, = let it not come 
under notice, is superseded by kamai kudasdruna*)', forms, to which we shall 
return in our illustration of the language of courtesy. Appendix to Chapter VII. 


94. 1. The negative termination mi becomes nanda, ~Y &". 
Akdnu, not to open; Akenanda, not to have opened. 
Ddnu, not to go out, Denanda, not to have gone out. 
Samdnti,, not to awake; Samenanda, not to have awake. 
MinU, not to see; Minanda, not to have seen. 

Yukdn%, not to go; Yukananda, not to have gone. 

MasdnU, not to be; Masenanda, or, in the vulgar language of 

Yedo, Masinanda, not to have been. 

Mi-masdnu, not to see; Mi-masenanda , not to have seen. 
Tsure-datsite modorananda, they have not come back together (>j^ J0J {i|f). 
Afodori, to come back. Fin wo sirananda, he has not learned to know poverty 
(>P 9$ j^)- Sirii to learn to know. 

2. The spoken language of Yedo uses the forms Ake-nakdtta, Mi-nakdtta, 

I) RODRIGUEZ, pag 56. 2) Shoppinff-Dialoffues, p. 21. 


Yuka-nakdtta, = was without opening, without seeing, without going, derived 
from Ake-nakdri, Mi-nakdri and Yuka-nakdri. See 93. 4. 

3. The written language employs ..zari)ki, si, keri etc., the preterit of the 
negative continuative form zari ( 92. 1). Osikarazari si tn6tsi J ) , the life 
which was not agreeable. Osiki, agreeable. 


95. 1. The spoken language, which employs the continuative forms Akdnu- 
de-ari, Minu-de-ari, YukdnU-de-ari, cited in 92. 3., makes use of the future 
of an, thus arau (TJ^jj*) or aroo, and says: Ak6nu-de-arqu , Minu-de-arau , Yu- 
Mnu-de-arqu , he will not be opening, seeing, going. 

2, 1) The written language employs ..zaran, ^ ^ ^ , the future of the con- 
tinuative zari ( 92. 1), or, instead of zaran, ,.zu to nan, ..zu mo aranan (com- 
pare 75. II, 3), and forms from 

Akezari the future Akezaran, or Akezu to nan, not to be about to open. 

Mizari Mizaran, or Mizu to nan, not to be about to see. 

Yukazari Yukazaran or Yukazu to nan, not to be about to go. 

2) The written language, moreover, has a negative future in . .mazi, *? &, 
from which by elision of the z, the vulgar form mai, ?^f , has arisen (comp. 
Yukazide and Yukaide, 91. II). 

Ake-mazi, vulgo Ake-mai, shall not open. 
Mi-mazi, Mi-mai, see. 
Yuku-mazi, Yuku-mai, go. 
Aru-mazi, Aru-mai, be. 

From these examples it is evident that, in nondeflecting verbs, mazi is joined 
to the root, and in deflecting verbs, to the attributive form. 

Since the power to indicate the future, is not to be sought in zi, but must 
lie in ma, I consider this the substantive ma, which signifies room, space, used 
also with regard to time, as it appears from the expression: Ikariwo ordsuma, 
mo ndkit-sitd, kazdni makdsete yuku, as there is not even (wo) time (or oppor- 
tunity) to cast out the anchor, they abandon themselves to the wind and pass 
on. The action now, for which there is no time or opportunity, as it appears 
from the example, is something that is not yet happening, or has not yet hap- 

1) Hiyaku-nin, N. 50. 


pened (Mi-rai), but no real future. With regard to the negative form zi joined 
to ma it may be considered as an elliptical form of nasi (n-\-si=nzi, zi, >), or 
what is more probable , a fusion of the negative element n with the derivative form 
siki, siku, sisi or si ( 16) (n -{- siki = ziki , ^^) it only denies, that time or 
opportunity for something exists, and consequently mazi too , is properly a present. 
The Japanese custom of passing masi for mazi must therefore be disapproved of *). 
Inflectional forms of Mazi, vulg. Mai, are: the adverbial form mdzikttvd, vulg. 
maiknvd, and the modal mazikini, vulgo maikini, maini, no opportunity being; 
mai toki, if, or as, there is no opportunity; mai tomo, even if there is no oppor- 
tunity. Tenses and moods are expressed by the auxiliary verbs nari, to be, and 
keri, have been. Mazikinari (A Maina); Maziki nar)eba; -edomo, -edo; -aba (A Ma- 
zikinara); Maziki nar)au , A-o, -oo. Maziker)i,u, (A Maiker)i, u); Maziker)eba; 
-edomo; Maziken. 

Examples of the use of the negative forms. 

When, as it will appear from some of the passages following, not only the 
subject, but the object also, or even the appositive definition of a negative verb , 
is isolated by va, A wa or mo, it is intended to bring out the negation with 
more emphasis. 

[Root-form.] Ame tsutsi flrdkesi yori kono kata ^mdno told fod6 dai-fei-ndru 
koto arazi; nisiva Kikai Yak&no simaydri figdsi Oslyuno Sotoga-fdma made gao- 
reino y&ki-toddkazdru tokdromd nd$i, since the development of heaven and earth 
a state of peace so general as at present, has not existed. To the West, from 
the Yaku-island, which belongs to the region of ghosts, to the farthest shore 
of the Eastern Osiyu, there is not even one place, to which the authority of 
the Government does not reach. 

Firdkesi, preterit of Krdke , to open itself, to unfold. Arazi, negative root-form, = not exist, 
used here because, the connection of the sense is coordinative. Todokazdru, attributive negative form of 
TodoK)i, u, = reach to. 

Sdnd moto middretd, site" osamdru mdnftvd &razi; sono atsuusurU tokdrono mono 
utsuu-site , sikyustte sono utsu-surit tokdrono mono dtsuki koto imdda kore" &razu 
(Dai Gaku, 7), = something (mdndvd), of which the top is regulated, while 

1) Mr. HEPBURN, in his excellent Japanese English Dictionary 2e edition p. 197, on defining ,,ji, 2/, 
Jf\ , as a future negative affix to verbs expressing doubt or uncertainty, ,,Kilaru mazi, vulgo mai, will 
not come", differs from our analysis of mazi. The Japanese themselves however do the same. 


the root is in disorder, does not exist; neither, is that, which has been made 
thick, thin, or that which has been made thin, thick. 

Yoke mugura " sigereru y ado no " sabisikini 
Fito koso miyene " akiva Id-nikrri 1 ). 

In the solitary cell , where the plant Mugura has sprung np luxuriantly , no- 
body is to be seen; Autumn has come. 

Miyene, the negative root-form of Miye , to appear. Aki, autumn; light 
[Closing-form.] Ki-sinno tdku-tdru koto, sore sakdn ndru Ted! Korewo mite mizu; 
korewo kiite K&azu; mononi td-siU nokdsu bekar&zu.*), how abundantly do spiri- 
tual beings display the powers that belong to them. We look for them, but do 
not see them; we listen to, but do not hear them; yet they enter into all things, 
and there is nothing without them." LEGGE. Chinese Classics. Vol. I. p. 261. 

Mite and Kiite, gerund of Mi, to see, and Kiln, to hear, for which in another edition of the teit the 
concessive forms Miredomo and Kikedomo, are used. Bekardzu = may not, from the adjective Beti 
(page 109, N. 73). 

^7 tu T' Pi ^ ^ipi'* O Sono kiyo-riu-bano siu-ini mon siyouwo 

3tr ^ Ide-iri zi-zai-ni-su besi 3 ) , around this abode shall 

IT/I ^' / 

-? . Jji 3 neither gate nor fence be placed. In going out 

and coming in, people shall be free. 

*j$ $1/7 f ^D ^ lil Y Yama-nakani kuro-kino go-siyowo tsukuri, ken-yakutoo 

^ Wr^ Pb t motsivi, tamiwo rau-se-simezu. 4 ) , in the building of a 

2/ tri * /'I 3 ' I " 

^ /fl f- ^ palace of barked timber in the mountains (the prince) 

IT 7^a cons i(i ers economy , and does not permit the people to 

SxK "/ i- ^ 

g_ ^ V J J 

/f^ ^ ' drudge. 

[Substantive form.] 
$fc^ "til^ ~f- * O Wawwo w?aw ^arazaruva se-zdru nan, a<aoac<in4m 

'^ 2? 

ifc i ^ ara^w 5 ) , the king's not exercising the Imperial sway , 

ix^r^ i/"^*' ^/ is because he does not do it, not because he is not 

^ ^ ^ii ^ ^* ;ix a ^ e ^ ^ ^ - 

Tarazdru, = the not being, the negative substantive form of tari, = te an, $78. II. Atarastru, 
the not being able, from Atdvi. 

1) A hermit's farewell, N. 47 of Hiyaku-nin itsu. Tahe mugura is Gotfiow ttryonm THUXB. 

2) Tschung-yung or the Mean, XVI. 1. 3) Netherl.-Jap. Treaty of 1868. Art. II al. 10. 
4) .ZWp/HWt o dai itsiran, Vol. II. 1. r. 39th king. 5) Meng-ttst, Book I, Pt I. J 7. 


Mitsino okonavdrezajTu , ware kordwo sirdri. Tsi-siydva kordni sugu; gu-siyava 
oyob&zft. l ) , that the path (of the Mean) is not walked in (literally : the not being 
walked in of the path), this I know. The knowing ones go beyond it, and the 
stupid do not come up to it. 

Okonav arezaru , not being practised, from Okonav)i,u, to practise. Sug}i,u, iru, uru, nondeflecting 
v. to overstep, go beyond. Oyobdzu or Oyotdnu, not to reach, from Oyo&)i t u. 

Sira-notova urusi nite nwrazu-site, fi nite mo kogazaxuwo ivu nari, concerning 
the so called pale arrow shafts, people understand by them, such as are not 
daubed with varnish, nor burnt with fire. 

Nur)i, u, to daub. Ko<f)i, u, to barn. 

Sinserarezaxuwo omonbakarazu (~J$* ^ ^ 'jpi )' waa ^ is incredible is not ta- 
ken into consideration. 

Sin-i)e, uru, to believe. Omonbakar)i , u, to ponder. 
^ ^ T*T =eb. A Watdkusi kareqa sono koto wo ds6rez\mi surunowo mi-tdi 

2. y Ip. 3% 

7 7 Mt. monode atta, I should like to see him do that business, 

5 H a ^ W 

fb*- fa #> undaunted. 

K ^ ^ "M* 

J^'f = ^? Osor)e, eru, nondeflecting, to fear. 

[Attributive.] Onordni sik&z&ru monowd tomotd suru kdto nakdre, make not a 
person, who is not your equal, your mate. 

Sikazdru, continuative form of Sikdzu, and this from Si)i, u, to equal. 
Kono riwo sir&z&ra. fttd, someone who does not know this law. 
Mata sir&z&ru tok6ro ari, there is what one does not yet know. Mata ydku- 
sezdru tokdro an' 2 ), there is what one does not yet do well. 

Sir)i, u, to know. Yoku-s)e, uru, to do good. Sezi, not to do; thence Sezar)i, u. 
Yurano to wo " wataru funa-bito " kadziwo tave! 

Yukuyemo sirsam " kovino mitsi kana 3 ). 
Skipper, sailing over the mouth by Yura, let loose the helm! 
Oh! it is the way of love, that does not know whither it goes! 
A Meni miydnu, kutsini ivarenu fodo ki-meo (pj'^ }$?$>) na koto, a matter 
so uncommon, that it is not to be seen by eyes, nor to be spoken by any mouth. 
A Fitoni sirarenu yauni suru, so to act that it be not remarked by others. 
[Gerund.] Takava tteni sokonezu-sit& , akuni sokonuru mono nari, - the hawking- 

I) Tschung-yung. IV. 2) Ibid. XII. 

3) Hyaku-nin, N. 46. 


falcon is something (mono) that suffers no harm by hunger, but is spoiled by surfeiting: 
A Faravdzfrsite tori-age mdsu-mai, without paying I shall not receive (the 

goods.) A Nedanga kavar&zii sit6, while no change in price takes place. 
Kun-si yowo nogarete, sirarezu-sitb , ktiizu 1 ), the superior man, retired from 

the world and unacknowledged, is not grieved at it. 

Noff)i, u, to push back; Nogdr)e, eru, being drawn back. Sir), u, to learn to know; Sirar)e , ttr* t 
to be known; Sirarezu, not to be known. Kui, nondeflecting verb, to be grieved at. 

[Time-defining Local.] Kokdro arazareld, mite mizu, Mite kikdzu, ktirdute, so"n& 
adzlvdiwd sirdzu*), when the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we 
hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat. 
Compare LEGGE, Chinese Classics. Vol. I. p. 232. 

Kun-si iru t6 sitd, zi-t6ku-sezdru koto nasi. Ziyau-{ni artte (dtte), simowo 
sinogdzu. Ka-ini arite, kamiwo fikdzu. Onore'wd taddsiu-sfte', fit6ni motomc- 
zareba, sunavatsi itrdmi nasi; Kami Tenwo uramizu. Simo fltdwo togamezIL 
Karuga yu&ni Kun-siva yasiikini wite motte me'iwd mdtsu*). It does not occur 
that (koto nasi) the superior man having once entered on a fixed position, does 
not continue to be himself. Is he in a high situation, he does not contemn his 
inferiors. Is he in a low situation , he does not try to pull down his superiors. Recti- 
fying himself and seeking for nothing from others, he has no dissatisfaction. Since 
he is not averse to Heaven, which is above him, and does not abuse the people, 
who are below him, so is the superior man always contented and abides his destiny. 

Zi-toku, self-preservation. Zi-toku \sezdru koto, = the not remaining what one is, is the subject to 
nasi (is not). Sinogazu, from Sinog}i, u, to turn off. Fikdzu, not draw or drag, from FIt)i, . 
Motomezareba , the time-defining local of Motomezari, not to seek for, and this from Motom)e t ttr*. 

Manabazaru koto ari, korewo manandeyoku-se*arQba t 
iffeu' J&T tffit-' >f? T ^ azu - Tovazaru koto ari, korewo tovute razareba, 

5^^ tffi^' 3 ifft^ ^ azu *) ^ ^ happens that he has not learned some- 

jjh x" HB v- ffi %" ^t thing, and when he learns it, does not become 

*lt 9 b 4dth 9 ^ master of it , he (the superior man) does not discon- 

v/l"J ^ \^-f ^ ft nue it. Is it that he has not examined something, 

<T ^ and might he not after the examination understand 

it, he does not give it up. 

[Concessive]. Mi-karino toki /aarazumo takawo tobdsu, at the time of the 
princely hawking the falcon is let fly even without design. 

1) Tschung-yung. XL 2) Dai Gaku. VII. 2. 3) Ttcktmy-ymg. XIV. 4} Ibid., XX. 20. 



Takardzumo = fakardzu-site mo from faMr)i, w, to consider, to design. 

Nippon nite irisi zenniva ar-a^aredomo , mare nardzu, = although (this coin) 
is not a coin cast in Japan, it is not rare. 

Irisi. preterit of lr]i, u, to cast, to found. 

O >; Kokoro makotoni korewo mot6mebd (of mo- 

/& ^ \,f*^ ffc v-3^FE ^ n tdmurebd), atardzn. t6 iiitdmo, t6okardzi; 
7 c y -^ r> ~^ 

-v$irx ? "TIC^ ^ v "W h tmdda kdwo ydsVndu kotowd mandnde. sikdu- 

7*-^* ^X -t V-' ^ i?* [ c= ' o 

1^ y V -^ Z ' MC T sitd notsi tdtsugu (of kd-surii) monovd ardzu 1 ), 



if (a mother) aims in uprightness of heart 
tSfi ^ix^Ff *&^ ^^ at it (towards the fulfilling of her motherly 

duty) , then even though she do not hit it , she will be not far from it. There never 
has been (a girl) , who first learned to bring up a child , and then married afterwards. 

Atardzu , not to hit , not to answer to, from Atari. Tookardzi, root-form, to be not far off, from Tooki (p 108). 
, _ Nippon tsuu-you kin-gin to gwai-koku 

*, iv y&Z^ K ty\& no kin-ginva motsi-yuku koto kurusi- 

a ^ 4& 7 -^ S3 ^ T, karazM. to ledomo , Nippon ton-sen to 

^K^ ffifc-^ rt = ^ kwa-heinikosirayezarukin-ginvamotsi- 

~BT -v aE^ ix ' rri yuku bekarazu 2 ) , Japanese current 

*. silver and foreign gold and 

? ? 4K1- *. ^ ^B.^ 

& " silver, the export (of it) has no diffi- 

culty; but Japanese copper money and uncoined (not made into coin) gold and 
silver may not be exported. 

Siyau-bai-'itdsu koto kumsikardzu tomo (or to Iddomo), Nippon kin-si no sina- 
mono vd siyau-bai-^tdstt bekardzti, 3 ) , = even if trade has no difficulty , concerning 
articles which are forbidden in Japan, in them no trade may be driven. 

Nandziga sei- ( jjfl ^) sitimo, sei-sezu. tomo , kareva yahari korewo sum de arau, 
if you forbid it or forbid it not he will yet do it. 

Mata sarddem.6, even if it is not so. Sdri, contracted from Sikdri (page 109 
N. 71); to be so. 

[Future.] Otoko asdkoni tsuru tokiva uwowo dzu to nan 4 ), a boy, if he angles 
at that place, will get no fish. 

1) Dai Gaku, IX, 2. 

2) Franco-Japanese Treaty of the 9 Oct. 1858, Art. XIV, al. 4. 

3) Ibid., Art VIII, al. 1. 4) Nippon o dai itsi-ran, Vol. I, p. 11. 


fr ^ 

* 7 ^ ** W* Nandzino kuni waga-kunino tamtni yoMrdren koto ftsdstki 

b^_^ 7 g9 wi arii-mazi, it will not last long, before your country will 
\ ^ fc ^ >g^ ? be subdued by mine. 

V = IX//I h = ^Ul = 

Yuku-suyt ^awaru-maziio sei-gon (^? v)wo tatsuru, koto, the taking of 

an oath, that in future no change shall take place. 

"t* 4g y ? :? /=! 

>J ^ v /* # ^ 

jg .-i . 


y ? :? /=!# Kavi-katano ku-denwo obdye. hon-foowom6tte 

v * # ^ K 

jg .-i . * yqu-iku-seba , naka-naka zi-son-zi oru maziki 

y Tzarz 1 ), if one observe the oral communica- 

J*P^ tion with regard to the feeding (of the silk- 
t^ Wi 7 E&7 ^v worm) and rear it according to my pre- 
scriptions, it will then probably not happen that one suffers harm. 

On-ki-dzukdi-nasdru maziku soro, there is (soro) no occasion for your care, 
i. e. don't care about it; don't trouble yourself. A Kdku-betsu tai-zt-td kotoni 
mo ndru-mai, it will be no matter of extraordinary importance. 

-fc ^ ife ^^ T , Tai-zi-ta koto, a matter of importance. &, an abbreviation of ft >u If we take 

#* instead of % , we have to do with a fusion of 7* 7 n/. Compare page 67, line 3. 

[Suppositive]. Kino He tomarite orizaruniva (or orizaru kuse araba), when 
(the falcon) stays on a tree, and does not come off (or: when he has the bad habit 
of not coming off). 

Fokowo onzunba (or onzaruniva), itsu-mademo , ye wo kawdzu-site, hanahdda 
ttydsti, bdsi, if (the falcon) does not come off his perch, one must, without baiting, 
let him suffer terrible hunger, 

lydwo tsugi, tokuwo tsugi, te-wazawo tsugu rui naradeva, moteivizu, if the ex- 
pressions are not such as: to propagate a family, to propagate the good, to 
continue some trade, then (the character ^, equivalent to tsugi) is not used. 

Naradeva, f 7 T*^, the isolated gerund of Nardn*, not to be, used aa suppositive form. 

Most fit6wo osorete midzuwo nomazunba, in case (the falcon) shunning men, 
does not drink the water. 

The negation of a negation involves a strengthened assertion; e. g. Gqu m 
(-&^ "^) no yuki-toddkazdru tokdromd ntm, there is not one place, to which 
the authority of the Government does not reach. See page 254. 

1} Yo-san-fi-rok , Tart d'elever les vers & soie au Japon par OUKKAKI MORIKOUNI, annutc et public par 
MATTHIF.U BONAFOUS. Ouvrage traduit du teite Japonais par i. J. HOFFMANN. Paris 1818. j 22. 


Sirazunbd aru-bekardzu (]^ ~flfj ~^\ y$ -^) for Sirdzunivd aru bekardzu, 
i. e. in the not knowing one may not be , = one ought to know. 

Fagemi tsutomezumba aru-bekarazu waza nari, it is an occupation in which one 
may not be without zeal and diligence, i. e. in which zeal and diligence are of 
the most importance. 

Faru akiva yasezunba aru bekardzu, in spring and in autumn (the hawking- 
falcon) must be lean. Yas)e, uru, to become lean. 

In the oral language the use is very common of the time-defining local ba, followed by naranu (not to be)., to express the necessity." Sa- 
yauni itasaneba, naranu (in the Yedo street-dialect; Sayooni si-nakeri ya narane), 
one must act so. Seneba, naranu, it must happen. Seneba, naranu koto, the 
necessity. Ide-tatsi smeba naranft de atta, he was constrained to depart. 
Fit6va Tenyori ukuru tokdrono negumiwo ari-gatdkaranoba, naranu, man must 
be thankful for the benefits he receives from Heaven. Ari-gataki, adj., thankful. 


96. Ar)i, u, deflecting continuative verb, derived from I (= expire , go away), 
signifies being continually in a departing movement, to exist, to be 1 ). Its 
inflectional forms are: Ari, the root- and, by exception 2 ), the predicate closing- 
form (= there is); Aru, the substantive form, which is also used attributively. 
Comp. 11. Arite, Ariteva, pron. Atte, Attewa, gerund, being, or as one is. 
Areba, there or as one is; Aredomo, although there is; A ran, A Arau, 
Aroo (T^^o 7n30, future, there will be; Aran koto kakuno gotosi (^ $fl jtfc ), 
be it so! (the termination of an oath). Ardba (= Aran 4- ra'-h va), conditional, 
if there is, might there be. 


Ariki; there was. Aritar)i, u, A Attari, Attaru, Atta, has 

Arisi, substantive and attributive form. been. 
Arisi-ytf,6, whilst there was. 

1) The Japanese themselves seem not to know, that they have continuative verbs, nor that there is 
a connection between * and art. They see, as it appears from the Wa-gun Siwori, in Aru a mere modifi- 
cation of /O ,, Naru, = to become, Lat. fieri 

2) By this exception they prevent a confusion of the closing form of Ari with that of Are ( = to be- 
come) , which is Aru likewise. 


Arisikaba, whilst there was. Attareba, as there has been. 

Attaredomo, though there has been. 

Ariken, there shall or may have been. Attaroo, there will have been. 
Ariker)i, u, contin. (see 82) , have been. Attaraba, if there has been. 

Ardz)i, u, A Ardnu, not to be, 91; Arazdr)i, u, contin., not to be. 

1. Ari has the definition, what exists, as subject, the definition where a 
thing exists, as Local terminating in ni, before it. 

Ftt6 ari, man is; Artt fit6, any one being. Itsini fttd dri ( 7Jj ^ ^), 
there are people on the market-place; Fit6 itsini ari (^ ^ "ffj ), people are on 
the market-place. Kin-kwa-san kai-tsiuni dri, the Kin-kwa-san (gold-flower 
mountain) is in the sea. Sono kunini itsutsuno tandtsU-mono ari, in that country 
the five sorts of grain are met with. Ninva kudamonono sane no &tsini drU 
mono nari, the pith is something being in the middle of the kernel of fruit. /Sot- 
vaini ari, being in prosperity, having luck. Bin-kuni ari, being in poverty and 
need. Dai-Gdk&no mitsivd mdi-tdkuwo alctrdkdni suruni dri; tamitoo ardtani 
suruni dri', si-sen ni todomdrttni ari 1 ), the way of the Great Study consists in 
illustrating illustrious virtue, it consists in renovating the people (in bringing 
it back to its primitive state!); it consists in resting in the highest excellence. 

2. The definition where a thing is, followed by the subject, that exists, 
also occurs without the characteristic of the Local. 

lf|* 2Jv $#/ Mono hon-batsu ari; waza siu-si art 1 ), things have 
$pf ^ -W^ TJC^ -"W^ ro * an< * *P affairs have end and beginning. Con- 
ceived as subject, Mono and Waza stand for Monova and Wazava, and the li- 
teral translation should be: As to things, there is a root and a top etc. Con- 
ceived as local both definitions stand for Mononiva and Wazaniva. 

3. The spoken language characterises the definition, in what a thing exists, 
= what it is, by de, de-ar',' at Yedo da. Sorewa yoki sake de ar*, or sake da, 
this is good wine. 

4. If this definition is an action or a state, expressed by a verb, it is put 
in the Modal characterized by the termination te or de (see 72). Akete ari, 
to be in the opening, to open. 

5. If it is a quality, expressed by an adjective in ki, as Takaki, high (see 

I) Dai Qaku, $ 1. 2) Ibid, f 3. 


9. B. 1), the spoken language uses the adverbial form in ku. Tstikiga takakti, 
aru, the high-standing (the culminating) of the moon. 

6. By fusion of the adverbial form ku with ari, kar)i, u, is produced. Takakdr)i, u, 
continually to be high. Compare 10, 82. 

7. If the definition consisting of a subject and ari (FU6 ari, people are) prece- 
des a substantive as attributive (or relative) quality, the subject of aru becomes 
a genitive definition, and as such generally characterized by no or ga. Fitdno 
aru itsi, a market-place on which are people. Irono (or iroga} aru kumd, colors 
having (colored) clouds. Yoki nw6i aru ki, wood, that has a good smell. 

. . . to ari, an elliptical expression for . . . to ivu ari, or . . . to omovu ari, the 
saying or the opinion is that. . . . Nanukani tatsu-besi to arikeri, the meaning, 
intention, saying was, that we should start on the ninth day. 

Especially, Chinese substantives are made adjectives by the addition of no 
aru or gaaru; ga+aru in the spoken language passes into garu. Sai-tsi 
^^), understanding; Sai-tsi no aru fit6, an intelligent man. Yekki 
^*), mirth; Yekkiga aru koto or Yekkigaru koto, a merry business. Compare 
10. page 114, Remark. 

8. The negative Araz)i, u, = not to exist, just as the affirmative Ari, has 
the definition, in which a thing does not exist, i. e. what it is not, in 
the Local in ra before it, mostly, for the sake of emphasis, still isolated by va. 
Reini ardzti (^ jjjfl)? it is not polite; Reini va ardzu, polite it is not. - 
Stkanva (= Stkaniva) ardzu (~^ $<?) so it is not. 

& . r> Yaso Kami. Kova fit6 fasirdno mi-nard ardzu. 

i utm ? ill/ 3 
Z rl"T ^- l*-Lf 

* Oho-kuni-nusi no Kami no ani-oto no Kami- 

as.g ^1 dJ# ",' 3 

^ : -tut tQ-tei waosw nari, Yaso Kami or the eighty 

_ !/ -^ superior beings. This is not the illustrious 

name of one person. Thus people call the row 
of Kamis of the elder and younger brothers of the Kami named the Great Land-Lord. 

9. The Passive Ar)e, u, eru, =to become, come into existense, is more 
particularly proper to the written language. Kova kegarewd motsi usindvu kami 
nari, Mi f ana wo aravi-tamavu tokini axe-masi-tsu, this (the goddess of the falling 
stars) is a Kami, who takes and looses dirt. She was (masi-tsu) produced (are), 
when (the gods of creation) cleansed their noses. Ore is called Ara-kane (= Are- 
Tcane), as being considered metal in its primitive state ( Ufa -fe ). 

Remark. G6-zar)i, u. The courtly epistolary style and the spoken language, 


instead of simple Ari, make use of the more ample Gk>-zari or Gro-zari-masu, 
sounding, in a quick pronunciation, as Gozai, or Gozai-mas', in writing expressed 
by flip 3 H* ^f ?) Go-za-ari, which is equivalent to the expression: to have 
the honor to be." Courtesy employs this word even where it is not suited. 
Like Ari, it has the complement of what a thing consists, i. e. what it is, if a 
substantive, in the Local in de, if an adjective in H, in the adverbial form in ku 
(or u, page 106) before it. - - Soreva nanide gozaru? what is this? Nan- 
dokide gozari-masu ka? what o'clock is it? Hirude gozari-mdsu, it is noon. 
A Andtadewd gozari-masdnu ; watoMsi zi-sinni itdsi-md&ta , = it is not you; I did 
it myself. Go ki-gen yortisiu gozari-masti, ka? your disposition is it well? is it 
well with you ? = how do you do? Ai-kavdru gimo gozari-ma&dnu , so as ever, 
literally: there is no change at all. 

97. Or)i, u, deflecting coutinuative verb, derived from i (-f ) or wi 
= seat, to sit, means dwell, reside; having reference to a living being, that 
can remove itself. It is preceded by the definition of place, where anything dwells, 
as also of the condition or of the action, in which anything is, as Local or 
gerund with the termination ni or de (sometimes te). In definitions of place the 
spoken language makes use of ni or de indifferently. 

Conjugation, regular: Root, Ori (^ ^)- Closing-form, subst. and attrib. 
form 6rii , pron. or', he dwells , the dwelling. Or)eba , edomo , aba , as , although , 
if he dwells. Ori)ki, si, keri etc. has dwelled. Gerund. Ortte (X ] ) ^), pron. 
Otte, which in writing is expressed by ;t 7 ^ , dwelling; thence the Preterit 
Oritar)i, M, A Otta (X ? 2). Ordzu, A Ordnu, not to dwell; - - 0ro*)t', M, 
^ %3 > t m ake to dwell, to place; Ordstm)e, M, eru, ^ J , to order to 
place. Samitrdiwo sironi ordstmit, order is given to place soldiers in the castle. 
Passive form, used in speaking, Ordr)e, w, eru. - - Sdk6ni orard, = >Atc se- 
deatur," for pray sit down, in speaking to one superior. 

Examples of the use of Ori. 

Utsini ortt, or ori-mdsti,, he is within, is at home. Fino sobani Jrfl, he stays 
at the side of the fire. Sinra nisino Tcunini orisi yon, since the (people of) 
Sinra has dwelt in the western parts. Kun-si koreni 6rti J ), the superior man 

1) Tschung-yung. X. 


stays there in (in virtue, as in his element). Oruni flitd sono 6ru tokdrowo 
si'rti, 1 ), when (a bird some where) nestles, it knows the place where it is at 
home. H~it6no kimito ndttevd, zinni ori, hitdno sin to ndttevd, ke"ini ori, .... 
kuni-tdmi t6 mazivdrebd, sinni Jr-ft 2 ), when he (the noble man) becomes the lord 
of others, he rests in humanity; when he becomes the minister of others, he 
rests in reverence (towards the prince) ; if he has to do with the people of the 
country, then he dwells in uprightness. Here we have a succession of three 
propositions of which only the last has the predicate closing-form oru, whereas 
in bot the preceding the indefinite root-form ori is used. 

Tabe, to eat; Tabete orA, to be eating. Tabes)i, u, make eat, feed; Tabe- 
site 6rft, to be feeding. Nom)i, M, to drink; Nonde 6rtt, to be drinking. - 
Siri, to know; Strife ori-mdsu, to be knowing. Fanawo mite zasite 6rit ( 5g[ 
~$t ? jfe )> ne s its beholding flowers. Karega ima-yquni kimono kite 6ru, he 
is dressed in the fashion. Mottewa ore-domo fitoni misdnU) although he has it 
with him, he does not let others see it. 

The causative Os)i, u, (|Jpf^)> pron. 6ssu, which being derived from the root 
I (JHf 'O, nas the original signification of to seat, make stay some where, 
includes the idea of our print, e. g. M6ktini inw6 6su, to print a mark in 
wood; Kamini katdtsiwo dsti,, to print a figure on or in paper; Kurdiwo 6s&, to 
maintain the throne. Employed as a substantive, it refers to something that 
presses, and characterises the word Ndzumi-6si the mousetrap as something that 
presses the mouse, and makes it stay. 

98. 1 (#), Ite, Iru, nondefl. auxiliary verb, = to be in, a variation of Or)i, u. 
Y 3- Kun-siva ydsukini ite motte mdiwo matsU 3 ), the superior 

Y7C ? #fl ^ ^S \/ 

^ ^ % \ man is quiet and calm , waiting for the appointments (of 

"mf "f '^T* J^" 

Pi 1 K it Heaven). Dzu-kinwo kaburazuni iru, to be without ha- 
ving a covering on the head. Tsikdra ndku narite iru, 
or A Tsikara nqo natte oru, to have become powerless. 

The root i or wi (J^ ^) seat, occurs in compounds as. Tori-wi or Tori-i^ 
= bird-seat, the name of certain doors, which are at the entrance to Japanese 
temples. Kurd-i (^g), from K&rd, saddle, thus a seat raised as a saddle, 
a throne. Nawi or Nai, the old- Jap. name of earthquake; from wa, = dis-, 

1) Dai Gaku t III. 2. 2) Ibid. Ill 3. 3) fschung-yung. XlV. 



and i. I-su, = seat-nest, the chair on which one sits with the legs crosswise. - 
I-toko, seat. I-ziri, bed. Iy6 (A 2/), in Eastern Japan ft/a, contracted yd, 
the house. I-tsi, = seat- way, the market-place. 


99. As these, with respect to their conjugation, are connected with the 
verb I, uru , to be , they are placed here ! ). 

The conjugation of the nondeflecting verbs in i 


Continuative present. 

Preterit, pres. 


Continuative Put. 

Root-form .... 


[iri, uri, yuri.] 

itari, A ita. 

in, A iu. 



Imperative . . . 



Closing-form . . 


iru, uru, yuru. 

itari , A ita. 

inzu, A iuzu. 

Subst.and Attr. 

iru, uru, yuru. 

itaru , A ita. 

A iuzuru. 


irite, ite. 


ireba, ureba, yureba. 


A iuzureba. 

as, when. 

* */ 

Concessive. . . . 

ire- ure- yure- 



domo. domo. domo. 

Suppositive . . . 


in-va, A iba, 


A iu-uanibii. 

Causative: tri, osi, asi, usi. Negative; r)t, u, Atnu, onu. 

Synopsis of nondeflecting verbs in i. 
I. Intransitives. 

7 t j 

1. Si)i, yu, iru or yuru (JfiiT. J'.^. ^)i to force c m P el - AVlf<J b y 
force. ? From si, to do, and i, iru, to be. 

2. Sii, "? ; Siyu, ^ ^ ; Siiru or Siyuru; gerund Siite; supposit. Siiba; to be 
gone; to be dead, from si (J' 2 '), to go away (not from J^, to die), and #; 
# A/. Some also write i/t, Sivi. Causat. Siis)i, u, jjt, to dispatch, send out 
of the world. Compounds with Sii are: Me-sii, ^^, = to be eye-dead or blind; 

1) What RODRIGUEZ in his lemem 38 says about these verbs, U not of that nature to make a 
treatment of this subject unnecessary here. 


Mesiitdni, A Mesdita, has become blind. Mimi-si)i, ifg^ 1 , yu, iru, or yuru, 
ite,-\X) be ear-dead or deaf, 

3. K)i, 2J*, to come. Imperat. iyo, oyo, oi, in Sikok ei; Gerund ite; Fut. en, 
old-Jap. 6mu , on , A oo , oozu , oozuru ; Negat. 6nu , at Yedo anu. 

4. I-ki, -^^ ^^ ? = go and come; to breathe, live (>fc). Ik)iru; Ike-iru, 
^g ^, to be living; Fut. A Ik)iu; Causat. ds)i, u, to make live, to enliven. 

5. De-ki, yj ^ 5J* = to come out of, to precede, to be produced, to be 
achieved; Lat. procedere. Deki, iru, ite; Fut. A iu; Negat. inu, vulg. dmt. Caus. 
Dekas)i, u, to produce; thence Dekas mono, a product. A variation of Deki is 1de"ki. 

6. Tsuki, jgjf^. to come to the end, to consume, v. i., to get exhausted or 
consumed. Tsuk)i, iru; Negat. inu, not to become exhausted; Causat. TsuMs)i, u, 
to exhaust, to consume; Pass. Tsukar)e, uru, to be in a state of exhaustion. It 
is to be distinguished from deflecting Tsuk)i, u, ^^ ^P ? to come to. 

7. Oki, ^E^, to rise, to get up, se lever. OTc)iru, uru, ite, ita; Fut. A iu; 
Causat. 6s)i, u, to make rise, to raise, to establish. 

8. Sugi, pron. Su-ngi, j^^, contracted from sue" + ra + Id, - to go (ki) on 
the top (of anything), to rise above, to surpass, exceed. Sug)iru, uru, ite. Causat. 
6s)i, u. 

9. Pi, ^ u , dry. Firu, to dry, v. n. to ebb. Sivono f iru told, at low water. 

10. Ni, / || = , to be like, to resemble. N)iru, ite, ite ari = itari; Negat. izu, not 
to be like; Causat. is)e, u, uru, eru, to make to like; to imitate. Nise-mono, imitation. 

11. Ori, ~fC^, to descend. Or)iru, also uru; ite, itari; Fut. in, A iu; intosu, 
to be about to descend; Negat. izu, izar)i, u, not to descend; Causat. Or6s)i, u, 
to make descend. 

12. otsi, ^^, to fall down. tits)i, ite, itar)i, u, A ita; Closing-form Ots)u or 
i-mdsft; Attributive iru, also uru, (dtso'ru isi, a falling stone); Fut. in, A iu; 
Condit. iba; Negat. izu. Causat. Ot6s)i, u, to make fall; to fell. 

13. Mitsi, ^^, to be filled. Mits)u, uru, ite. Negat. Mite'nu. 

14. Kutsi, ^^, to rot; v. i. to wither. Kuts)iru, uru, ite. 

15. odzi, 'jt^, to be afraid. $dz)u, iru, also uru. Causat. Od6s)i, u, to make 
any one afraid. 

16. Fadzi, ^^ 7$*, to blush, to be ashamed. Fadz)i, u, uru, ite; Imperat. 
iy6; Adverb, urdkuvd; Adj. Fadzukdstki, timid. Causat. Fadzukdsim)e , uru, to 
make blush, to shame. 

17. Karab)i, ^ -?, iru, i-nuru, to dry, v. i. Kara, halm; Kar)e, uru, to dry up. 


18. Kabi, 1||2 * 5 mould. Kabiru, to grow mouldy: metaphorically: to be grieved. 

19. Sab)i, uru, to rust; metaphorically: to be solitary and still. 

20. Wab)i, iru, also uru, ite etc. fU^, intercession, to intercede, to excuse. 

21. Nob)i, iru, ite, $1 ^ , to stretch, to be extended. Nob6r)i, u, to be 
stretching, v. L, to go aloft, to ascend. Kevurino nob6ruwo miru, to see the 
ascending of smoke. Fino nobdri, the rise of the sun. Yamani nobdri, to 
go aloft on a mountain, to ascend a mountain. Fact. Nob6s)e, uru, to make 
stretch, or ascend. Tsukaiwo Miyakoye nobosete, despatching messengers up to 
Miyako. Y aid-mono wo kurumani nob6su, to work up pottery on the potter's 
wheel. Nob)e, uru, v. tr., to stretch, to extend, to raise. 

22. Kobi, $ff ^, to flatter. Kob)i, iru, uru, ite; Imperat. iyo; Fut. in, A tt2. - 
Fitdni kobiru, to flatter men. 

23. Korob)i, u, uru, corruption, decay, to pass toward destruction. Causat. 
ds)i, u, to cause to decay. 

24. Pokorob)i, u, uru, ^g 3 ^i to tear, to burst, intr., to rip as a seam, 
open as a flower bud. 

25. Forobi, "f $j&, to become destroyed, to perish. Forob)i, u, t'-nu; Fut. 
imu, in, A iu. Causat. 6s)i, u, to destroy. Forobosdr)e, uru, to be ruined or 

26. Fotob)i (not Fitobi), iru, uru, ^, to soften, v. i. Causat. Fotobasi, u, 
to make soft. 

27. Purub)i, iru, uru, "jjf ^, to get old, to grow old (old, opposed to new). 

II. Transitives. 

28. K)i, iru, ite, Fut. in, &iu, ^j|*, to put on (a dress). 

29. Kovi, $Ho A Koi, longing for. Kov)i, u, iru, uru, to long after, to 
love. Causat. Kovos)i, u, to cause to love, to attract one's love; Kovdrtki, char- 
ming, amiable. 

30. M6tsii, ^J 1 I, to use, to employ. Motsi)i, u, iru, or yuru (x v); ttor)t, 

u (#$**) ). Fut. Motstyn; Condit. iba; Negat. izu or tnu (^*X ), warX a; 
Pass, irare, to be used, to serve, v. i. We consider Motsi)i, uru the continuative 
form of Mots)i, u, (fj|), to take hold of, seize, use, of which te Gerund 
M6tte (Jj[ I) is equivalent to the word expressive of relation, with. Some, al- 
though incorrectly, also write -tf to *f7 etc. The predicate closing-form 
generally passes for a passive (to be used, to be of use to) perhaps from 


the analogy of the form with the derivative lyu (to get a shot), from I (to 
shoot). See 89. 2. 

On account of the important part, which this verb plays, some instances of 
its use follow here. 

Kordwo surtt monovd t6kn, kordwo mdtsi-uru monovd stdzukd nardbd, sundvdtsi 
sai tsundni tdru 1 }, if those which produce them, are quick, and those which use 
them are slow, riches will ever be sufficient. Sono riyau-tanwo tortte (A totte), 
sono tsiuwo tamini motsivu'*), he takes hold of the two extremes (of good and 
bad) and employs the Mean of them in his government of the people. Gu 
nisite midzukdra motsiuru koto wo kondmu 3 ), being ignorant he is fond of using 
his own self (his own judgement). Omae korewo nanini motsiiruka? or, more 
politely: Andta korewo nanini motsii nasdriika? for what purpose do you use this? 

31. I, jf^^o ~"^J, shooting Iru, Ite, to shoot at, to hit. Matowo iru, to 
shoot at a mark. Tori wo iru, to shoot birds. Yumi-iru, to shoot with a bow. 
Passive, lye, lyu, to be shot. lyu sisi ( fiff ^ ^ ) , = shot meat, venison. 

32. Mukui, ^^ 1- reflecting; 2. retaliation, retribution. Muku)i, yu, yuru, 
to retaliate, to retribute; Negat. izu, izari, not to retribute. The recent ortho- 
graphy A^to 97 is erroneous. Inuva on wo siri, ata 

wo mukuu, the dog knows favor and retaliates wrong. 

^ 7 

33. Ab)i, iru (not uru), '^^ - to shoot with bath-water, to splash, to 
squirt, to cast water up or out. Yu-abiru, to sprinkle anything with warm water, 
to wash it. Midzuwo abiru, V^j^ ?|C|^ t squirt cold water. Since, as appears 
from this expression, Abiru has the word water for its object direct, it cannot 
mean to wash oneself or to bathe. 

34. M)i, iru, ^ s , to see. Imperat. iyo; Gerund ite; Pret. itari, A ita; Fut. 
m, A iu; Negat. izu, A inu. Pass, iye, iyu, to appear; irare, to become visible. 
Compounded with mi, to see, are: 

35. tlr&-m)i, ite, u, uru, ^?i to see backwards, to be disgusted with... 
Fut. imu, in, A iu; Negat. izu. 


36. Kangam)i, iru, .iH^s. ^, to look in the glass; to consider. 


37. Kaheri-m)i, iru, |||;>2-> to look back. 

1) Dai Gaku. X. 19. 2) Tschung-yung VI. 3) Ibid. XXVIII. 


Abi . N. 33. 

Forobi. . 25. 

Kabi. . . 18. 

Kobi. . . 22. 

Mitsi . . 13. 

OdzL . . 7. 


Deki ... 5. 

Fotobi. . 28. 

Kangami. 36. 

Korobi. . 23. 

Moteii. . 30. 

Ori . . . 11. 


Fadzi. . . 16. 

Furubi. . 27. 

Karabi. . 17. 

Kovi. . . 29. 

Mukui. . 32. 

Otsi. . . 12. 


Fi . . . . 9. 

1 31. 

Kaherimi 37. 

Kutsi . . 14. 

Ni. . . . 10. 

Sabi. . . 19. 


Fokorobi. 24. 

Iki. . . . 4. 

Ki . . 3. 28. 

Mi. ... 34. 

Nobi . . 21. 

SiL . . 1 2. 



100. 1. Ni, ^~ $z~, = to be, is; Gerund Nite, Fut. Nan, is equiva- 
lent to our copula, to be, when in connection with a precedent substantive it 
implies, that that substantive is a definition, which is ascribed to the subject of 
the proposition. Derived from the Local termination ni and from i (= to be, exist, 
96) the verb Ni means really an existence or being in... 

It is peculiar to the written language, and except the root-form, which is 
of use in coordination of propositions, only the Gerund Nite and the Future 
Nan (= will be) and Nanmeri or Nameri (= will have been) are to be met with, 
whereas for the further conjugation the continuative Nar)i, u, is used ( 100. II). 


[Root-form.] Kinto ivu fitdva tak&miid, Ninto ivu fitdvd tsuriwo y6k&su l ), 
one Kin is (or was) an architect, one Nin knows (or knew) how to use the angle. 

[Gerund.] Taneva mi-wake-gataki mono nite, ku-den o<m' a ), the seed (of silk- 
worms) is a difficult object to judge of, and there are many oral traditions re- 
specting it. 

[Future.] The forms . . ni nan and . . to nan, the first preceded by a substan- 
tive, the second, by the substantive form of a verb, have a potential force, m'-wan 
being a coupling of ni, to be, and nan, the Future of ni, nuru ( 84), whereas 
to nan stands for koto nan , or, as some will , for tomo nan also. Compare p. 253. 
95. 2. 1). Kono orikara mohaya mina mina utavi tavamure mote itondmH koto 
ni nan 3 ) , from this time all (the work) shall be a matter (koto) which shall be 
done singing and playing. Ezu to nan, they will not get. See page 259 line 1. 
Kevino Dai Miyoo-zinva kono Ten-wait wo agame-mdtsftru to nan 4 ), with regard 
to the great illustrious spirit of Kevi, this emperor will have been honored (as 

1) Das Buch von Tausend Wortern, aus dcm Schincsischcn , rait Berucksichtigung der Koreucben and 
Japanischen Uebersetzung ins Deutsche iibertragen von Dr. J. HOFFMANN. 1840. N. 935-928. 

2) Yoo-san fi-rok. {5. 3) Ibid. 
4) Nippon o dai it sir an. I. 10. 


such). Kono siu ( -=fc y?) ni om6-muki-keru to nan *) , lie will have been con- 
verted to this sect. A mere emphatic suffix (= zo) is nan in expressions as kaze 
no otoni nan ari-keru, it has been the sound of the wind. On to kaya. See 
Addenda N. V. 

Remark. In KODKIGUES' Elem. 54 lines 16, 17 the verb Ni here treated is mentioned with the 
words: ,,De , nite, site, Etant. Ces trois mots s'emploient quelqefois au lieu du verbe substantif." 
Site is the gerund of S)i, u, uru, to do. See 103. 

II. Nar)i, u, (-{^^), deflecting continuative verb, derived from Mi (= to be, 
100. I). It is immediately preceded by the definition, of what the subject 
consists, or what it is. Inflectional forms, the same as of Ari ( 96): Ndri 
is the root- and, though by exception, the closing-form also; Naru, A Na ( 12), 
the substantive form, which is also used as attributive. Gerund Narite, A Natte; 
Causat. Nareba; Fut. Naran, A Naroo; Condit. Nardba, in the spoken language 
generally abbreviated to Nara (see 76). 

1. Nariis used as closing- form in: T6kuvd moto ndri; Salvd sue" ram' 2 ), 
virtue is the foundation; fortune the top. Fino fikdri akirdka ndri, the sun- 
light is clear. 

2. Naru is substantive in: Katdtsino madoka ndruwd Tenni atari, and no 
keta (or kaku) ndruwd Tsini narau, = that the shape (of the Chinese copper 
money) is round, answers to the heaven, that its opening is square, is an imi- 
tation of the earth. Ame ndruva in-yauno ki ndri ( jspj J '^^ ^^ He?i- 

$jp % ' HE * -fy T)) , that which is rain (= the rain) is an emanation of the 
tellural and solar principle. 

3. Naru is attributive in: Mata ki-n&ra. mayuwo tsukuru kdiko dri, there 
are also silkworms, which make yellow cocoons. 

4. The attributive form Naru, A Na, serves to derive adjectives from sub- 
stantives and adverbs. (See 12, "page 115). lydno katavara naru haydsi, a wood 
at the side of the house. 

5. The Gerund Nartte, A Ndtte, is generally superseded by Nite and Ni-sitd, 
( 100, I), probably to prevent a confusion with Narite, = giving sound, or 
with Narite , = N arete , = becoming, makoto nari. Kokoro-bdse ma- 

1) Nippon o dai itsiran. VII. 46 recto. 

2) Dai GaJcu. X. 7. 


koto TO. site, siMu-siti notsi kokdro taddsi *), the will is truth. The will being true, 
the heart is then rectified. 

6. The negative Naraz)i, u ( fy J j &) , = not to be, is avoided and, as a 
rule, superseded by the analytical form ni-arazu or ni-aranu. Waga kotoniardzu, 
it is not my business. (See page 162. 8). 

7. Nari, with its inflectional forms, particularly its closing-form, is in the 
written language, used periphrastically also, to lengthen or round off a period, 
and is preceded by the predicate verb proper in its substantive form. The spoken 
language of Yedo uses Mas)i, u for the same object (see 101). Examples: 
Kono tokiva kaiko amdre-ldzuru ndri, - it is at that time that the silkworm 
comes out. Ide, Idzuru, to come out. -- Kdiko samusdni tavezu, si-suru nan", 
the silkworm cannot bear frost, it dies. Kmdwo kuvdsu naraba, if one gives 
grass for food. Andtano hooni so-bok&ga arimdsn nara, sorem6 kai-mdboo*), 
if you have sapan-wood, I will buy it too. Ydsui nara, tori-md$oo s ) , if it 
is cheap, I will take it. kai nasaru nara, if you buy. 

III. Nar)e, u, eru, uru (J|J()t), = to become, Lat. fieri, the passive of JW, 
= to be ( 100. I). As there is a homonymous Nar)e, u, eru, which being formed 
from another root Ni, means to be boiled, become tame, the form Nare, when 
it means to become, is not employed, but now generally represented by the 
active form Nar)i, u, and the immediately precedent, appositive definition, what 
or how any thing becomes, has to show by its inflectional termination to, ni 
or the adverbial ku (9, page 111), that Nari is not used with the active signi- 
fication of to be, but supersedes Nare, - to become, in stead of which Na- 
rar)e, u, eru, the passive of Nari, (to be) also is met with. 

Observations concerning the use of Nari, as substitute for Nare, = to 

1. The apposition, what any thing becomes, when it is some thing concrete, 
characterized by the suffix to. 

Ame kdrite yuMt6ndru, the rain, congealing, becomes snow. Ttn-T*ino *eJn- 
in*) atataka-ndru tokiva ameto nari, samitki tokiva yukito naru (or mint wart) 5 ) 
the accumulated tellural matter of the heavens and earth, when it is warm, be- 

1) Dai Gaku. 5. 2) Shopping -Dialogue i , p. 40. 3) Ibid. p. 87. 

4} ^ ^ -Wl * ^ R^ * 5) Kanra-oaJki Inn-moo dsu-i. I. 7. recto. 

' yv \-- *All > nji ^ Kzx > * 


comes rain, when it is cold, it becomes snow. Since they are coordinate, the 
former of the two propositions closes with the root-form (ame to) nari, the latter 
with the closing-form (yuki to) naru. So, likewise, in: Kumova san-stnno ki nari. 
Tsi-ki nobdrite (nobdtte) kumdto ndri, Ten-Id kuddrite' ame to naru nari 1 ), clouds 
are the exhalation of mountains and rivers. The exhalation of the earth rising 
becomes clouds, the exhalation of the heavens descending becomes rain, or, lite- 
rally: is becoming rain. Motsiiru tokinbd, nezumimo tordto nari; motsiizdru 
tokinbd, tordmo nezumito naru, if one make use of it (if one attach value to it), 
even the mouse becomes a tiger; if one attach no value to it, then even the 
tiger becomes a mouse. Fitdno kimito ndtte vd, zinni 6r& a ), if (a noble man) 
becomes a prince over others , he has humanity for foundation. Kava wakarete 
futdtsu to naru, the river divides into two branches. Kore naravasi to ndri'taru 
nari, this has become a custom. 

2. The apposition, what something becomes, characterized by ni; a con- 
struction peculiar to the classic language. 

Kunitsu kami om'na (onna-) ni narite ( -w ^ Igfc '' ffjj ^) mitstni mukaveri 3 ) , 
the god of that district became an old woman and came to meet (him) on the 
way. Kova toriid narerisi kami nari ( jj ^ ~jfe J^ ffi )$ ^ jjjljj -(fjj ), this 
is a god changed into a bird. Narerisi, the attributive form of the preterit of 
Nari, (compare 80 line 16). Kova Fino kamino mi-kabanem nari-maseru nari, 
this (kami) has become the corpse of the god of fire. If ni were superseded by 
no (thus kabaneno), an existence from the corpse would be meant, for the same 
writer says of another kami: Kova Fino kamino tsino nareru nari ( jffl ^ J^ 
'{fa iiDj thi s ^ s a production from (has arisen from) the blood of the fire-god. 

Nami kazdmo tawoyakani narite..., also waves and wind becoming softer... 

Ken-go ( ffi , ^ :7 *) ni naru koto , becoming sound. 

3. If the apposition, what something becomes, is an adjective in Td ( 9. B. 
page 105), it stands in its adverbial form in ktu 

Kara-kane fitrulsu narite sono iro akalsn naru nari, the Chinese metal (an 
alloy of copper and silver) growing old , his color becomes red. Aritaru mono 
no ndku. naritaru koto, the annihilation of a thing that has been. 

1) Kcuira-gaki kin-moo dzu-i. I. 6. verso. 2) Dai Gaku. III. 3. 

3) Nippon-ki. 14. 13 recto. 


4. The material from which any thing becomes, is put in the Ablative or 
Genitive, characterized by yori or by no. 

Midzuyori naru mono, something that arises from water. Fino kamino 
tsino nardru nari, it has arisen from the blood of the god of fire, = it is an 
emanation from the blood. . . . 

5. The definition, by what a thing becomes, if it is a verb, is put in its 
root- form before Nan. 

Kono simava sivo-awano kori-nardru nari j| ^^ ^ft"'* Jffj IT t/fc 5 >^ / ^M 
$fc ^ iii ^ this island is a clotting of the sea-foam. 

6. Nari, employed impersonally (without a subject, as in Germ, e* vrird), and 
preceded only by an appositive definition what it is to be, characterized by ni or to. 

Ni-gwats 1 ni nareba , = when it becomes (comes to) the second month. Si- 
dzukani naru, it grows calm. Mayuni (or Mayuto) nareba, itowo toragtmH, as 
cocoons become formed, one has the thread taken from them. Notei'ni tro-trono 
yamdito ndru, or naru-nari, afterwards arise all sorts of illness. 

IV. 1. Nas)i, u, deflecting causative verb, = to cause to be; to make 
( . Jj o HI . ft o ft), from Ni, = to be ( 100. I). 

Fu-senwo nasu J ), to produce evil. F*it6no zin-saiwo ndstt, originate clever- 
ness in others, make others grow clever. Kortwo ndsti, bdsi, this must be done. 
Kordwo ndsu koto nakdre, do this not! ( 93. 2.). Tenno nasdru wasawai, cala- 
mities which heaven has caused. A. wo B. to nasu, to make B. from A. 

2. Nasaz)i, u; Nasazar)i, u, negat. not cause to be, not produce. Koreva 
nasazdru best, = as to this, one ought not to do it, this may not be done. 

3. Nasas)i, u, causat., to make produce. 

4. Nasasim)e, uru, cause that one makes be, give order that one makes, to 
bring about. 

5. Nasar)e, u, uru, become produced or done, to happen. Imperative Natdre, 
let there become done, sounding in the popular language of Nagasaki Nahdri, 
Nahai and Naherri too 2 ). 

The use, which courtesy makes of the passive Nasar)e, u, wru, will be illus- 
trated in the Appendix to this Chapter 112, page 312. 

1) Dai Gaku. VI. 2. 

2) Observation by the late Mr. H. s. DE SAINT AULAIRE, interpreter for the JapancM language. 



101. Mas)i, u,(^*^,), deflecting v., to abide, reside, originally 1mds)i, u, 
from tma, abbreviated ma (^^), = space, spot, or with reference to time, 
while, interval and s)i, u, to be active, do. Gerund Mastte, by elision Maite 
also; Pret. Maser)i, u, Masik)i, eri,u; Masita, Mas'ta; Fut. Masan, A Masoo, pro- 
nounced as Masoo (see page 209, line 12). Negat. A Masdnti, instead of MasariA 
(see page 248). In the epistolary style Masi is superseded by Moos)i,u, ^^X, 
^^X, ^^X. ^. Vide Addenda n. VI. 

1. In the elevated style Masi supersedes the commoner Ar)i, u, to exist, and 
Or)i, u, dwell, and just as it, is preceded by the definition of place, where so- 
mething is, in the Local. E. g. Kova Oki tsu miyard mdsu kami nari '), this is 
a kami dwelling in the chapel of Oki. 

2. Masi is used as an auxiliary verb, when an eminent subject is spoken of, 
and is preceded by the verb with which it is connected in the root-form ( a) Pre- 
sent or b) Future), or also c) in the Gerund. Examples: 

a) Ama-terdsft Kami, - the Kami enlightening all around, is also called Ama- 
terdsi-m.&Bu Kami. 

[. . ni-mdsu.~\ A. . va B. . Kamino mi fava ni-masu , A. . is the mother of the 
Kami B. . 8 ). (Ni, Nite, to be, see 100. 1.) Tamayori-fimdno mikotova Kamo 
no mi oyano Kami ni-masu 3 ), Her Highness Lady Tamayori is the Kami of the 
ancestors of Kamo. 

[..nari-mdsu.] Konomifasirano Kamiva mina fit6ri-gami nari-masite , mi-mi-wo 
kdk&si-tamdviki 4 ) , these three gods were gods standing alone , and kept them- 
selves hidden. Kono fimdno gamivd N . . Kamini mi-aui-mas6ri, this goddess 
has matched herself with the god N. . (See 80). 

Kono simavd ye to sttd umi-maseru nari, this island - 

. ^ . (the gods) have produced (it) as an after birth. Ma- 

J^^ JtfJ* ,ljjj^- 

% h seru, the attributive form of Maseri, the preterit of 

- - ffiJ 7 3& n 

- r rf. (See 80). 

[. . masi-mdsti, , = to be being.] Ten wau N. . no miya ni masi-masu , the emperor 
is residing in the palace N. . Buts zinva fttdno negavini yotte ka-go-( J||U * fffl^) 
si-mdsi-masedom6, sonomi (^t ;jfp ) kavi-katani orosoka nareba, ikagava sen? 5 ) 
although Buddha and the spirits assist, complying with the wish of men: if, in 

1) Kami-yono mi-sudzi. 2) Ibid. 3) Ibid. 

4) Ibid. 5) Too-san fi-rok. TIL. 1 1 recto. 


the rearing (of the silkworm) one is negligent, what will it avail? Siyuk-ke 
. sukke)no nozdmi masi-masi-keredomo , teitsi yurusi tamavdzu, he 

wished to quit the paternal house (i.e. to become a monk), but the father did 
not grant it him. 

b) [. . amasi.] By grafting masi on the form of the Future, . . am, . . an, by 
which amasi is gotten, a periphrastic future is formed. /Sm)t, wru, to go away; 
Indtsi sinamasi 1 ), life will perish. See 75. 5. 

c) Masi in connection with a gerund, used as well in the elevated style as 
in the polite conversational. Kono Kamiva Susanowono mikototo teticdrawo 
auasete m&si-tamavu nari J ), this Kami wrestles with the moon-god Susanowono 
mikoto, literally: he is (masi) measuring his strength etc. A Korevoa yaburete 
imdsu*), this is torn. Fit6 maruni ik&ra faitte ymdsttkd*), in a bale, how 
much goes in it? Fa-ir)i, ^ (^-f), to enter. 

There is no verb of which the polite spoken language makes a more frequent 
use, than Masi, and as it, grafted on the root-form of verb, generally has to ex- 
press the inflectional forms, whereas the verb itself to which it is added remains 
unchanged, in its root-form, a knowledge of the conjugation of this auxiliary 
verb will be found without any other. The forms, which are in use in the spoken 
language, are limited to; 

Mdsu, A Mas', is, being. 
Mdsuka? is it? 
Mdsuna? is it not? 
Mase, imperat. be! 
Masite, A Maste, gerund. 

Maseba, as it is. 
Masedomo, although it is. 
Masiyoo, A 3/aloo, it will be. 
Masu-nara, if it is. 
Masdnu, A Maseng, it is not. 

Masita, A Masta, has been. 

The forma maszru, maszreba, maszredomo, quoted by Mr. H. BROWN, Grammar XXIV, for MATH, 
maseba, masedomo, I have neither found in any original Japanese writing, nor observed in conremtioiu 
with Japanese. To what dialect do these forms belong? 

From the Shopping-Dialogues , published by us, which particularly come under 
notice as a faithful representation of the polite language of Yetlo, it is obvious 
that Masi is used as the final word of a proposition indifferently whether the speaker 
or the person spoken to or something else, is the subject of it. Thus it may, 

1) Wagun Sitoori, under Sinn, 2) Eami-yono mi-tiuin. 

3) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 24. 4) Ibid. p. 34. 


without the speaker's attaching any importance to it, be used only to round off 
the proposition, and express our please" just as little as have the honor." 

Examples of the use of Mad in the spoken language, borrowed from the 

Kono fttowa darede ari-mastika, - this man who is he? Watdknsino tsuki- 
yaide ari-masu, he is my bosom-friend. Andtano nawa nanito ii-masiikd? 
your name what is it called? Watdkusino nawa . . . to ii-mdsn, my name is 
called . . . (S.-D. 19). 

Sinawo miru-kotowa deki-mdsuka? The seeing of your goods can that take 
place? (deki-mdsuna? cannot it take place?) Deki-mdsu, it can take place. (S.-D. 23). 

Andtawa too-sono fU6de ari-masuka? Are you an inhabitant of this place? 
Watdkusiwd too-sono monode ari-masu, I am someone of this place. (S.-D. 20). 

Kono nedanwa ikura si-mdstikd? the price of it to how much does it (amount) ? 
(S.-D. 34). 

oo-tsi si-masita, I have understood you. (S.-D. 41). 

Miyoo-nitsl Go hen-too itdsi-masoo , to morrow I will give you an answer. 
(S.-D. 39). 

Watdkusiwa korewo zonzi-mase'nu . I do not know it. (S.-D. 26). 

Firu-mayeniwa mairi-ye-mase'nu , before noon I cannot come. (S.-D. 17). 

Rok-kinni atari-mdsuna? Is not that about six pounds? (S.-D. 8) J ). 

Watdksa hanaJidda Go dza-ma ( 3jf ^ ^g s^ fj "*) de gozari-masen kd? Am I 
not your disturber? Don't I disturb you? the ordinary question of anyone who 
unasked pays a visit. 

102. Samurav)i, u (^p A_7 e ^| o '(pj ^|), also Savurav)i,u, A Sorai; 

closing-form Soro, '|/Q O ^o> = * ^ e i g ? i n old- Jap. ^ ^i Sa-mo- 
ravi, from save, at the side, by, and moravi, guard. As noun Samurai (A Sorai) 
answers to our guarde" and is the old general name for people on duty at the 
court of a prince. 

Used as an auxiliary verb in the written language, particularly in the episto- 
lary style, it qualifies the being as a serving being and humiliates the speaker. 
If, therefore, in a proposition, of which the predicate verb is Soro, no subject 
is named, the unnamed, who speaks or acts, is the speaker not the person spoken 

1) Page 29 of the original edition: A new familiar phrates. Nagasaki 1859. 


to, and we assign to those propositions the I or We as subject. With regard 
to the use of Soro the following is to be noticed: 

1. The definition, what a thing is, when it is a noun, precedes in the Local, 
characterized by ni or nite, A de (not do) >). 

2. The definition, how a thing is, expressed by an adjective in fa", is placed 
in ite adverbial form in ku. Kakuno aotdtoi soro ( An^fljf* 4&*) it is 

7 * \sS*^^ Pf 7vt J 1^^ Iff ? 

so 2 ). Mausi agu-bekn s) soro ( = ~Pj" ^ f __t ^ ), = it is possible that 
I mention, = I shall make mention of it. Naku soro, = Nasi, there is not. 
- Go-za soro (jptjl^ J|j * $%), = A Gozari-mdstt , it is (See 96, p. 263, 
line 4). Sa-yoo nite go-za naku soro, it is not so. 

3. Soro, as an auxiliary verb, expressive of humility, grafted on the root- 
form of a verb, is appropriate to the familiar, as well as the official form of 

Q writing. Fino sobani ori-soro, > I am by the fire"*). 
yy Yordsiku On agdri-soorde, eat heartily 5 ), literally: 
Tj{IJ ^f may your rise be good! Kyoo-go mamdrft-beki ka 

deo ai-tate-soro tame, to appoint the articles to be 
3. Bu-sata itdsi-soro tokoroni, while 

JLr 3^" * ^^ I make no mention of it. Deo-ydk&wo tori-kivame 
^D ^? \,^T? 50ro ' one d raws U P a treaty. -- Sasi-yurusi-sorOi I 

agree to. 

4. In negations as Agezu-soro, I do not raise, Motomezu-soro , I do not try 
to acquire, Ivazu-soro, I do not say, in deviation from the rule, zu is used 
instead of zi, the root-form. If soro be grafted on the negative form of the spoken 
language, the forms Agdnit -\-soro, Motom4nu-\- soro , 7t'anfl-f-oro, are obtained, 
which forms may fuse into 7 >*Xtr Agezoro, Motomezoro, Ivazoro t and are to 
be easily distinguished from the affirmative forms Age-soro, Motome-soro , /trt-oro. 
Thus if in RODRIGUEZ fiUm. page 71 line 10, it is said with regard to the 
negative form: cependant on dit aussi motome soro, wazou (sic) oro," then 
motome-zoro , ivazoro are meant. 

1) Here the example cited in RODRIGUEZ lem. page 71 line 12: ..CbrisUm nite oro," chrutitnussuui, 
comes under notice. 

2) See page 109 n. 70. 8) Beki, see pge 109 n. 73. 

4) Nieuw verzameld Japansch en Hollandsch woordenb. door den ?ort van NakaU. 1810. V. 55 recto. 

5) Ibid. II. 40 verso. 





Root-form .... 

Sorai, A Sorai, 

Sorai si. A Sorai si. 

t*.M. ?>-* 

Sorai ni. 

Closing-form . . 

Soro, Soro, 

Sorai-ki. Sorai nu. Sorai tsu. 

^>. y. 

ASorotsu, y v?. 


Soro, Soro. 

Sorai si. Sorai nuru. Sorai tsuru. 

Soro koto, Soro koto. 

Sorai si koto. 

A Soro tsuru. 


Soraite, Sorote, 

Local-, Causal- 

Wp ffi3 i/T ffil 

Sorayeba, Soroyeba. 


Sorai tsureba. 

and Mod-form 



A Soro tsureba. 

Soroni, Soroni woitewa 

Sorai tsuruni. 

Soro tokoroni. 


Concessive. . . . 

Sorayedomo, Soroyedomo. 

Soraisitoiyedomo. Sorai tsuredomo 

Sorotoiyedomo Soro to yutomo. 

Sorai si kadomo. Soro tsuredomo 

Soro tomo , Soro tomo. 

Sorayeba tote. 

Imperative . . . 


Optative . . 

Soraye kasi , Soroye kasi. 

Sorai si mono wo. 


Periphrastic Future. 

Fut. preterit. 

Root-form. . . . 


[Soravanzi , Sorovanzi.] 


Soro bekeri 

y-*? 5 n & 

A Sorovan 

Closing-form. . 

Soravanzu A Sorozu 



Soro beku- 




Soravan zuru A Sorovan zuru 



A Soro zuru 

Sora van zuru- A Soro zuru- 


koto koto 


Local-, Causal- 

Soravan zureba A Sorovan zureba 


Soro bekere- 

and Mod-form 

A Soro zureba 





Periphrastic Future. 

Fut preterit. 

Concessive. . . . 

Conditional. . . 

Soravan zurumo A Soro zurumo 
Soravan zuredomo ASorovanzuredomo 
A Soro zuredomo 



Soravaba A Soro- 


Soravan ni woitewa 
A Soro ni woitewa 
Soravan monowo 
A Sorovan monowo 




Root-form. . . . 
Closing-form. . 


Substant. , iso- 

Time defining 

Concessive. . . . 

Conditional. . . 

"Soravazi], not to be. 

Soravazu 1 )* A Sorovazu, it is not. 

Soravazu, A Sorovazu, the not being, 

not being. 
Soravazuva, the not being. 

Soravade, A Sorovade. 
Soravazu site , not being. 
Soravaneba, when it is not. 

Soravanedomo, though it is not. 

Soro maziku soro , will not be. 
Soro koto maziku soro. 


Maziku soravaba. 

if it is not. 

S6ro mai keredomo, though it 
migJtt not have been. 

Maziku soravaba, if it should 
not be. 

I) The regular negative form of the deflecting verb Stfraci is SJracasu. but the puken Iwnowfce tut* 
for it, Sdrovazu, and Sorovazu which are more easily pronounced, ou account of the rule, that the towel* 
of the subordinate syllables adapt themselves to that of the principal yllable. 


103. S)i, u, uru, (jjj^^ x o &, vulg. -ft), to do. As we have already 
elucidated this verb , so far as it is used in the formation of causative verbs , in 
87, it is here noticed only in its other relations. 

I. The root- form Si occurs in compound nouns, 

1. as chief word, indicating the person, who is employed with something, in 
which case it is equivalent to our termination er of tiler, potter etc. Kavard-si, 
= a brick-maker; Mono-si, = Lat. opifex, maker; I-mono-si, metal founder; R&su-si, 
medicine-maker, physician; Nu-si (contracted from Nuru-si), japanner, Si being 
generally explained by fjjjj I/, master; or 

2. as definitive member before the chief word, as in Si-goto, occupation, where 
it is generally indicated phonetically by -ft 2^, and even by ~^^, with the 
signification of which characters the pure Japanese root, Si, has nothing to do. 
Thus Si-goto is met with under the form of fj" ^ if*?'. Soreva idzurega 
si-waza ka? (^ fljw 'ft ^ JH ^ .*) > wn ose business is this? 'ft^'fH^? Si- 
yoo, manner of doing; / ft 2x lf, Si-hoo, manner of acting. Si-kata, ^SL^~jj\, 
manner of handling, also y fit 2x }f|o form of doing, gestures; Teniteno si-kata, 
gesticulations with the hands. Si-te, ^j^^ ^*^, - work-hand, the hand, the 
person that accomplishes a thing. 

3. The root-form Si further occurs in compound verbs as an adverbial prefix, 
to imply that the action expressed by the verb, is done, as a definite act, and, 
in itself, includes all the activity of the subject. Examples: 

Fundwo das)i, u, to clear a ship (compare page 236 n. 18). Ftindno dasi-ba, 
= the place for the clearing of ships. j? $#/ ft ^ ffl !'*' j&f; ' 
^j^~, Sono fund no si-dasi-bano mindtonona, the name of the port at which this 
ship is, or has been, actually cleared. fr)e, uru, to take in, to take up; 
Si-ire , -fr y^. 5 the taking in , as exercising a calling , the buying in , purchase 
of merchandise. / ^t 2x j^^i Si-or)i, u, to be busy; Mono-si-or)i, u, to keep 
oneself busy with one thing or another. Nippon ni dite yebumi no si-mairi 
( -ff* ^ ^ -f) va sudeni fai- ( ^ ) seri *) , in Japan coming up to the image- 
trampling has been already abolished. 

Si-utsi, the deed. 
ff* ^ ^ 7 , Si-fardi , the payment. 

1) Franco-Japanese Treaty of the 9 Oct. 1868, Art. IV, al. 2. 



yr ^ JJLT' Si-tate, erection, making. 
"ft ^ fife * ' Si-toge , perfect accomplish. 
fhsx ]]f, Si-naosi, polish. 

II. Acting as verb, <S){, w is nondeflecting. On account of the important 
part it plays , it is advisable that the explanation of its use should be preceded by a 




Root-form .... 
Imperative. . . . 
Closing-form . . 
Subst.and Attr. 
Terminative.. . 

Concessive .... 

SI , 


Seyo, Sero, Sei, Sesai, do. 

[Sur)i, U, not in use.] 


Sum, doing. 
Suruni, to doing. 
Suruni, by doing. 
Suruni va. 


..81, form- word of causative 
verbs, aa Aim, to make 
be; ..teyo, imperative; 

. . nt, closing-form. 



Closing-form . . 

Substant. and 

Sl-tari , A Sita, has done. 

Sl-taru, A Sita. 

Root-form . . . 



Seri, did. 

Seru, the having done. 


Sesini, when one did. 
Sesinari, has done. 
Sesikaba, as he did. 

Sen, &, sJiall do; ASe6z)u,uru, 

A Seo, 


Sezi, &, not to do. [Sezari, contin. 

if one 

. . seba. 

. . sit\ doing. 

..sltar)i, u, A ..slta, 
has done., ku, si, 
(p. 109 n. 73. 104). 





Closing, Subst. 

and Attrib. 

Sezu, A Senu. 

Sezuslte, A Sede, 




Se-sim)e (^ 2/), u, uru, 
charge to do; Ger. Se- 
slmete , contr. Sestte ; 
Fut. Sesimen. 


Serar)e, u, uru, nondefl. 
become done. 

have done., 
. . sas)ete, etari, A eta, 
Fut. en, Aeo. Con- 
tin, uru, ureba, ure- 
domo. Neg. Sasenu. 
. .sasim)e, nonde fleet. < 
let do, have done. 

..sar)e, u, uru, be- 
come done. 
. . saserar)e , u , uru , 
^-^ ^ order is 
given to do. 
Serarezu, A Serarenu, 
negative, not to be done. 

Compounds with Si. 

1. S)i, u, uru (to do) is used to derive verbs from Japanese nouns; e. g.: 
Kari, hunting; Kari-s)i, u, uru, to practise hunting; Firano farani bari-so., 
people hunt on the plain of Firano. Tada fi-knrdni &<m'suru koto, hunting 
alone in the evening. Yome-iri , - the entrance as a (married) woman , marriage. 
Onnava, imdda yome-iri-sezoxiLwo dzyo ("^^3) to ivi, sndeni yome-iri-sita,TU. 
wo f u ( $1$ 7 ) t i VUt Yome-iri-sitQm6 fu-bo yonde mummd to ivu l ) , = as to the 
woman, she who has not yet made her entrance as wife, is called dzyo (maid), 

1) Kasira-gaki kin-moo dzu-i. IV. 2. r. 



she who has already made her entrance as wife, is called fu. Also if she has 
been married, her parents say, calling her musume (daughter). In the same 
way, by means of si, verbs are derived from: 

Yome-tori, to take to wife. Kami-agari, the rising as Kami, the decease of 
a prince. Katsi-watdri , a ford. Kavawo katsi-watdri-suru, the fording of a 
river. A Mumano kasiraga ftgdst-su, the horse's head faces the east. 
Ono-ono rdsiya Jigasi-su, each turns either to the west or to the east, every 
one does this or that. Kono katani mukdite tane-maki sezu, - towards that 
side the sowing is not done. Mainai serardzu, he is not bribed. Kono ne- 
danwa {kura si-mdsuka (or ari-mdswka, or kakdri-mdsiika)? *), what is the price 
of it? Go zume si-mdsu, it is five taels. Sono katawa doo Bi-tnds& kaf *), 
its form how is it? 

2. a. Chinese words also are verbalized by means of si ( ^ ) ? ^eir number 
is legion. Examples: 

Rai-si, to come. 

Rai-teo-si, to come to court. 

Tai-si, to be opposite to. 

Fai-si, to greet, salute. 

Fai-si, to abolish. 

Rau-si, to weary. 

Rei-si, to order. 

Si-si, to die. 

Zi-si, to allure with bait 

(ijS^)' Zi-serar)e, u, 

uru, allured with bait 


, Zai-riu-si, to keep abode. 
, Kiyo-riu-si, 


s^, Rio-koo-si, to travel. 

Za-si, to sit. 

TVuu-m, to go through... 
^ 2^, You-i-si, to provide... 
v /, FoM-n-, to be attentive. 
it', to be hostile. 
', to arrive. 

TMku-gan-si, to land. 

Tas-si, to make known. 

Tes-si, to penetrate; un- 

Gas-si, to fit, agree. 

Nes-si, to be hot. 

Sis-si, to lose. 

Bos-si, to sink. 

Dziu-si, to dwell. 
;$ */, Dziu-sai-si, 
b. Of the thus verbalised Chinese words some, by way of exception, have, 
z)i, u, uru (&, X, X*^) instead of s)i, u, uru. The impure t resulting from 
preceding n, occurs in: 

1) Shopping- Dialogues , page 3. 34. 

2) Ibid. p. 1 1. 



,?, An-zi, to remark (to distin- 
guish from 2fr-*x An-zi to 
bring to rest.) 
f, *? , San-zi , to scatter. 
3 11! v i/i Go-ran-zi, to please to see. 
7,^1 Ten-zi, 1. to make revolve; 

2. to transform. 

* H&E x> Kassdn-zi, to be hand to 
hand (tekito, with the enemy). 
;, Gin-zi, to sing. 
:, Son-zi, to suffer damage. 

2as)i, it, to injure. 
:, Mei-zi, to give order. 


*; , Kan-zi, to affect, stir, excite 

the feelings. 
?5, Ken-zi, to offer. 
??, Gen-zi, to appear. 
??, Gen-zi, to lessen , to diminish. 
jj, Zon-zi, 1. to maintain; 

2. vulgo, to think. 
?>, Ron-zi, to discourse. 
pro i/*/ Soo-ron-zi, to converse. 
?j, &oo-zi , to come forth , grow ; to 


?^, Foo-zi, to reward. 
^>, Oo-zi, to answer to. 

Examples of the use of Chinese-Japanese verbs in si. 

Ken-bun (J^v |^j ^) suru koto wo kakitomeru, to note down what one sees 
and hears. If suru be superseded by seru, it means to note down what one has 
seen and heard (remarked). Fino tooki tsikdkiwo ron-zu, = people speak of the 
far and near (of the distance) of the sun from the earth. A jffc J? ^jB ^ ^^ 
%/ X, /Soo-tsi-ai-mas'ta, I have understood! = very well. A yfe y ^H ' ^"^^^ ^i 
Soo-si-masoo , I shall do it, = I shall satisfy your desire. Ffodsiku sue-okite 

fanasazareba , dsi tsukdrete yamaiwo siyau (/ql t)zu, if the hunting falcon be kept 
long perched, and not let fly abroad, his feet get exhausted by weariness, and 
he grows sick. Sore takava tsundni nessuru (|^i^ ^)i yueni sei-midzuwo kondmu 
mono nari, the falcon, because he is continually hot, is very fond of fresh 
water. |tF \ ^ f,= -^ ^ 2^r * t ^ ^ %*/?<. %-?7, charging all people (the 
emperor) has silkworms bred. Fitransi-k6kuno fltd Nipponni kio-riu-(^^ 
^ $,) seva (read seba), sono fit6-l>1t6wo Nipponni Sit6 nengoroni dtsukdvu besi 1 ), 
if the French remain in Japan, that people (they) will be treated well. 

Remark. If the accomplishing of a thing, instead of the being occupied with 
it, is to be expressed, then itas)i, u (f*|? x), to accomplish, is used instead 
of si, both in Japanese and Chinese words. Itdsi has arisen by syncope from 
Vtardsi, which is the causative form of%tdr)i, u (J3|f*), = has gone (whither he 
would go) and as such signifies the accomplishment of an action. For the 

1) Franco-Japanese Treaty of 1858. Art. I. al. 2. Ibid. IX. 2. XV. 1, 2. 


rest, the spoken language seems to use Vtdri also, merely for euphony, as being 
more harmonious than the simple si. Examples: 

-4- A 2 >* I rt Nippon-zin Fransi-zin yorino laku-zaiwo fara- 
"f 2/ 3 -fa vdzttsttt suppon itasltarii tokiva, Nippon yakit- 

m- W 

' % \\\^ ) A mn 9' K*8it fardi-kata itas&su best 1 ), when 

4 a / 5^ ^ 

CI ^-70 X /^ft Japanese, without having paid their debts to 

P * * w 

* X 8t? as Frenchmen, have taken flight, the Japanese 
f ? wU 
xn. ^ 4db ^c: authorities shall make inquiry and make them 



Soo-bai-itasu koto kurusikardzu 2 ), trade it not unwelcome, 

p -rjl^ -^ 

^ M. -f it will not be thwarted. 
2/ -r 

A Miyoo-nitsi Go hen-too itdsi-masoo 3 ) , to morrow I shall give you an answer. 
A Go soo-dan tasi- (tasi = ttdsi) masoo , I shall speak with you about it. A Sa- 
yoo itdsi masoo, I shall do so. A 0-itoma itasi-masoo, I shall take leave of you 4 ). 


When this verb has an object direct, in the accusative, before it, it is tran- 
sitive, but when not, it is intransitive. 

1. [..wo su.] The definition: what a person does, stands, as object direct, 
in the accusative. Examples: 

Kareva naniwo sitaruka? what has he done? Ware korewo sezu (?^ 
ijjj *" ^ ^ J^ ^ ^ ) 5 ) i I do not do this , = this is not my business. Zin wo 

suru mono ( ^ , ^ ^ ^jf J) , one who practises humanity. Tedz&kdra 
wo torite (totte) ko-gaiwo si-tomauw, = with her own hands (the princess) plucks 
the mulberry leaf, and practises the nourishment of children (the breeding of 

2. [. .ni su.] The definition of the state or of the quality, in which one 
is engaged or is (intransitive), or in which one causes a thing to be, what 
one makes of a thing (transitive), provided it be a noun, is put in the Local 
in ni, the form . . ni-s)i, M, wrw, sometimes mutating to . . n-)t, whence . . nz)i 
proceeds 6 ). From the Gerund nislt6 the form nite arises, by syncope. 

1) Franco-Jap. Treaty. Art. XVIII. al. 1. 2) Ibid. VIII. 1. 

3) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 39. 4) Ibid. p. 41. 5) Ttck*g-y**g. XI. 

&} The z in nzi I have observed it myself, is so softly pronounced , that one think* he bean nyi 
instead of nzi therefore even RODRIGUEZ in lem. f 29 has adopted the written-forra M. 


Examples : 

a. Si, with an intransitive signification. 1-nakdrani site (or nite) Mdsi tsu 
besi ( ^jf ^ ffll ^ ifei ) > one mav do it while sitting. Fa , roku-sai ni site 
yfcarw, the leaf, being in the sixth year, dries up. Zai-wi ku-nen nisit6 (or 
nite) Ten-wau fou-zu, = being in the ninth year of his reign, the Emperor dies. - 
Nomi yotsu kado nisttd, sue togaru, the fruit is quadrangular, and pointed at 
the top. Kono simava mi fitotsu nisttd omo yotsu ari, omo gotoni na ari, this 
island (Slkok, or the four countries) is one and has four faces; these have each 
a name. Tatsi-tokdroni sitd mdtsi tsu bdsi, Tff "fc fflj ^=f ia ' Banding n 
the point of departure he must wait. Saki, the point. Sakirizuru tokinva (= 
sakini suru tokiniva) fitdwo sei-su, when one is at the point (is the chief), one 
leads the others (^ j||J $j A*)' A Fito fakoni nangin irini si-masuka? l ), 
how many pounds shall I put in a chest? Fyak-kin irini nasdre, put a hundred 
pounds in. Roono katawa doo si-mas&ka? the shape of the wax how is it? 
Atsukavini sureba, musi tsiisdku sitd, mayumo tsiisakiwo tsukuru*), by over- 
feeding, the (silk)worm will remain small and also make small cocoons. Sika 
va m&mano gotdku ni sitd seo (//JN^) wart, the stag is much like a horse and 
is smaller. Yama-inu va iro ki ni sitd, fou siroku , wo nagasi 3 ) , the wild dog , 
being yellow of color has white cheeks and a long tail. 

b. Si, with a transitive signification. Makoto, truth. Sono kokdro basewd 
makotonisu, he makes his meaning truth. T6k&wo akirdkani su, he lets virtue 
shine. Motowo fdkdni sltd, sudwo ntsi-ni surebd, tamiwo arasovdsimete , ttbdvu 
koto wo fodok6sft 4 ) , if one excludes the root (virtue) and includes the top (fortune) , 
one teaches the people strife, and rapacity. Futokdro, bosom, heart. Korewo 
futokdroni si-tsubesi, one ought to take this to heart. Omote, face, front side. 
Nisiva gavawo omoteni su, on the west one has a river in front. - - Tairdka, 
level , smooth. Ten-ka wo tairaka ni surfr koto va sono kuni wo osdmurn ni dri 5 ) 
( 2p ^ ~|^ ~%f yj^ ^ [^ ) , the making the whole empire peaceful and happy 
depends on the government of his state. Meateni suru, to set for aim. 
Te-honni suru, set for example. Dai-setsu (y^ ~wJ) m suru, to consider im- 

1) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 11. 

2) The inversion: mayumo tsivtald instead of Isiisaki mayumo serves to bring ont tsiisaki (small) with 

3) Kasira-gaki. XII. 5 r. 4) Dai Gaku. X. 8. 5) Ihid., X. 1. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB 81, TO DO. 103. 287 

portant. Atatakani sum, to warm. Komakani sum, to make fine. Tsu- 
mabirakani suru, to make clear. -- Karo, light (of weight); Karonzi, to con- 
sider lightly, despise. Omo, heavy, weighty; Omonzi, to consider weighty. To 
be distinguished from Karokusi, Omokusi, to make light, to make weighty. 
Sora, empty; Soranzi, to learn by heart. Ama, mead, sugar juice; Amani *, 
or amarizu , to think zweet. Fako wa soye ni site kudasare l ) , please to give the 
chest into the bargain. - - Oki-tokei wo fltdtsti soye ni si-ma&oo *) , I will give a 
time-piece into the bargain. 

3. [..kusu, ..usu.] If the definition of quality is an adjective in ki ( 9), 
e. g. Nagaki, lang, its adverbial form in ku (or merely u) is used to unite with 
)z, w, uru, and the so formed compound ( Nagaku-si) , as long as there is no 
object direct, expresses the mere carrying out of the idea of the adverb, and, as 
it appears from the examples quoted, is equivalent to the predicative closing- 
form Nagasi, = is long; if however an object direct is involved, then the verb 
)', u has its transitive signification (the causative form se-su = se-simu seems to 
lurk behind it). In the example quoted at page 269: Tsuriwo y6k&-su^ he handles 
the angle well, yoku is a modal definition of the transitively used )', u, to do, 

a. With an intransitive signification ..ku s)z, u, uru appear in propositions as: 
Wo nagdku sitd tooku tobu koto atavdzu s ) , he (a certain bird) has a long tail 
and cannot fly far. Da va . . . kubi nagdku sitt, dsi takasi, the camel has a 
long neck and high legs. Sonoke un-kqu (|S.v j?*) ^ sXte kit**** no he 
yorimo atataka nari; ndtstivd suzusi*), his hair is warm and close, and warmer 
even than the hair of the fox; in summer it is cool. [TtUkdki^ near.] A., va 
B.. ve tsikdkusite C.. to koto-nari, A., comes near B.. and differs from C..- 
{Usuki, thin. Karoki, light.] A Kutsibiru usuvu-slte, kotoba kar6u-su, if the lips are 
thin (if the tong is smooth), the word weighs light. - - [Araki, rough, wild; 
Arakusu, act wildly, behave wildly.] Ten-wau ftmdre-tsuki ardku-site JUowo kor6*v 
kotowo konomu, the emperor, fierce by nature, was fond of killing men. \Got6ki , 
like.] Kakuno gotoku sureba, when people are acting in this way. - - [Forf&i, 
easy.] Nokordzu kai nasdru nurd, yas&ku-stte age-ma$oo*), if you buy the whole 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 12. 8) Ibid. p. 39. 

3) Kasira-gaki XIII. 11. r. ) Ibid. XII. 9. r. 

5) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 36. 


stock, I will let you have it cheap. [Naki, not existing. Nakusu(& 
~Y^^ pron. naosu), 1. to be wanting, to fail, 2. to think paltry (of no value).] 
1. koto nakusite, Kami no tdsukd ari, medical treatment failing there is 
God's help. 2. A Fit6 wo nandomo nau su, he considers others as of no value. 

b. With a transitive signification ..ku s)i, u, uru is found in propositions as: 

[Takaki, high.] Me-atewo takaku sum, = to exalt one's aim, not to give up 
one's intention. [Fikiki, low, humble.] Me wo fikikusite utsubukite miru, to cast 
the eyes downward and look below. [Taddstki, right, upright.] Sono mi wo osa- 
mento hdssuru mono va mddzu sono kokdro wo taddsiu-su Sono kokdro wo tadasiu- 
sen to hdssuru mono va mddzu sono kokdrobase wo makdto ni su 1 ) , who ever will 
govern himself, first makes his heart right. He who will make his heart right, 
first aims at truth. [Mattaki, whole; mattaku- (mattau, mattou, A mattoo) su, 
to make whole, to perfect.] Zinwo suru to va sono kokdro no tdkttwo mattou sum 
yuen nari ( ^ / fH ^|f" $f $ ^^ Aj) ^ ^ i& ) i ^ ne practice of humanity 
is the means to perfect the heart. -- [Toki, quick, ready.] Korewo tokusu, he 
does it quickly. [Atsuki, hot.] Atsuku or Atsuu suru, to make hot. [Suzu- 
stki, cool.] To wo firaki suzusiku su besi, you may open the door and let in the 
coolness. [FttdsVki, - one-ish, of one sort.] Koku kawo fttdtrtusu, he makes 
the country and people conforming to one mode. [Qn&Xfet, identical.] Tomoni 
tsiu-k6ku wo ondziu sdzu , not having the middle kingdom in common. Tsiri wo 
ondztku sdnu, not having the dust in common, not staying at the same place 
with anyone. [Fukdki, deep; Katdki, hard, fast.] Newo fukqusi, fozowo ka- 
tdku suru kusd nari, = it is a plant, that shoots its roots deep, and makes its 
stalk hard. 

4. [to su.] The appositive definition, what a thing is made, whether in 
fact or in imagination merely, is characterized by the particle to, = to, (see 
page 70. V). If an object direct is mentioned in the proposition, the apposition 
has reference to the object and si has the transitive signification of make (to), 
take for, consider as; on the other hand if no direct object is mentioned in 
the proposition, the apposition has reference to the subject, and si has the in- 
transitive signification of: to be actually. 

a. Appositions referring to the subject we have in sentences, like: 

1) Lai Gaku, IV, 4. 


Fito to site kau nakivd (or naki monova) tsiku-sauni k6tondrazu, he who is 
a human being and is destitute of filial love, does not differ from the brute; 
or: he who as a human being is devoid of etc. Avadsino simavd ena to site 
umi maseru nari, the island of Avadsi arose (at the creation of the Japanese 
archipelago) as an afterbirth. Fosi otsuru to ivuva fosini ardzH. Fito no me in 
fosi to suru norm, concerning the assertion, that stars fall, they are not stars. 
Only for the eyes of men do they appear as stars. 

b. Appositions referring to the object we have in sentences as: 

Onoreni sikazdru monowd tomotd suru koto nakdre, it may not be that (you) 
make any one , who is not as your self (who is your inferior) , (to) your fellow. - 
Kono fan wo dai-itsito subesi, this rule must be considered as the first (the prin- 
cipal). Fan to su ( ^ x l?7 b)' make (to) a rule, consider as a rule. 
= Te-fonni su; meateni su. 

Remark. 1. The object that is taken for anything, is found as object still 
governed by a separate active verb, which most frequently gives the way in 
which it is made. Tenwau ... fimewo tatete kisagi to si-tamavu, the emperor 
appoints Lady ... and makes her (to) consort. = the emperor takes Lady ... for 

Remark. 2. Much used is the formula: A., wo motte B.. to su, he makes A.. 
to B.., considers A., as B. ., has A., to B. - - Waukiwo motte tsitsitosi, Bu- 
wauwo motte koto su 1 ), he has Wang-ki for father and Wu-wang for son. - 
Kuniva riwo motte ri to sdzu; giwo motte ri to sw 8 ), a government does not 
make advantage pass as advantage; it considers justice as advantage. Or: a go- 
vernment does not find its advantage in advantage; it finds its advantage in 
justice. Rito suruni giwo mottesu*), to use justice as being advantageous. - 

^ ij ^ *m- Ten-sinwo miruniva, sono siyu to suru tokorotco motif su*), 
^ -i^A^ _H8 I ^' 

_ I 

^ to judge of a foreign minister, people take as stand him 


*S* V whom he makes his host (him in whose house he stays). 

P ? 

Remark. 3. By the omission of site , instead of . .to site, we meet with to alone. - 

Yuru yuru, loitering, hesitating, by degrees. - Yuruyuru ayumi, to go step 
for step (slowly). Yuruyuru to suru, slowly, by degrees to do. - Yuruyuru 

1) Tschung-yung. XVIII. 2) Dai Gain. X. 88. ") IWd. IV. 5. 

4) Meny-tsze, Lib. II. Cap. HI. $ 45. 



to site (or Yuru yuru to) fappoo (/V ^7 ) w frog) it spreads gradually in all 

5. If the appositive definition, what any thing is made (to), and that in 
imagination, is a verb with or without complement, it is put in the closing- 
form followed by to s)i, u, uru etc. 

Kakuru koto nasi, there is no want. ^ $&^ %jk^ ^ ' Kakuru koto 

nasi to su, people think, that nothing is wanting. A Kore yori ndwa nai, 
there is nothing that surpasses that. Kore yori ttwa nai to su, people consider, 
that nothing surpasses it. Itari, come to.. Itareri, is come to.. Ware itareri 
to su, I think to have come to the extreme, to have reached the topmost. 
Faru-aMva kagewo tattomi, fuyuva Jinatawo yosi tosu, in the warm season 
(spring autumn) the shadow is prized; in winter the sunshine is thought the 
best. Tada fikureni kari-suruwo yosi to sum nari, people think it for the best, 
to hunt only in the evening. 

6. [en-, in-, an- to stu] The definition expressed by a verb with or without 
complement, to what purpose a person is occupied, is put in the Future 
followed by to s)i, u, uru; whence the forms: ..en to su, to su, to 
su ( A 00-, iu-i oo to su) , = he is busy about . . , he is about to . . , he tries to . . ; 
Lat. in eo est ut, id agit ut. These forms are equivalent to the Lat. verbum medi- 
tativum (moriturio), and, as it, express an effort towards something. 

Kassen ni yukdn to su , he is about to go to battle. Yebisu domo no ni fi wo 
fandtte mikotowo yaki-korosanto sum toki, mikotono faki-tamaveru fou-ken midsu- 
kara nukete, moye-kitaru kusawo nagi-faravu, when the savages setting the field 
on fire tried to burn the prince, the sword which the prince had girded on, 
unsheathed itself and mowed the burning grass away. 

7. [ site, = te.] Instead of the gerund to site the syncopated to te 
is often met with. Comp. 130. 48. Examples: 

Kono aidani, Fayatomo sedo to 3 ) te , sivo faydsi, between them (between the two 
banks) there is the strait of Hayatomo, and the stream is rapid. Kono foM Koorai 
taka, Yezo-taka, Riu-kiu-taka to te, kuni-gunini ari, moreover there are, since 
THE falcon of Corea, that of Yezo, that of Liu-kiu are met with, (falcons) in every 
country. Kono sekiwo Fotokeni nitari to te, Buts-zqu-sdki to mo ivu, people 

1) In our opinion, to estimate to, rightly as it is here used, what has been said at page 70 , V , respectin g 
Filo tova, must b observed. 

CHAPTER VII. THE VERB SI, 103. BESI , 104. 291 

call that rock, because they think that it resembles a Buddha, the Buddha-image- 
rock. Ine'wo tsumide (A tsunde), siro to site ... tatakqvu, he heaps up rice- 
balls to a fort and fights. Yase-kiwo niwakani sei-teu- ($% ;M 5) *0-Wnto 
te koyasiwo tsuyoku-su bekardzu, to make meagre trunks of trees grow, they may 
not be too strongly manured. 

= h rt = jB ^ Go kokuno wauva Nipponwo semen to te w-nianno m'n 

Wf ^ &t* "Tit* Ii8 a z ^y uwo wa tdsu, the king of the country U, intending 

_g- ? to make war on Japan, sends a force of many tens 

% s ~ * "3L.y of thousands thither. 

104. BesI, may, can, shall; Beki, adjective, B^k&, adverb possibly, 
expressed in Chinese by 7fT 'jit jfi 2j\ " & ||F 

j J o pLf o /yii*> e sj-\ o | .| o ^J o HpJ o 

I. Derivation and signification. 

Be (-^), after the old form of writing A-^, mube (pronounced as mbe), also 
Zr-^t ubd and 2? t , urnd (pronounced as mme), is in Japanese dictionaries, 
called a word of assent i) and made equal to the Chinese JE i *). 

If, although this definition of the idea is practically sufficient, an investiga- 
tion of the origin of Be, is still required, it must be sought in the exclamation 
m, which, as our hem, implies that a person understands something, and in he, 
= our yes. The original form, m-M, according to the rule of euphony passes, in 
pronunciation, into mbd, expressed in writing by -^, for which we write be, 
whereas in the month of a Ye"do gentleman it sounds clearly as mbe. 

The old form A^s, Mube, occurs as a substantive with the signification of 
consent still, in expressions as Mube 1 nari (sC^jtf 9)4 ji P> granted, = one has 
the liberty to do, one may do; Mttb6 nardzii, it is not allowed, it may not be; 
whereas -s: (be), occurs as a substantive in the every day expression Su-be nari, 
it is possible, Su-be nasi, it is impossible. 

The forms derived from the root Be: the predicative ><&(, the attributive 
adjective, bdki, and the adverb, bdk&, thus include the idea of may, and of can, 
i. e. no external cause preventing the doing of a thing. A command to do 

1) -jt = ^ ^ x r ^ h #$'),: Formerly the Chinese word ffjj (= content) WM trans- 
lated with Ube or Ume. 

2) *i|p i ..Suitable, proper, fit, becoming; ought, should." MEDHUMT, CKuute and Englitk Dictionary. 



something is not included in it, and we do injustice to the politeness of the 
Japanese, if we give to this word the signification of our one must, you 
must, you shall." The idea of consent on the one side does not include that 
of obligation on the other (must), and can, at its strongest, only contain an 

II. Be belongs to the root-words treated in 9. I. B., of which the so called 
adjectives in ki are derived. In accordance with the rule given there, Besi and 
Beki in the old-Japanese and in the popular language are superseded by the 
syncopated form Bei (Iff ^) and the adverb Beku by Beo ("flf|"$?o 7 "Pf "* JSI 7 ) > 
and that particularly in the countries east of the Fakone-pass , whereas in Sinano 
Mei (Iff^) is said, instead of Bei 1 ). 

With regard to the inflectional forms, they cannot be better elucidated than 
by a systematic synopsis. The writer confines himself to those forms , which have 
actually come under his notice, and with regard to such as, according to the 
rule, may yet exist, he refers the reader to the Synopsis of the Inflectional 
forms of Nasi, 106. 



Contin. present. 


Root-form . . . 

Be, can. 

Beku-si , may. 

Bfikari , arisen from 

Bfekeri, arisen from 

Beku -f- ari , is 

Beku-J-eri. has 

being able. 

been able. 

Closing-form. . 

Besl, A Bei, Mei, 


Bekari, Benari. 


it can. 

Subst. and At- 

Beki, A Bei, Mei, 



Bekesi, Bekerii. 



Subst., isolated 

Beki va. 



Beku-slte, contr. 




Bekereba, when lie 

as, when, there. 


l) Wa-gun Siwori, under Mei. Vol. IT. p. 1. recto. 



Concessive. . 


Adverbial . . 



Coo tin. Pres. 

Bekuni, Bekuni 
va , Bekunba , 

Be-nasi, old- Jap. 

may not. 
Sube-nasi, = it is 

not to be done. 



Bekar)an, A ao, 

Beranari, it shall be 



Bekaraba, if it be 


Bekara)zu, A nu. 

Su-bekarazu, it is 
not possible. 

U-bekarazu, it is not 
to be obtained. 

Beken, it sJiall ha- 
ve been possible. 

Bekenba, if it 
might be possible. 


The verb, which, preceding Besi, expresses what one may, can, shall or 
will (do) is put, either in its root, or its attributive form. In nondeflecting 
verbs both forms are used, in deflecting verbs in i, only the attributive form in 
u or, instead of it, in the root, in i with nu or tsu as termination. Examples 
with nondeflecting verbs: 

Ake-besi, one can, may open. Mi-besi, one can, may see. Fiyori yokiioo 
mite, tandwo a^e-besi. Savo-nadoni tsuri, fikage-nite &ar/:<feu-besi, if you see, that 
the weather is fair, you may take out the seed (of the silkworms that have been 
put in water), suspend it on sticks and dry it in the sun. - - A Walcerare, be 
divided; Wakerdr%rii-beki, divisible. A Mi-wakerare, to be distinguished at 
sight; Mi-wakerdruru-besi, it is to be distinguished at sight. - A Aravare, to 
be visible; Aravaruru-beki koto, visibility. E, Ete (or Ye, Yefe), U, UrU (get) 
becomes U-beki instead of Urbeki; ^^^-^y, Ubeki mono, something one can 


get, something obtainable. Sesime. have it done; Se'simii-be'si instead of Sesi- 

O ' O 

murbesi, one can have done. Tas&ke, help, save; Tasuku-besi instead of Tasu- 
kurbesi. In a legend S'akya speaks to the falcon: Nandzi kono fatowo tdstiku- 
bdsi, spare this dove. The falcon answers: Ware kono fatowo tdstikdbd, ware 
uvdte si-su-besi, if I spare the dove, I shall die of hunger. 
Examples with deflecting verbs: 

^^ f Nari, to be. Kono sima kanarazu Okino-sima naru-besi, this 
*~ ~ * ^ . uc. island will undoubtedly be that of Oki. Si. to do. Su- 

^ beki ("Pff "lij)? feasible. Su-beki koto ari, there is a possibility 

^ tyfc 

of doing (this). Onna kono tewazawo su-besi, women 

ought to do such work. Korewa onnano su-beki tewaza wan', that is a work 
which women can or ought to do. Su-beki (being able, or about to do) is here 
conceived in an active sense, whereas the genitive onnano precedes as attributive 
definition. Tomoni ivu-besi (IjJ* Jilt ^=f ), people may speak with one another. 
Nivakdni fusegu-beki yaumo nakereba, Kavatsiye nige-yuku, as in the hurry it 
was impossible to offer resistance, they fled to Kavatsi. Koreva nasazdru bdsi, 
with regard to this , it may remain undone. Kore va nasaru bekarazu , with 
regard to this, one may not do it. The former allows, that something may not 
happen , the latter forbids that it happen. - - Tsumabiraka ni su-bekardzu ( ~j$* 

"FT ^ ) ' "- cann t ma ke it clear. 

The terminations nu and tsu occur in deflecting verbs, e. g. Ari, to be; 
Ari-nu-be'si , it may or can be. -- Iri-nu bdsi ( l*f ,A)> one mav 8 i n - ' 
Itdrinu-Msi ( llj" gj?), one may or shall come to. - - (Ivi (li), to be called; 
Ivi-tsu-bdsi , it may or can be called. Tana-kok6roni megurdst-tsu-be'si , one can 
make it run round on the palm of the hand. 

I refer both terminations not to the closing-forms tsti and WM, treated in 84 
and 85, but to ^^ nu (a variation of no) and ^^ tsu, which, as characteristics 
of the attributive relation, are derived from the old language. See page 67. 

IV. l.> The ability to do any thing is expressed by Y6kiis)i, u, uru, to do 
good ; j||| g o jjjjj o ^T o 7j o Negative Yokuse)zu , A Yokusenu. Prom the ex- 
pression: Uru koto wo y6kusu^-~L am able to get, it appears that the definition 
what one is able for, precedes as object in the Accusative. 

Also used adverbially Y6ku expresses the ability to do anything, e. g. Omon- 
bdkdtte sikaustte notsi y6ku w, by reflection is one able consequently to attain 
(his object), jg jffij || . Dai Gaku. I. 2. 


/# Tada zin-zin ydkii ftt6wo ai-si, y6ku flt6wo nikrimu koto 

* g * wosu 1 ), the humane man alone is able to love others, 

w>= *\> 



E " c I '" ^ ^ a ^ e th er8 - Sei-zin to tedomo, mata yoku-sezaru to- 

'. ^ ^ k6ro ari a ), even if he were a saint, there would still be 

HE ? l^ti ^ 

something that he could not do. 

2. The inability to do a thing is expressed by Atavaz)i, u ( >p" 

W - - 

= Lat. non valet, - Uru koto atavdzu, - the acquisition is not brought about. 
Atdvi, of which Atavdzu is the negative form, is composed of Ate, = equivalent, 
and av)i, u, to fit, or, after the Wagun Siwori, from Atekavi (^^ ^ft) 
= to take the place of a thing, as an exchange, and means, substantively used, 
the value (\j[_k) of a thing; thus, as a verb, to be of value, to be worth 
(Lat. valere). The Japanese language considers the treatment, and not the person 
treating, as that which is not of value, or cannot be brought about. 

^ m _ 7 ^ 

^pf' 9w B& ^ 2t T 5c ' ^ are yamu koto atavdzu 3 ) , = that I (halting 
half-way) should rest, is not brought about, = I can not rest. - - Ken wo mite 
aguru koto atavdzu, agdte sakinzUru koto atavazdruvd m& ndrf. Fu-senwo mite siri- 
zdkuru koto atavdzu , sirizdketd tdosdguru koto atavazdrA va ayamdtsi nari *), to 868 
an excellent man and not be able to raise him; to raise him and not be able 
to promote him, is fate. To see a good-for-nothing and not be able to remove 
him, to remove him and not be able to put him away, that is a mistake. - 
Kore wo motsiite tsukusu koto atavazaru mono aran *) , = that this (principle) be 
f r m ^ exhausted by the application, will be something impossi- 

Jfr ^t" 

~ ^ M.T -^ vdzu, it is not possible, that (a thing) do not perish. 

V. To dare, is expressed by Ahete, Aete (Ij^cO, the gerund of Ahe or 
Av)e, u, uru, = to answer to... - - AMte atardzu (_^^ tyL^ -Sy ^ e 
dares not attempt it. AMte kotowari-ivu , he dares judge of it. Ahfa koto- 
wari-ivdnu, he dares not judge of it. Tarazdru tokoro areba, ah&e MUotnezunba 
ardzu 6 ) , = if there is any thing that does not suffice (if he comes short of) , he 
(the man of character) does not dare not exert himself, - - he dares not be ne- 

1) Dai Qatu. X. 15. 2) Tsekuny- u^. XII. t. 3) Ibid. XI. S. 

4) Dai Qaku. X. 16. 5) Tichung-yuny. 6) Ibid XIII 4 


Remark. The negative AMzu or Ali6nu ( ^ j| ) , joined to the root of a 
precedent verb, means the not accomplishing of an action; it is made equivalent 
to Fatasazu ( ^ ** J& #) , not to accomplish. - - Omoi- , Im- , Tori- , Nagare- 

\S */ 

ahdzu or ahdnu, mean: not continue meaning, saying, taking, flowing. 

VI. That an action or a state is fitting, or is as it should be, is expressed 
by Too-sen tar)i, u (^^ $f$ v# ')) - ^ * s as ^ should be. Joined to it are 
also the ideas, that one is obliged or even entitled to it. The definition what is 
fitting, precedes as substantive proposition, and is characterized by koto (af- 
fair). Oitdruwo uyamau koto too-sen tari, that age is respected, is as it 
should be. 

^^ . Nippon sei-fu yori . . . f&ne-bune ni ... yaku-nin nori- 

- kumasuru koto toosen taru besi 1 ), it will be proper that 

Aui ,p 3 -J^ 

^ 'Pt on the part of the Japanese government custom-house 

V * A jlS C 

, ^ J\. officers be placed on the ships; or, after the official 

translation : the Japanese government shall have the right ... to place. 

105. The desiderative verbs. 

I. Desiderative verbs are formed by grafting on the root of the verb, the 
word expressive of quality Ta, = desirous. Belonging to the adjectives in ki 
(see page 109 n. 69), Ta (ideographically expressed by ^, phonetically by 
j^?) has all the inflectional forms common to them, thus Taki, the sub- 
stantive and attributive form, = desirous; Tase, predicate, = is desirous; Tdku, 
adv. The spoken language, which according to 9 II. suppresses the k and 
the s, supersedes Taki and Tasi by Tai (^-^, for which % is improperly 
written), and Tak& by -J?^, Taw, Too, for which inadepts also write 27. 

Mi-taki (A Mi-tdi), desirous to see; Mi-tdsi (A Mitdi}, he desires to see; 
Mi-tdku (A Mi-tau, Mi-tao, Mi-too), adv. ^Qlt^JjL^ JjL 5 " |^^ Mi- 
takuba, if he whishes to see. Mi-taku (or Mi-too) mo ncti"*), he will not 
even see. 

From the adverbial form Taku or Too, by means of the verb S)i, w, uru, 
to do ( 103), is derived Tdku-si or Too-si, to desire; gerund TakusiU or Too-sitd, 

1) Regulations by which the Dutch trade in Japan shall be carried on. Art. II. 

2) This is the ,,tomo nai, je ne veux pas," occurring in RODR. Eiem. pag. 54 56 line 4. 


in the spoken language passing by elision into Taku-te or Too-te, = desiring; 
Takutewa or Tootewa, the gerund isolated by tra, = if one desires; Takutemd or 
Tootemo, though he wishes. 

The adv. Taku or Too is further used in compositions like Taku- or Too-goza- 
ri-masil, is desiring; Taku- or Too-omou, or omoi-masil, - is desirous thinking, 
= desires, Taku-omoote zVw, Taku-omoote ori-masu, roundabout polite form for: 
I desire ; Tdkti-zon-zi-mdsu , = I am desirous ; Mairi-taku-zonzi-mdrii , I will go. 

II. Continuative forms. 

1) If according to 10, to the adv. Taku or Too we join the verb .4ri, = to 
exist , we obtain the continuative form Taku -\- dri or Too -f- an', which in pro- 
nunciation, and in writing also, passes over to Takari, ^*# 'J i = continually to 
be desirous. Inflection, the same as of An ( 96). 

Pres. Mi-taku cm, Mi-too an', Mitakar)i, u, is desiring to see. 

Gerund. Mi-taku-arite , Mi-taku-dtte , Mi-too-dtte, Mi-takarlte, A Mi-takatte. 

Concess. Mi-takuwa aredomo, also M i-tai-keredomo , though he desires to see. 

Condit. Mi-taku-ba, Mi-takereba, Mi-tai-naraba , if he desires to see. 

Future Mi-takaroo, he may desire to see. 

Pret. Mi-too atta, Mi-takatta, he was disiring to see. 

Mi-takatta keredomo, though he has desired to see. 

Fut. Perf. Mi-takattaroo , he may have desired to see. 

Derivative verbs of this stamp are: 

Kiki-taki, desirous to hear, f^j] ^ |^|- 
Yuki-taki, desirous to go. 

Si-taki (^^ KC?)' desirous to do ' 
= ready. Si-taku- (si-tg,u)-suru , to 

be ready. 
Itdsi-taki, ( fc? JfcJ), desirous to 

bring about. 

Manabi-taki, desirous to learn. 
Nomi-taki, desirous to drink. 
Mede-taki, desirous to love, in love. 

Ure-taki, desirous to mourn, = sympa- 

Nemu-taki, desirous te sleep, sleepy. - 
A N4mu-toi, I will sleep. Nemu- 
taku nasi (A Nemu-tqu wai), I am 
not sleepy. Ware mata nemu-tak* 
mo nai (vulgo nemu-tQU mo not), 
also I am not sleepy. Nttnu-ttua , 
sleepiness. - Wa-tokB*i, = selfish; 
the I. 

106. The leaving off of an action is expressed. 

I. by .the deflecting transitive verb Mak)i, u. From Alee, to open, Mi to see, 
Yuki, to go, are derived by means of Maki: Ake-maki, Mi-maki, Yuka-maJn, 
to leave off opening, to leave off seeing, not to go farther. From the examples 


given it appears, that, just as in the forming of the continuative, factive and 
passive forms, the weak i of the deflecting verb undergoes a strengthening. 
Mak)i, u means to roll up; thence the substantive, Maki, a roll, or Maki- 
mono, a thing that is rolled. A roll of writing, that has been used, is rolled 
up again. Thence, improperly: Sitawo maku, to roll up the tongue, i. e. cease 
speaking, grow speechless. Itonaki koto wo makite ziwo titdvu, he lays the 
stringless harp aside and sings a verse. 

Joined to a verb with the signification of ceasing to do what the verb ex- 
presses, Mak)i, u is expressed by j||. = to refuse, to retire, thus ^ JH,?' 
Mi-maki, to cease seeing. ffl^? iSJL^i Sira-maki, to have done with a thing. 
_^t* P^ S _JH,7 Hfc^T' Kika-mdku f6s$ki, desiring not to hear more of. - 
1^1 Ullf $C > Mdtstiri-koto wo kikamaku fdssu , he wishes to hear no more of business. 
A quite different signification is given to this word by Mr. HEPBURN, Jap. Engl. Diet. 1872. ,,MAKU 
or MASHI (-=?^o -=?*^) an ancient and now obsolete affix to verbs, for which the final N is now substituted, 
as Mi-makuno hossiki , = minto hossuru, or coll. mitai, desire to see." 

II. Yam)i, u ( j A)I into-, to become quiet, to come to rest, Lat. quiescere; 
to leave off . . . Kaiko k&vd wo kuvi-yamu , the silkworm leaves off eating. - 
Kftvdwo furi-yame, leave off strowing food on the floor (to feed the silkworm). 
Yami, as we see, with the root of a precedent verb forms a compound verb. 

III. Simav)i, u, A Sima)i, u, J ** phonetically expressed by ^t^^t* 
in my opinion, a distortion of Sttmdvi, to retire to rest, perch as bird, thence 
improperly to have done with a thing, to leave off. It belongs more espe- 
cially to the spoken language, and generally has the complement of the action 
one leaves off, in the gerund in te or de , sometimes also in the verbal root , before it. 

Si-gotowo site simdi-masoo , I shall finish my work. Watdk&siwa sono siyo- 
(so) motsitwo mohdya yomi-simavuta (A simoota), I have read this book through- 
out. Kareva kunde simoota, he has left off eating, = he has eaten. Kunde 
simaute aroo, he will have eaten. Waki-simquta sake, sufficiently fermented 
beer. Imada waki-simavdzu ni oru sake, beer that has not sufficiently fermented. 
Kunde stmae 1 , nonde simad, leave off eating and drinking. Uri-naraute simau, 
to sell out. ya-stydkti simai nasare mase, may your supper be ended! = 
take your supper at my house! the action being represented as finished 1 ). 

I) Compare what A. REMUSAT in rflem. de la Gramm. Chinoise 352 says concerning j tiao. 


Simavas)i, u, causat., to make leave off...-- Watdkusini mddz&iute-sima- 
vaseyo, let me first have done speaking. 

Simavar)e, u, uru, pass., to be finished. Kaki-simavaretaru soo-kan, a written 
(finished) letter. 

107. The adverbial form of a verb, as characteristic of modal propositions, 
Kke: as one thinks, as one says, is . .a-siku, . .a-slkuva, = . .a-ku, . . a-kuva. 

Of the verbals derived by means of slki, =, treated at large in 16, 2), 
page 121 , some by changing siki into siku assume an adverbial character. From 
Omdvi, to think, to mean, is obtained Omovdslktt, - probably, as one thinks or 
means. This is the axiom. As nevertheless the si oistku, is suppressed, for shortness, 
. . a-siku passes into . . d-ku; from Omovdsiku is formed Omovdku and with addition 
of the isolating va, Omovdkttvd, = as one means. The same is good of: 


Iv}i, u, to say, to be called; Sini ivaku (ffi^' ) , = as it is said in 
the odes, according to the odes. 

Nori-tamdv)i , or No-tamdv)i, M, to bid, enjoin, command; Si no nori-tamaedku 
( -3^ ^y ) 3L /% ^ ) > = according to the master's sentence , as the master says. 

Negdv)i, M, to wish; A Negawdkuba, sa-yoo yorom, = as I wish, it is good 
so, = so it should be according to my wish. 

Mqus)i, w, to say; Mausdku, as people say. F<fe) t u, now F6u)i, u, to 
desire; Fosdku (gfc V?), as people desire, as people will. 

Iverij has said; Iverdkuva, as people have said. 

Ivikeri, has said; Ivikerasi, it is as if people had said (compare 18); 7ri- 
keraku (^^ Jfc$ ^^), as people have said. Sen-zi (*jt ^ *) "' "* 
rqkuva, as it has been said in a proclamation by the Mikado. 

Osor)e, uru, old- Jap. also Osori, to fear; Osordktiva (^ } * '*), as it is to 
be feared, as I fear; a polite way of expressing doubt. 

JVan, to be; Nardku (= Nardtiku), = as it is, preceded by a verb in the 
substantive form, e. g. Kiku-nardku, as one learns. - - Miru-nardku, u people 
see . _ Tvu-nardku, as people say. -- Utagavu-nardku , contracted C/ta^ptw-ntf*, 
probably. Nardku is declared to be a contraction of Mm (to be) and Kaku 
(= Stkdku, adv. so, compare 17) ') and, while it is said that Naraku must 

41 v- s IR| 8F & ?M yu ' i "*" or Ki ^ Ul " Uou of lhe 

verbs. 111. 51 v 


-A- ft *t" "*- "f" 

be expressed by g or j|, people write p|j : gft^ c >^^>^|o W^ S&2 

Remark. The derivative form s?H, elucidated in 16, predicate sisi, contracted 
si, which in connection with ari (to be) passes into ard-siki and ra-siki ( 18), 
is also joined to verbs to express doubt 1 ). Consequently Keri (- has been, 82) 
passes into Kerdsi, it is as if it had been; Ki-ni-keri (= is come, 84) into 
Ki-ni-kerasi, it is as if it were come. Akiva ki-ni-keri 3 ), the autumn is come. - 
Fdru sugite " ndtsu ki-ni-kerasi*), the spring is passing away and it seems as if 
the summer were (already) coming. 

108. ,.,meri, = it is as if, it seems, an old-Japanese derivative form, 
which, as it is said, resembles Nari (= is) but expresses some doubt 4 ). It 
follows the indicative closing-form of a verb. 

Yebisuno kamino koto yoni samazamani ivu-meri 5 ), with respect to the history 
of the God Yebis', people speak about it in the world, as it seems, in diffe- 
rent ways. 

Tsigiri okisi " sasemoga tsuyuwo! " inotsi nite 
Avar el kotosino " akimo inu-meri 6 ). 

Oh dew of the sprig, that is planted with promises! In my life, Alas! the 
autumn of this year, as it seems, passes away (without seeing the promise made 
to me performed). Inu, from In)i, u, uru, to go away ( 84), not a nega- 
tive form of J, to be. 

As belonging to this category are cited: ?) 

Akdnu-meri ( f$J ^g ) , it seems to become day. 

Nagdru-meri ( 0f ) , Fatdnu-meri ( j|| -^ ), it is as if it flows away , as if 
it perishes. 

This form is to be distinguished from TsuJ)6m-4ri , Nasdsim-dri, being the 
pret. pres. of Tsubdmi, to bud, and Nasdslme, to order to be made (see 80), 
as also from ..nameri or ..nanmeri, shall have been, Future Perfect, of Ni, 
to be (see 100. I.). 

1) Siikost utagavu kotoba nari. Wagun-Siicori , under East. 

2) Hiyaku-nin, N. 47. 3) Ibid. N. 2. 

4 ) -f'J ^ tyl~ 7 ^*f $J% tiy ^^ 7 } ) ^ -^^9- Wagun-Siwori , under Keri. 

5) Nimaze. II. 16 recto. 6) Hiyaku-nin , N. 75. 7) Wa-gun Simon. 


109. Nasi, Naki, Naku, in the ordinary manner of speaking and writing, 
by the .suppression of the * and k (see 9, II. page 112), Nai, Mai, Nau (-f!>, 
pronounced as Ng,o, whence the written form Woo, No and No), means not to 
exist ($), not to be present, to be not at hand, in opposition to A r)t, 
u (7ft , 95), = to exist. 

A general sketch in 20, when treating of the derivative adjectives in nat, 
has already made us acquainted with this word. Here it requires to be elucidated 
in further particulars, concerning which all the dictionaries generally leave the 
student in the lurch. 

I. The root Na, of which the sound n is the negative element (compare 
91, I), occurs, 

1. as prefix, like our un, in compounds as: Na-yami, = unrest; No-koto, 
nothingness; Na-wi (1 #), Na-i (:M ), = un-seat, i. e. earthquake; JVa-mt, the 
un-real, the nothing; whence Aru-fit6wo nami-su , = Nai-ga sironi tu (jJ)t to 
esteem any one as nothing. 

2. as the forbidding not, followed by an imperative, that closes with so. - 
Na-motom6so, seek not! Na-siso, also Na-sizo (^f ^$) do not! - - \<t- 
iviso, say not! Na-nakareso, - A Na-nakasso *), let it is not be wanting! = 
it must be there. 

3. In the spoken language na suffixed to the substantive form of an affir- 
mative verb is the forbidding not, Lat. ne. 

Ageruna, raise not! 

Kikuna ( fljj % ^ r ), hear not! 

Mint net, see not! 

luna (^ *?1r), say not! 

Aruna, be not! 

Suruna, do not! 

Ageraruriina, let it not be raised! 

Yomaruruna, let it not be read! 

This imperative is strengthened by the subsequent yo. Afiru-nayo, you shall 
not see. Wasururu-nayo , you shall not forget. 

4. Ha suffixed to the substantive form of a verb, occurs as characteristic of a 
negative question. Man gindewa hydku ntiti kakari nuitfn4? for (the delivery) 
of ten thousand pounds are not a hundred days needful? Rinimo iro-iro ari- 
masu BOO na? there are also different sorts of miles, is it not so? Shopping 
Dialogues p. 31. 

1) Compare RODB. 56, line 12. 


II. Nasi, A Mai, predicate: there is not. 

1. Ato nasi, there is no trace. Kizu nasi, there is no hurt. Urami 
nasi, there is no disgust. / nasi, there is no meaning. Yeki nasi, there is 
no advantage in it. k Zeniga 1 ) ariikd? naiM? are there cents or are there 
not? = Is there money, or not? En-rio nasini handsu koto, to speak without 
forethought, not to care about what one says. 

2. To bring it out with emphasis, the subject of Nasi is isolated, either by 
va, A wa, or by mo, = also, even. A Fu-s6kuwa nai, there is no want. - 
A Fit6 kotomd nai, = there is not even a single affair, = there is absolutely 
nothing on hand. 

3. [..koto nasi.] If the subject, the existence of which is denied by Nasi, is 
a substantive proposition, it is characterized by koto, affair. Priori korewo 
ndsu-koto nasi ( ^ $j$ ffi ) , = that a person does this alone , does not exist , 
no one accomplishes it alone. Takava kureni sorete, mioo-tsoo (ty$ ^5) ^ a ~ 
dzune yobu tokivu, fU6wo mite, os6re tonde tsikddztiku koto nasi, if the falcon has 
flown away in the evening, and one seeks and calls him the next morning, he 
becomes shy at the sight of people, flies around, and it does not happen (nasi), 
that he approaches. Tsikddzftkti koto nasi may for rounding off the period , stand 
for Tsikadzukdnu , not approach. Sari todomaru koto nasi (A ..kotoga nai), 

> pE ne oes n t ne stays not. -- Sikareba kaikova suzusikini masi- 
) taru kotova nasi, = that however the silkworm has grown in cool weather, 
this does not exist. kNdnno kotomd nai (^ lf), there is absolutely nothing 
at hand. A Nan no ii-bunm6 nai, there is nothing to say. 

[..mono nasi] A Korewo y6ku-suru mono mo nai, a person who can (do) such, 
there is not. A Tan6simi-suru monoga nai, there is no one people may trust. 
A Meni atdru monoga nai, there is nothing that comes under notice. Ohosiku 
za-sen (^^ ^HE) to >iyuru mono nasi, chiefly those (coins) are wanting which 
(mono) seem to be counters or model coins. 

[. . tok6ro nasi.] Ki-suru tokoro nasi ( ififfi )S)f Hlf ) , there is no support. 

x V/- it 9 \ 1/9 1*"IM ' * * 

A Nokoru tokoro wa nai, there is no more room, = every place is taken. &FUo 
ni waruu yuwaruru (- ivdruru) tokdrowd nai, there is nothing, about which ill 
is spoken by others. 

I) For ga, see page 64. 


4. If the definition that this or that is wanting, is predicate to a precedent 
subject, it is, for the sake of clearness, willingly isolated by va, A wa, thus 
separated from the predicate. Iwaugasima ftto nasi, the > brimstone island" 
is without people, has no inhabitants. Kono yumivd tsikdra ndsi, this bow is 
without strength, is powerless, 

5. The appositive definition, what a thing is not, is put in the Local, cha- 
racterized by one of the terminations ni, de, ni wa or dewa. A-Rt fat niwa 
nai, it is not sagacity, it is stupid. -- A Sono yauni nai, it is not so. - 
A ..wo yauni nai, it is not so as... A Kore fodoni nai, it is not so 
much. -- A Waga mamardwo, nai, it is not capricious. - - A Na-kotodew* 
nai, it is no nothingness, it is even of importance. A Waga koto de nai t it 
is not my business; it does not concern me; I have nothing to do with it. - 
A Waga-tomode nai, it is not we. A Sorewa sayaude wa naika? is it not so? - 
ASau (or Sou) dew&nai, it is not so. (^ $P )jj: c J^>* $&1? '*7 &) - 
t\Dokode m6 sou de nai to ivu kotowa nai, it is nowhere said, that it is not so, 
literally: it does not occur anywhere that people say that it is not so. - 
A .Saw dewa nai, it is not so. A Sousita kotodew* nai, it is not a busi- 
ness of that nature. AMwwdewa nai (^ ^fC Jjfj, one may not overlook; 
one may indeed look to. A Iwanudewa, nai (^ ^ W^' one mus *' 8 P ea ^ 
about it. 

6. [..kunai] The definition denied by A Nai, in the easy manner of writing, 
also precedes as an adverb. -- kKono syok-mdts 1 umaku nai, that meat is not 
tasty. Umaku nai syok-mots, distasteful meat. 

Remark. The predicate Nasi is in compound words used as an attributive 
also, e. g. Na-nasi-yubi, the nameless (the fourth) finger, i. e. the finger, whose 
predicate definition: na-nasi is at the same time its adhering attribute *). 

III. Naki, ANai (^ -f , vulg. f also),= ..less, the adjective form. 

1. Used as a noun substantive, it means: nothing, and answers to Naki" 
mono and Naki-koto, i. e. a thing or a matter that does not exist. - - NaJrini 
suru, to consider as nothing, to cipher away. - - Fitiwo naiga (vulg. t \L$) 
siront suru (j?jj| ^), to consider others of no value. Kore wo nasumo y*r$- 
nakini ardzu, = &lso that people make this, is not a icause-lessneas," i. e. it is 
not without reason that this is done. 

1) See Addenda n. IV. 


2. The attributive Naki, A Wai, = paltry, in the original signification of 
not existing. Naki-fUo, a person not existing, not present, i. e. a de- 
funct. - - Naki-mono, vulgo Nai-mono, a thing not existing, a nothing. - 
Aru fitono naki-kotowo kiku, to hear of one's not being (his being dead). 
Naki-ato ( ~t" ^ ) , a trace effaced. 

3. As attributive adjective (= without, Lat. absque, sine) Naki, A Nai 
has the definition, what there is not, as a genitive before it, either with or 
without tbe genitive termination no or ga. 

A Tsuiye-naki koto atavdzu, continuance is impossible, = an end must come. 

- Tsikdra-naki yumi, a powerless bow, a bow without strength. Tsikara-naki 
koto, power-less-uess. -- Ato-naki nari, it is a thing without trace = it has dis- 
appeared, = Ato nasi, there is no trace of it. -- Kiwamarino naki koto nari, 
it is a matter without limitation. Kiwamarino aru koto nari, it is a matter 
that has limitation. - - A Mi no oki-dokoro no nai mono , a person without a 
place in which he can settle, a wretch. A Tsigaino nai yauniwa naranu, it 
is not of that nature that there should be no difference. A Fei-sei no kok6ro- 
gakega, nai, without a life's exertion or care. -- A Tanomini sum monoga, nai, 
without anything or anybody in which one has support. t^Kokdroni monoga 

nai, having no evil in the heart, = Urami naki, without disfavor. 

"Remark. To ga nai of the last three examples, what is said at page 64 respecting ga is applicable. 

IV. The adverbial form Naku (*f^), = without, by the dropping of the 
k in the easy manner of writing passes to ~f~ 2? Nau , for which ~Y 7 Navu also 
is written , sounding in pronunciation as Ngru , Ng,o , for which noo , no or no 
have chiefly been written. See 9. II. Nani-to naku , idzu to naku , - without 
anything whatever, = nothing at all. 

1 . The form Naku is used , as if it were the uninflected verbal root , in coor- 
dinate propositions. See 9. B. 2. - - Kake-mo naku, amari-mo nasi, there is 
nothing too little, nothing too much. ^ -^ -fc ^. 

2. Among Poets Naku supersedes the termination of the negative verb. 

- Ave-naku, = Avdnu, not to dare. - - Maka-naku, - Makanu, not to roll up 
( 106). Omova-naku, - Omovdnu, not to think. See 92. 4. 

3. Nakuva, A Nakuwa, the adverbial form isolated by va, A loa, is used 
as predicate verb in adverbial propositions, with the meaning ofasorifthere 
is not, failing of. Iki-taru kizi nakuva, si-taru kiziwd t6ru-b6si, failing 
of a living pheasant, one may take a dead one (to feed the falcon). 


4. Nakunba, Nakumba. The local Nakunba contracted from Nakuni, and 
isolated by ra, means in case of not existing, if there is not. Mddzu- 
dk&Xtt fetsurdvu koto naku, tonde ogoru koto naktunba, tfcan? if one, being 
poor, is without flattery, and being rich, is without pride, how then? (what do 
you think of it?) Compare BODE. 56. 

This Local form may even close a rappositive proposition, but is therefore no modus conditionalis. 

B f- ^^7 5Cv -^C^ /-szyo&'wo mitsiva an-min dai ittino keo nardba, 
^ HJv J^-^ ^ nitsimo nakunba aru bekarazu, as clothing 


3^ ? /% * 5^:f ^ anc ^ Ceding are the principal acts towards the 
/N * .Y ,; * -^ welfare of a people, they may never fail for a day. 

5. A Nakutewa, = Naotewa, contracted from Ndkusttdwa. See below V, 
1, NdkAsi. 

6. Naku to mo , = Naku to iedom6 or Naku to iu to mo , though it is said that 
there is not, granted that there is not, = even if there is not. 


As such come under notice: Ndku-si, Ndku-se, Nakdri^ Nakard&me, Nateri 
and NdkU-ndri. Explanation. 

1. Naku-s)i, u, uru, not to be, to be wanting, a coupling of Naku and 
si, = to do (see 103. III. 3), antithesis to Ar)i, u, to be present. The spoken 
language, which makes from Naku-si, Ngu-si, (lr?r ^), N$o-si, changes the gerund 
Ndku-site, by syncope into Naute, Noote, and Ndkti-stteva into Ngutewa, Nooto 
wa 1 ), = by or through want of, or: as there is not. Examples: 

Ya-tsiuva Nippon ydku-sioyori yurtisi naku-slto, ni-ordsu-bekardzu *), at 
night, without permission of the Japanese officers, no goods may be unloaded. 
- Nippon ydkH-nin tatsi-avi ndk&sttd 3 ), without there being Japanese officers 
present. Zin-sinno rei siru-koto arazdru-koto ndku-titte (or nau-sfte), gfkdu-sltj 
Ten-kano mono ri arazdru koto nasi 4 ), the spiritual part of the human heart 
is not without knowledge, and so also are the things on earth not without 
natural laws. Kotoba ndkft-slte kaheri-tamavu , without (saying) a word 

(the king) goes away again. - - A Kane go, nau-tfte (or Kanega nakvtewa) 
kdnawdnu, without money no success. - - A *Anohttotod ori-ori kami-irewo ndr* 

1) In RODHIGUFZ lem. p. 55 line 3 below, Nbwctawa should stand instead of Nbttw* , = our Vaoiewa. 

2) Art. II. al. 3 of the Regulations by which the trade in Japan shall be carried on, belonging to the 
Treaty of 1859. 3) Franco-Japanese Treaty of 1838, Art. VIII, al. 4. 4) Dai Gain, V. 2. 



kusft (or nakusare-masti) , lie is always losing (read wanting) his pocket-book". 

Nakii-s)e, uru, A N|o-se (^">7^), contracted from Ndku-s^m)e, u, uru, = to 

A Fitdwo nantomo noosuru (^^X n/) mono, = a person, who does not respect 
others for anything, who respects others for nothing. 

2. Nakar)i, u, continuative, not present, a fusion of Naku and<m, follows 
the inflection of Ari. See 92. 4. Urdstsa kagiri nakari keri, the joy has been 
boundless. Kono zeni, men-kiyo nakarisiga utsinite, faya iritaru mono imano 
yoni nawo nokoreri, of this coin there are now still several copies (mono) re- 
maining, which, while there was no permission, were prematurely struck off. 

As a form of the forbidding Imperative, Nakdre comes particularly under 
notice. See 93. 2. Tsiu-ziyo mitsiwo sdru koto tdokardzu. Korewo tintirdni 

O fodokdsite negavazunbd. fxtdni fodok6su koto 

"fetff** ~J& M* >Kx- ift^ 

-ffSL 3 i^^T* Zt JWL a i/'T* A& nakdre. whoever is honorable and kind, 

T ? ^ b ' 

^ ^** ^^- ^,$ ^[=f never deviates far from the way (from the 

o / o *7 

AH -Jt-^ r.^: ^.^ moral law). If a person does not wish that 

t- >pl TT y T& n ' 

= X-J If 1-^ \s ixA^i T / 

= (this or that) be applied to him, he may not 

i ti apply it to others! Tschung-yung. XIII. 3. 

The Chinese word f^|, tsu, is to be considered as a contraction of ~jfe tsi-yu, 
- towards, and may here not be translated by 

Derived from Nakdri is Nakarasim)e , u, uru, = to command that there be 

not, i. e. forbid. See 88. Kuvanokiwo kiru-koto ndkardsimu, 
- order is given that the chopping of the mulberry-trees do not 
*iv ^ happen , = it is forbidden to chop the mulberry-trees. 

3. Nakeri, Pret. pres. there has not been, follows the inflection of. .eri, esi 
( 80. 92. 4). Nivakdni fusegu-beki yqumo nakereba, . . Kavatsiye nige-yuku, as 
in the hurry there was no opportunity for defence, they fled towards Kavatsi. 

Remark. The spoken language of Yedo seems to use Nakdreba for Nakdreba, thence 
s>Siv6- (si6-) kega nakereba (or nakutewd) adziwaiganai, it is not good without salt". 

4. Naku-nar)i, u, A Nao-nari, Noo-nari, to become nothing, to come to 
nothing, to be consumed. See 100. III. (^ o ^ o ^). Tsikdra naku-naru, to 
become powerless. Tsikdra ndku-narite iru, - A Tsikdra nao ndtte iru, to have 
become powerless. Sakeva ndku-nartta, A Sakewa nqo-natta, the wine is con- 
sumed. A Urevino yumdga naku-nanta, the unpleasant dream has disappeared. 
Aritaru mono no ndku-naritaru koto, the plerishing of a tjiing, that has existed. 





Forms of 
the Predicate verb. 

and Attributive form. 

Adverbial form. 

Derivative verb. 

Root-form . . . 

NA = not. 

Sfaki, A Nai, 

^aku, ANu, ^ 

'Jaku-si, ANu- 

. . . less. 

(A Noo, No) 

si, to want if ail 




tf asi , A Nai 

Naku-su, AN$u- 

there is not. 

su, there is wan- 



$asi , A Nai 

!^aki , A Nai 



^asiva, A Nai w a 

^akiva, ANaiwa 


A N^u-suru 

that there is not. 

what there is not, 


the ... less. 

is there not? 

A Nai koto 

Local, defini- 

Tasini, ANaini 

"Jakuniva, = 

tive of time 

Tasini- ANaini- 

Sfakunba , 

and manner. 

oltawa, oltewa, 

A Nakumba. 

while there is not. 


Nakti-slte, = 





A N6tew& 

/"/ of. . . 

Concessive . . 

Nasito- A Naito- 



lyedomo, lyedomo 

thouyh there is 

Nasito- A Naito- 

ic: niting. 

iu tomo , in tomo 


Conditional. . 

A Nai-uarabu 


A Nai-iiiini 

Imperative . 

Na ! Nayo ! be it not 





Pret. pres. 


Root-form . . 


Closing- form . 
Substant. form 

Attributive. . . 
Local, defini- 
tive of time. 


Causal form . 
Concessive . . 

Nakari, there is not. 

Nakaru wa. 
Nakaru ni. 
Nakaru ni oltewa. 

Nakarite , A Na- 


Nakari tari, 

A Nakarita, Na- 

katta, t# 
Nakari-keri , there 

has not been. 


A Nakattato 

A Nakari tani, 
A Nakattanu 

A Nakattareba. 
A Nakattaredomo. 

Nakari-si , 

Nakari-ki, there 

has not been. 
Nakari-si nari. 
Nakari-si ni. 

Nakeri, A Nai- 
keri, there was 

Nakeri, there was 


Nakesi, Nakeru. 
Nakeru ni. 

Nakereba, as 

there was not. 
though it was not. 
Nakeru to mo. 


Conditional . . 


Nakar)an, ame, 

A Nakarao 
(Nakaroo, Nakaro). 
Nakaran z)u, uru, 
A Nakaro z)u , uru. 

Nakare kasi. 
Nakare gana. 




Nakaranu, it must be there. 
Nakerananarami, ^ p]" ^, it must have been. 
Nakini arazu, Nakinarazu, it is not without... 
Na nakasso, it may not be wanting. 


110. The subordinate definition, which precedes a verb with which it is 
compounded, may be a substantive or a verb. 

1. The substantive may be its object direct, or indirect. See 3. II. 1 and 2. 
It is the object direct in Ama-govi, Tsi-govi, to long for rain, for milk; it is 

the object indirect in Ama-kudari, descending from the sky. 

II. 1. The verb, preceding another verb as subordinate qualifying definition, 
remains in its root-form. The chief word of the compound governs the accidental 
object. Kor6s)i, u, to kill; Fitdwo i-kordsi, utsi-kordsi, sdsi-kordsi to shoot a 
person dead, to strike dead, to stab dead. 

To the qualifying definitions belong verbs like Os)i, u, ffl , to press, to 
do with emphasis; Osi-yar)i, u, throw away; Osi-ir)i, w, to intrude. 

Uts)i, u, ~ffi%, to strike, with a blow, or suddenly; iitsi-or)i, tru, to pounce, 
as a bird of prey ( 99. I. n. 11); Sirowo utsi-i)de, dzuru, to make a sally. 

Sasi, ^tf^, send away; Ok)i, u, place; Sasi-oki, set aside, put away; Fttowo 
sasi-tsukavas)i , w, to dispatch any one. 

Mes)i, u, ^ ,, invite, call up, qualifies the action as one which takes place 
by higher command; Mesi-tor)i, u, to take by order, to arrest a person; M 
fit6wo tsukavasi, N . . 100 mesi-kavesi-tamavu , (the prince) sends people to M . . and 
has N . . brought back. 

Avi, Ai, >|{Ji> together, Lat. con; Ai-katar)i, M, speak together; Ai-gutu, 
consult together. 

2. The definition of the particular direction of an action incorporated in a 
compound verb (as in flying upwards or downwards) , is not expressed in Japa- 
nese, as in other languages, by a prefix or a preposition, but as the principal 
part of the expression, by a verb, that is preceded by the mention of the action 
as a subordinate definition. Leaving the indication of such compound verbs to the 
dictionaries, we here confine ourselves, for the sake of brevity, to a few examples. 

Ag)e, uru, _ ., trans., expresses the moving upwards, Sag)o, uru, 


the movement downwards. Tori-age, to take up, to raise. Sasi-age, Sasdge, to 
present. Motsi-age, to bring up. Fiki-age, to draw up. Mqusi-age, to men- 
tion (a thing to a superior). Fiki-sage, or Fiki-or6si, to draw down. Agari, Sa- 
gari, contin., intr. Tobi-agar)i, u, to fly upwards. Tobi-sagari, u, to fly downwards. 

Nob6r)i, u, to go upwards, Kudar)i, u, to go downwards. Fase-nob6ri, 
to run upwards. Nagare-kudari, to flow downwards. 

Ir)i, u, ^7^, to go into, Ide, Idzuru, {Jj ^, to come out. Osi-iru, in- 
trude. Faye-iru, to grow inwards. Otsi-iru, to fall into ... Faye-idzuru, 
to sprout out. Ir)e, uru, trans.; Ot6si-ire, to make a thing fall in.. Idas)!, 
u, causat. Tori-idas)i, u, to take out of. 

Koni)i, u, yA,?, intr., to go inwards. Kom)e, uru, tr., to bring in. Ko- 
mas)i, u, to make go inwards. Fino teri-komu, the shining in of the sun. - 
Nomi-komu, to swallow. Kugiwo (Kusabiwo) utsi-komu, to drive in a nail. 

TTtsus)i, u, ^j?% , to remove. Fakobi-utsusu , to transport. Kaki-utsusu, 
to write over again, to copy. 

Kaher)!, u, {j||;>, to turn back,- Kahes)i, u, to make turn back. Tobi- 
kaheru, to fly back. Tori-kayesu, to take back. 

Mav)i, u, ||E, to move in a circle. Mi-mavi, to look around. 

Mavar)!, u, continually to go round. Nagare-mavaru , to flow round. 

Mavas)i, u, to make go round. Fiki-mavasu, to draw a thing round-about. - 
Tori-mavasu, to turn round. 

Tsuk)i, u, ^^, intr., = on, to. Kisini tsuku, to come ashore. -- A Fune 
ga okani nagare-tsuku , the ship drifts ashore. 

Tovor)!, u, A To6r)i, u, |^*, to go through, to pass. Fino nakawo to- 


voru, to go through the midst of the fire. Nagare-tovoru, to flow through. 

Tovos)!, u, A To6s)i, u, to make go through, Ovi-to6su, to drive through. - 
Ovi-to dsaretaru , driven through. ' Matowo i-to6su, to shoot through a target. 

Watar)i, u, $^#, to pass, to go from one side to the other. Kavawo 
watdri, to cross a river. Kavawo katsi-watdri, to wade through a river. 
Tobi-watari, to fly over. 

Watas)i, u, to make pass over, to carry over. Yaku-soye fitowo fiki-watdsu, 
to transport people to the office. 

Tsir)i, u, ^t), intr., to spread, scatter; Tsiras)i,u, caus., spread, scatter. 
Fou-bouye nige-tsiru, they fled to all sides. Tobi-tsiru, to spatter abroad. 
Ovi-tsirasu, to scatter. 




111. Courtesy in language and writing is, in Japan, not confined to the 
priveleged classes of society; cast ages ago in distinct forms and, we may add, 
stamped by the law, it has penetrated to the lowest grades of society and spread 
over social intercourse a gloss of reciprocal respect, which is indeed not to be 
found among any other people on the globe. 

Besides, courtesy in language and writing is not the consequence of recent 
development: even the oldest Japanese historical book, the Yamdto-bumi of the 
eighth century (see page 36) is characterized by a courteousness of expression 
which, the not unfrequent insignificance of the contents considered, cannot be 
acquitted of extravagance. 

So long as courtesy governs the oral and written intercourse of a people, the 
appreciation of its forms belongs to the study of the language, and since we 
have treated it in the chapter on the Pronouns, we are obliged to fix the atten- 
tion on the verbs and verbal forms also with which courtesy gives gloss to its 

The chief features of the Japanese courtesy are: 

1. The polite speaker distinguishes the conditions and actions of persons 
beyond him by the honorary prefix $Pvo* ^ n or 0- S 66 P*^ 6 ^*- 

2. He does not say or require, that another person, whom he places above 
himself, should do any thing himself, but says or requires only, that the action 
be done, i. e. he places the passive form as predicate to the subject, that really 
performs the action. 

3. He considers not only persons of higher station, but even his own equals 
as being in a higher position, and with the actions of others connects the idea 
of descent, whereas to his own he gives that of ascent. 

4. He is scrupulous in the choice of synonimous verbs, in proportion as he 
wishes to express the same idea in a more or less exalted style. Letter-writers 
teach him to distinguish the degrees. 


112. To satisfy the demand, which represents the person beyond the speaker 
not as acting himself and thus as not immediately coming in contact with per- 
sons of lower station, the active form of the predicate verb is, as it has been 
said, simply superseded by the passive form, without and here is the pecu- 
liarity of the expression, introducing any modification in the construction 
of the original active proposition (compare 90. 2). Examples: 

Karuno Oho-kimiwo dai-sini sadameraru 1 ) (instead of saddmu, or sadame-ta- 
mavu) , (the emperor) declares the Great-prince Karuno hereditary prince. Zin-mu 
Ten-wau arutoki takaki okani nobdmte, kono kunino katatsi akitsumusini nitdruwo 
mile, fazime'te Akitsu-simato nadzukeraru (instead of nadzuku), - Emperor Zin-mu, 
once climbing a height, seeing that this country (Japan) resembles the light-insect 
(the dragon-fly) , first gave it the name of Light-island. L. va M. ni N. no 
kwanwo sadzukeraresi (instead of sadzukesi) to ari, people say, that L. has given 
the office of an N. to M. Naniwo iwasare-mastta ka? what have you said? 
Iwasare from Iwasi, make say, and this from Ivi, to say. 

Much in use are the honorary passive forms: 1. Serare, 2. Saserare, 3. Na- 
sare, Nasare-mas)i, u, 4. Nasaserare, 5. Arasare, 6. Irare, 7. Irasare, 8. Ira- 
serare. Explanation: 

1. Serar)e, uru, pass, of S)e, uru, to do, to effect. Yamato-Take sibaraku 
tou-riu-seraru 2 ) (instead of tou-riu-su) , Yamato-Take stays there some time. - 
Kei-ko Ten-wau Siganite fou-gyo- ( Jj$ * fj|p 3) seraru (instead of fou-gyo-su or fou- 
gyo-si tamavu) , Emperor Kei-ko dies at Siga. N. no Oho-kimi kau-zi- ( ^g >& ) 
seraru , Great-prince N. dies. - - M. wo kiri-korosi , N. wo ru-zai- ( j^ ^ ^fp ^ ) 
seraru 3 ) , (the king) sabres M. down , and banishes N. If, instead of seraru , se's'i- 
me'rdru, were used, it would mean, that the king gives order to kill and to banish. 

2. Saserar)e, uru, = it is effected that one does; from Sas)e, uru, to make 
do. The action runs, as it were, over three wheels, by which a person of high 
station causes an inferior to have a thing done. Go-beo (jifp^ JH^) ni 
may u wo ken-zi-saseraru (or ken-zi-sase-tamavu) , the prince has cocoons offered in 
the ancestral temple. 

3. Nasar)e, uru, ^^ J^^ ^ ^ e done, from Nasi, make exist, and thia 
from Ni, to be (see 100). Naniwo nasaruka? what does your honor? 

1) Nippon o-dai itsi-ran. II. 8 verso. 2) Ibid. 3) Ibid. II. 6 verso. 


in the familiar style of speaking and writing as an auxiliary verb grafted on 
the root of another verb, it makes known, that the action which is done, pro- 
ceeds from the person spoken to, or even merely from another person than the 
speaker. Examples from the spoken language: 

Say 'oo nard, tsuke" ndsare! if it is so, give it me! - - Kosikakeni kake 
nasare! may Your sitting on a chair happen, = take a seat. kake nasare, sit 
down. Korewo kasi- (0 tsukd) nasare, lend (give) me this. Korewo Go- 
ran nasare, please look at this. - - Yoku ydsumi notare"! vulgo ydtumiu&\ 
may Your good rest happen! = good rest! Dokorit stimai nasartka? where 
do You live? kai nasaretemo, yanie nasaretemo, kono Xy&oa deki-masenH , 
you may buy it or not, there ends the matter. Nokorazu kai ndsarH nard, 
yasulm-siU age-masoo, if you buy the whole stock, I will sell it cheap. Roo 
wo kai-nasardnuka? dont you buy wax? 

Nasare-mas)i, u, the same as Nasare, only more round-about, vulgo Natari- 
masu also (see 101). A Naniwo nasare (vulg. nasari)-masuf what are you 
doing? Go an-sin nasare-mase , depend on it. Watakusino mausu kotowa 
wakari nasare-masuka? do you understand what I say? Sa-yquni nasare-ma** 
ka? will you do so? kamai nasare-masu na! take no pains! -- S%k6simo 
kamai nasare-mastina, don't trouble yourself about; don't care for it. - f\'"i< 
mitsiwo ide nasare-mase, go this way. Idzureye ide nasarc-nuu&f whither 
are you going? Idzure yori Ide nasare-masttaf whence do you come? 
Douzo fairi nasare-mase, if you please, walk in. 

4. Nasaserar)e, uru, |^ %, ^jlb* J^ t , care is taken that a thing is done 
or made; the passive of Nasase, have made, and this the causative form of AW, 
to make. The action or the effect here runs over four wheels. 

5. Arasar)e, uru, pass, of Arasi, to have be, and this from Ari, to be. - 
A Dorega sukide arasare-masii ka? what is there of your desire? what do 
you like? 

Araserar)e, uru, vulgo for Iraserare. A ko-aama \kagadt. ara*frare-ma**i 
how is your son? Sotite okHsamawa Vkagade araerare-ma*u? and how is 
your lady? 

6. Irar)e, uru, to be placed in the condition of dwelling, paw. of /, Iru 
(JSi) to dwell, be somewhere, stay (see 98). Anata traruru toMrowo eon- 
zi-masdnu, I do not know your dwelling-place. 

7. Irasar)e, uru, pass, oflrdsi, make dwell, thus to be placed in the condition 


of making dwell, = to be (somewhere). Mo sukosi irasare-mase (low language 
irasai masi), stay a little longer. Yoku irasare-mastta , you are well placed, 
= you are welcome. Sate, fisabisa ikagade irasare masu, come on, how have 
you been this long time. Ikagade irasare- (vulgo irasai-) masu? how do 
you do? 

8. Iraserar)e, uru, to be placed in the state of dwelling, = to be. A Go 
ka-nai samawa ikagade iraserare (vulg. irassai) masu? how are your family? 
A Kuwa fen- ( *J^, jjs^) ni iraserare-mase , be near the fire (come near the 
fire). Itsi bet i rai ( -^ J^|) y J^jJ^ ^^) ikagade iraserare-mastta? since our 
last separation, how have you been? 

00 %" % &f^ 
113. I. Tama)vi, vu, A Tamai, Tam)au, oo, JMa^ ^ *tj , to bestow, 

!5nr H / 9 

grant, give, when the giver belongs to a higher sphere. Although the Japa- 
nese themselves reduce this word to Tama , -R ^ , = jewel , we take it for a 
compound of the old Tabi, - to give, and Avi, 'JEj*u 5 to meet. Thence; Mono 
wo motte fitdni tamavu J ), literally: to confer something on a person. ^ifcp ^ 
^fl^Sv = ^^^ 2 ) Rokuwo so-sinni tamavu, (the king Zin-mu) grants in- 
comes to his servants. 

As an auxiliary verb grafted on the root of another verb , it characterizes the 
action as proceeding from a higher person, whether divine or princely. It is 
expressed by j$j^ and phonetically by f o Jff, answers somewhat to the please" 
or have the goodness" used by courtesy, German geruhen, is however, at least 
in tales, rightly left out by the translator. 

Examples : 

Tedzukara kuvdwo torite ko-gaviwo si-tamavu, (the princess) plucks mulberry 
leaves with her own hand, and feeds silkworms. Sono notsi Tauyori takawo 
ken-ze sikdba, Mi-kariwo moyovasare, s^o-teowo tordsime-tamavu, when afterwards 
falcons has been brought as presents from China, (the Japanese prince) caused 
hawking to come more into fashion; and had all birds caught. Mayov)i, u, to 
come into fashion. Tor)i, u, to take. JV.. tatsimatsi mtindsiku naru, N. . dies 
suddenly. Iku-fodomo ndkU kano feme" m&ndsiku nardse-tamavu , immediately 
after, that lady (a princess) dies. 

1) Nippon-ki. 2) Nippon o-dai itsi-rdn. 


%> &, ^ tt 7 Kun-tsiu nite mi mi wadzuravankwrttd fodo-ndktt fou-kivo 

K >3 JP-V . 

-f rt rhf si-tamavui), (the prince), while he is with the army, 

jL /*t T 1 * . 

x M - is taken unwell and dies shortly after. 

>7 *t~ _ Old writers hare To6)t, w, = to give, instead of 

Tamavi also; thence: Osame-tabin toki, = when N.. go- 
verned a ). 

For further examples see page 230 line 11 from the bottom. p. 239 1. 8 
from the top. p. 274 1. 20. p. 290 1. 9 from the bottom. 

II. Tamavar)i, u, A Tamauri, Tamor)i, u, the continuative form of Tamavi, 
which however supplies the place of the passive form Tamavare, = to be granted, 
not in use (compare Nari as substitute for Nare, 100. HI), and, like Tamari, 
also as an auxiliary, is joined to the root, or to the gerund of a verb. 

Kore Tenno tamavdru wan, Jj^z ^ J^j" ^ ifL ' ^^ ** a P* 68611 * from Hea- 
ven. Ko-zi-kini Izanagino mikoto yori Amaterasu Ohon kamive mi kubi-tama 
wo tamavarisi koto wo iveri, in the book of antiquity it is mentioned , that by 
(the god) Izanagi a necklace was presented to the goddess of the sun. Kore wo 
mestte go ini dziyo- (3L : '* / tfc= ^5t1T) serare^ nawotamavari, (the king) 
inviting him , raises him to the fifth rank and confers on him the name of . . - 
Nuno san-bydku-tan wo Hdku-sai kok-wau NN. ni tamavari (j|f|)* ya zyu-man 
fonwo ... ni tamavu, (the Jap. prince) gives three hundred pieces of silk to NN., 
king of Petsi, and presents (his minister) a hundred thousand arrows. 

TTke-tamavar)i, u, A Uke-tamdri (^ ^), to have the honor to receive 
(from a superior), or to hear. -- Tsiy6k&wo uke-tamavari *) (^jffc jfif ), to receive 
the king's orders. A Go i-ken (^JJ 3 * JJ'*' -St) wo uk-tomvatta or tamotta, 
I have had the honor to receive your advice. A Sak*-ya yukiga fori-nuuHto to 
uke-tamavari-mastta, I have had the honor to hear, that it has snowed during 
the night. Go sa-u ( $]J ^ ^ * ^ ^) uke-tamavari-tdkti zoixi-tnd**, I wish to 
have the honor to hear, how you do. Ka-roo (jj * ^?) ftnJtoo idasite to- 
mavari-keri, we (skippers are speaking) enjoy the honor, that the secretary (of 
the governor) has our ships cleared. A Muizuwo nomateU tamor*, = have the 
goodness to let me drink fresh water. 

1) Nippon o-dai tin-ran, I, 10. 8) **-g** Siwori, under 

3) I. 16. 


114. By Matsur)i, u the speaker expresses the most profound respect 
for the object, be it a person or a thing, that he speaks of or to. As conti- 
nuative form of Matsi (^jf^), = to wait (compare page 218), Mdtsuri (^f 
jf|[ jfllfi) means continual waiting, solemn attendance, to show re- 
spectful homage. Thence Ten wo mdtsitri, Tsiwo mdtsuri, /JitJ"f ~^ti^i ^ enwo ma ~ 
tstiri, Kami wo mdtsuri, people do homage to heaven, to earth, to ancestors, 
to Kamis," by celebrating feasts to their honor, Mdtsuri, being the feast itself. 

As qualifying auxiliary joined to the root of a verb, Mdtsuri unites with it 
the idea of reverential homage. One says: Futdrino kimini tsitkavuru (A tsukoru) 
koto atavdzu , serving two masters is impracticable. More respect is shown by 
the expression : Kimi ni tsukavu ( A tsuko) mdtsuru koto J ) , to serve my prince 
with respect. Zo-teini tsuko-mdtsttru, to serve the Most High 

2 _4s* " 

z. ~ ^ reverentially 2 ). 

When the excessively polite speaker says to his equals: 
tomo tsukamatsuri-masoo , I will accompany you, or itoma tsukamatsuri-mdsU , I 
take leave of you, we may put down such politeness to his own account. The 
rule requires Tstikai- or Tsukae-mdtsuri, yet this, for ease in pronunciation, passes 
into Tsuko- (?%?) or Tsukd-mdtsuri. Tsukd-matsttri soro ( / \JL vh)' 

Tate-matsiiri , ^pj; , to offer respectfully and solemnly , from Tate , set up- 

Kono toki ama-bito fardkano uwowo Ten-ioauni tate-matsuri si koto cm' 3 ), it 
appears that, then, the divers solemnly presented a redbellied fish to the Em- 
peror. Deva-kuniyori kavikowo kavu mono wo tate-matsuru 4 ) , from the country 
of Deva persons, who breed silkworms, are solemnly presented (to the emperor). 
Tsusima yori sirokane wo tate-mdtsuru 5 ) , from the island of Tsusima silver is 
presented (to the emperor). ffakftsaino tate-matsureru te-f$t6, artificers, whom 
Hakusai had presented (to the king of Japan). 

Tate-matsuri is joined to the root of a verb, as a qualifying auxiliary, to 
characterize the action as respectful, solemn. 

Onna ( OTl ^^)wo Yamato Take no Mikototo mausi-tatematsuru ( tp ^ ^si ^.^^^ 
besi e ) , your name I must respectfully call Yamato Take no Mikoto (compare 

1) Tschung-yung XIII. 2) Ibid. XlX. 

2) Yamato nen dai. I. 21 V, 4) Ibid. III. 4 r. 
5) Ibid. II. 29 r. 6) Ibid. I. 22. 


p. 228 line 8). Ten-wquwo umdni tasuke-nose-tote-mdteuri, Kavatsive nige-yuku 1 ), 
they respectfully help the emperor to mount a horse and escape to Kavatsi. 

It is in earnest, not in irony, when the historian says: Makowano nriko uka- 
gavi kitdrite Ten-wquwo kor6si-tate-mdtsiiru a ) , prince Makowa, steals in and 
respectfully kills the emperor. 

Tate-matsurar)e , uru, the honorary passive, honoring, in the eye of the 
speaker , also him who respectfully offers or presents. If in the preceding example 
tate-mdtsurdrtt were used, instead of tate-mdtvuru , the speaker would show his 
respect towards the murderer. 

The states and occupations to the qualification of which courtesy pays par- 
ticular attention, and the expressions of which, to be properly appreciated, 
must be understood also, are: 1. Being, existence; 2. Doing; 3. Seeing, 
Showing; 4. Saying; 5. Giving; 6. Going and Coming. Explanation: 

115. BEING. 

1. The spoken language, which leaves the use of JVari, to be, to the book- 
language, instead of it uses 1. Mad ( 101); 2. Ari ( 96); Ari-man ( 101); 
3. On, Ori-masi ( 97); 4. Gozari, Gozari-masi (p. 263 /2m.); 5. Soro ( 102); 
6. Fanberi and 7. Moosi. 

6. Fanber)i, u, Pamber)i, u, ^a^JJ '^9, of old ^^9, means wait 
upon (^ pa ), stay or be somewhere (^E), it is expressed in the epistolary 
style by ^ (wait upon), and declared as equivalent to Somurovi, Swot ( 102). 
A. B. sa-uni fanberite (* ~fa* - ffi'% 1 ) ?) mdtsHri-kotowo tori-okondvu, (the 
Ministers) A. and B. taking the places right and left (of the sovereign), carry 
on the affairs of government. Yumiva Zin-dai yori fanberi, the bow has existed 
from the time of the gods. Compare page 230 line 3 from the bottom. 

7. Maus)i, u, A Moosi, f.? |.f, 1- to show oneself respectful ; 2. ^,to 

O *s ^ ^* S 

mention. The way in which this word is used, requires the distinction of its two 
significations, although no attention is paid to it, by the Japanese, who use but 
one Chinese sign ( ^ ) for both. 

In the former signification, as definitive or as defined part of a compound 
verb also, it qualifies the action as submissive, respectful: AfytMt-wfe is 
to receive respectfully; Uke-mqusi on receiving to show oneself submissive. The 

1) Nippon o-dai iisi-ra*. 2) Ibid. 


root Man seems to be the same as occurs in Mqu-k)i, uru (^ l|IJ)i to come to 
court in solemn procession , Mesi-mguko- (not ka) simu ( ^J ^| ) , to send for a 
person to court, and in Mairi, to make a solemn entry. Japanese philologers 
think that this Mausi, placed after the root of a verb, frequently passes into 
Matt?' ( 101) l ). 

Yamdto Takeno Mikoto Ise Dai-zin-Guu yori fou-kenwo mausi-ukete, Surugdno 
kuni made yuki-tamqvu 2 ), prince Yamato Take receives respectfully from the 
temple of the Great Spirit at Ise the precious sword and departs to the country 
of Suruga. A Kaki-tome-mqusu bekiya ( ^jf> ^ llj" Ep ) , if I shall take a note 
of it? Sa-yqu naraba wakare moosi- (= masi) masu, as it is so, I take 
respectful leave of you; the ordinary expression for our: Farewell! Oriwo 
motte On tsikadzukini nari-mousi-taku-zon-zite , tada ima-made yen-in mqusi soro, 
wishing for an opportunity humbly to come in contact with you, I have only 
delayed it till now. A fandsi-mousi-soro fit6 wo mi-mousi soro , I see the man 
of whom you speak. 

116. DOING is expressed by 

1. S)i, u, uru, to do ( 103), Si-mas)i, u, to be doing ( 101). 

2. Itas)i , u , Itasi-mas)i , u , to accomplish (p. 284 Rem.) , more stately than Si. 

3. Asobas)i, u, the causative form 3 ) of Asob)i, u (j$f;>>), to play, to be 
amused (Saru yedanl asobu, the ape is playing among the branches), and further 
the honorary passive Asobasar)e, uru ( ^^ ^ y )' * take pleasure in any 
occupation , are used both for the qualification of what persons of rank do. See 
page 237 line 5. 

A Go Id-gen yoku asobasi-soro , His Honor's disposition (cast of mind) is good. 
Korewo obosimesi asobasi-soro, Your Honor means this. Kono fooye On-ide aso- 
11, 3 basaru beku soro, literally: may your outgoing be to this 

|i| ^ .11 
M4 T' It 

, for. please come to my house. noki asobasare! 


^" pl ease t go back (or out of the way)! 

1) MASU go-bini tsukete ivuva ofoku MAUSUno riyaku nari. Wa-gun Sitoori, under Mow. 

2) Tamato nen dai. I. 22. v. 

3) According to the Wa-gun Siwori, Asobasu is a contraction of iM^V 4^ ^ . Asobi-masu. 

*Trr \J /\ 

,,Inisiye yori,'''' so it adds, ,,Ki-nin kotowo nasaruruwo kaku iveri" it is an old custom to designate by 
this word the doing of noble persons. 



1. Mi, Mite, Miru ( 99 n. 34), to see. Sinawo miru kotowa deki-masAka? 
can I see your goods? ) Watdkusiwa kdsukdni funtwo rot-mo*u, I see ships 
in the distance. Do they say for it really in Yedo Watakusiwa kaskani /uniga 
mie-masu or mieru? i. e. I the ship comes in view. 

2. Mis)e, eru, to show. Sun^kowo mise! 2 ), let me see a desk, or in 
the more round-about language of Miyako: Bun-kowo Go ken (^IjJ^ Jf, ) *e 
kudasare mase. 

3. Pai- (Hai-) ken, ^? j^^,, to look on with respect, with interest - 
Kore wo fai-ken itdsi-masu , or fai-ken tsukamdts&ri-soro , I have the honor to see it 

4. O meni kak)e, eru, B-jl* Q * -S*^' = * bring a thing under Your 
Honor's notice, to show a thing.. Naniwo meni kake-masoo &?*), what 
shall I show Your Honor? 

5. O meni kakar)i, u, = to appear before His or Your Honor's eyes. Afiyoo- 
nitsi meni kakari-masoo 4 ), = to morrow I shall come under your notice, I shall 
let myself be seen by you, I shall call upon you. Tadaima fazimete mem 
kakari mastta 5 ), it is for the first time that I come under your notice, = it is 
for the first time that I have the honor to see you. 

6. Go-ran (^tp 3 * ^ ), the glance of a noble person. 

Go-ran-z)i, u, uru, to honor with a glance. -- Ten-wguno on fava sou-ziyyu 
wo ik-ken Go-ran- ( ^ ^ , ^) ^ ^ ?,) zite , kok6ro yoku , waran-tanuiru ) , the 
mother of the emperor, at the first glance upon the prior, becomes glad of heart 
and smiles. 

In the familiar style of speaking and writing the speaker applies Go-ran to 
his equals, to show them respect. Kore wo Go-ran-zerare , or Go-ran nature, please 
look at this. Naniwo Go-ran nasdr&kaV), what are you looking at, what do 
you wish to see? the shopkeeper asks his customer. NanicU gozari-ma*&kal 
itte Go-ran nasare, go and see what it is. 

118. SAYING. The idea of saying is expressed by 

1. Iv)i, u, I)i, u (-^), Ii-mas)i, u. Anatano nawa nanito ii-rmuu&af 
what is your name? -- Watakusino nawa . . . to tt-rooau 1 ), my name is ... 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 23. 8) Ibid. p. 8. 3) Ibid. p. 1. 4) Ibid. p. 18. 

5) R. BROWN, Coll. N. 1048. 6) Nippon o-dai itn-ra*. II. 16 T. 

7) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 1. 8) Ibid. p. 19. 


2. Nori-tamav)i, u, to order, when speaking of the master (see 107, p. 299 1. 15). 

3. Osiy)e, u, uru, ^^^ ^i P ron - ossiy)e, n, Uru, to teach, to communicate 
a thing (faow. kotowo) to a person by teaching, places him who makes the 
communication above him, who receives it. Wareni (not ware wo) osfyeyo 
( 3jfc^ ^J$^), = teach me or communicate to me, sounds modest; Andtani 
osiye-mdsu, = I teach you or communicate to you, is considered presumptions. - 
Tamini takahe'si uyuru koto wo osiyestmu 1 ), (emperor Schin-nung) has the people 
taught ploughing and sowing. 

4. O6s)e, uru, ^*, to charge (fctowo kotoni, a person with anything), see 
87 n. 25. Thence the passive 06serar)e, uru, ^j? i"^l> to ^ e cnar ged, in- 
structed. To a superior one says: A Anatawa sono toorini ooserare-mas'taka? have 
you spoken so? to an inferior: Omae sono toorini ittaka? Oose-tsttk)e, uru 
(ffl "f*J")i speak to, to address . . Thence the honorary passive 06se-tsukerar)e , uru, 
&i rr TT Nipponye to-kaiwomo oose-tsukeraruru aida, as or since (s. 129, 
n. 46) We (the sovereign speaks) have given orders to sail to Japan. A Tono- 
sama korewo oose-tsukerareta , the master has said this to us, or charged us with it. 

5. Kikas)e, eru, = Kikasime, to make people hear, from Kiki, to hear. A no 
katani kiki nasard, learn from him, ask him. Kikastme, old- Jap. Ki- 
kame! ^ * f^f ^ let me hear! tell me! speaking to a nobleman. - - Watakusini 
kikase nasare! let me hear! tell me. Watakusini kikase nasaru kotoga deki- 
mdsttka? can you tell it me? Fttono kokdroyeni naru koto wo ii kikaseru koto, 
to tell that which tends to the interest of others. 

Kik6-sim)e , uru , < f||l *% ^ 5 > to let hear. 
Kikosiines)i, u, [M! ? -?? ,, to let hear, inform. 

6. Maus)i, u, ^^ ^, A Moos)i, u, to speak respectfully to one's superior, to 
mention, declare; expressed ideographically by -j^ o pf ^ o ^| ^^ o )^f o 
^ ^ =y . 2 ). It has the definition of what is said as an Accusative , and , 
if it is a Substantive objective phrase, this with the particle to before it, whereas 
the more distant object, to who in or where one mentions, as Dative or Local 

Jap. Encycl. vol. 103. I r. ^ -jgy ^ g^ -*& 2) 

jJ= ^ l=? 

7 = 3^1 'f 

Wa-gun Siwori under Matuu. r\ *s 


precedes. Tsubusani sono koto wo mausi-soro, I mention this minutely. 00- 

teini mausu, Jff | _|f jg| ^ ^ ^^ ^ God __ But j ni ^wite wwu- 
sa&w 1 ), Q T^} ff , = as he speaking to Buddha says. Mawsi-tamavakura, 

f r r? .. % 

T&\, W^?,% 2 )' as (the prince to the emperor) says. -- Nagaku Nipponno 
yatstiko to narite, midzuki-monowo sadzuku best to maosu, he declares that he will 
always be the servant of Japan, and pay tribute. A Sorewa Nippon dewa 
nanito moosi-masft ka ? 3 ) , what is this called in Japan? 

If Mausi is used as a root, on which another verb is grafted, it is expressed 
thereby, that the action is confined to the speaking or saying, e.g. Sadame, 
to define; Mausi-sadame, ivi-sadame, to define with words; Age, to raise; Mcnui- 
ag)e, uru, ^ _t , = to say towards above, to communicate to a superior; 
Moosi-ire, ^ ^ , proposition to one's equal. Nandziye (or Nandzim) lo-kanwo 
motte moosi-ire-soro , I have the honor to inform you by letter. Yaht-ninye 
mausi-tassu-besi , notice shall be given of it to the officers. 

If Mausi is grafted on the root of a verb it stands for 3/os)i', M, 4|J , 101. 
Age-mausu or Age-mausi soro ( K ^ ^|) of the epistolary style is the same 
as Age-masu, to offer, of the colloquial. See Addenda n<>. VI. 

119. GIVING. 

1. As from courtesy the speaker places the person addressed above him, even 
if he is his equal, he qualifies his own giving as an upward movement, and 
the giving of another as a downward one: he uses Ag)e, uru, to reach up- 
wards, in opposition to the honorary passive Kudasar)e, uru, to be let down 
from on high, to descend (page 243 line 22), and since from this distinction 
it appears who gives, the speaker or the person spoken to, the express mention 
of a pronoun in connection with these and similar verbs is superfluous, as 
the following examples show: 

A Dai-kin wo age-wos# kara, uke-tori-gakiwo ktiddsare 4 ), after I have paid 
you the price give me a receipt. Dai-kinwa agerar^nti. (or agerare-matenti *) , 
= the price will not be reached upward to you by me , = I will not pay the price. 
Dai-kin wa tadatma Mdasdru ka f e ) , will you give me the money for the goods 
immediately? Tadalma ktidasaru kotowa deki-masenukaf), cannot you give (it) 

1) Mausaku, see $ 107. 2) Nippon-lei. Vol. VII. 14 r. 3) . MOWN, Coll. N 9 366. 

4) Shopping-dialogues, p. 14. 5) Ibid. p. 13. 6) Ibid. p. 13. 7) Ibid. p. 13. 



me immediately? Anata-sama yori kudasareta kane itsi-pu mo tsukaiva itdsi" 
masenu, of the money given by Your Honor it is a Japanese grisette who 
writes it I have not yet spent one bu. 

2. Sasag)e, uru, (from Sasi, to show, and Age, to raise), ^ o ^ o ^, 
holding a thing up, to present to a person in a higher station. 

Sinrano tsnkai N.N. kitatte mitsnkiwo sasdgu 1 ), N.N., ambassador of Sinra 
comes and solemnly offers presents (to the emperor). Tanbano kuni yori k&rdki 
kitsunewo sasdgu 2 ), a black fox from the country of Tanba is offered (to the emperor). 

3. Kudasare, joined to the root or to the gerund of a verb, characterizes the 
action as one proceeding from the person spoken to. It sounds more courtly than 
Nasare ( 100. IV. 5). 

kai kudasare (vulgo kudasai), or kudasare-mase, or kai nasare! please 

. . ^ - . . 

to buy. The chapman: San-byakume de kudasare! \^ W? H 7 

~T*^* 3 )' pl ease to pay 30 taels! The buyer: Ni-bydkume de agemasoo, I will 
give you 20 taels. Doozo mioo-nitsi O ide (^jfj)* |ij T*) kudasare! please to 
come to-morrow! Tsikadzukini nari (^tfj* J^JM) kudasare! i), please to 
approach him, = allow me to present him to you. kamai kudasaruna 5 ) , 
take no pains. Mo sukdsi ne-masite kudasare 6 ) , please to set the price some- 
what higher. Gok' yasUku-site kudasaru nard, nokordzu kai-masoo 7 ), if you give 
it as cheap as possible, I will buy all. 

Remark. For Kudar}i, u see 87 N. 10. 

4. Tsiik)e, uru, ^5 to add to, expresses the idea of giving, without any 
boast. In A tstike 1 nasare! please give it me! Ts&ke has reference to the speaker 
and the honorary passive Nasare to the person spoken to. 

5. Torasim)e, r uru, also Toras)e, uru. That the expression: to give order 
to take" places the person ordered beneath the one who orders is self-evident. - 

^ -j >" -zr n Fyak-kwanni zin, gi rei, tsi, sinno fudawo torastmete mono wo 
WL-r R ^ 
**n *&? tamavu 8 ) , the emperor orders the assembled officers to take 

t*?*s ~ tablets, on which one of the words humanity, justice etc. is 
/ > ^ written and thereby bestows gifts. 

1) Yamato nen-dai. III. 3 v. 2) Ibid. III. 4 r. 3) Shopping -Dialogues , p. 38. 

4) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 19. 5) Ibid. p. 21. 6) Ibid. p. 38. 

7) Ibid. p. 36. 8) Yamato nen-dai. III. 6 v. 


6. Yar)i, u, $U^, to cast, throw, send (fttoni mono wo, to send a thing to 
some one); it humbles the receiver. Tsukaiico yari ncuare, please send me a 
message. Kono mononi kane itsipu yare! give that person one bu! 

120. GOING and COMING are expressed by 

1. Mair)i, u, solemn entry, to enter (a palace or temple) in solemn proces- 
A o ^~A o ^~S%- From Mad, Man, to walk in 



procession, to hold a stately procession, and ir)t, M, to enter. The definition: 
whither one goes or where one enters, precedes, characterized by y, r or ni. 

Ten-mu unadzuite 0-maeve mairu 1 ), prince Ten-inn, yielding, waits upon 
His Highness (the Mikado). Kau-raimo . . Go tsin ($JJ ^ ^ J) nt mairite /- 
fuku su ( 2p 7 ffi %) 2 ) a l so *hey of Corea come into the imperial camp and 
submit themselves. 

In the familiar style of speaking and writing Mairi is nsed instead of Ki- 
tari, to come, if one's own coming to the person spoken to is meant, even if 
one is on an equality with him. If the pronoun of the first person is wanting, 
by Mairi it is indicated that the speaker means his own coming to the person 

spoken to. A Watdksa sinawo mini (or kai-mononi) maitta (^j^i* ), I have 
come to you to look at (or to buy) goods. A Watdksa kono fltdtoo tsurete 
maitta, I have brought this man with me. (Shopping-Dial. 18). A Firu-maye 
niwa mairi ye- (^f -f ^jp 1 ) masdnii, I cannot come before noon. (Sh.-Dial. 17). 

2. Mairar)e, uru, if it occurs, is used by the speaker, instead of A/otri, by 
way of an honorary passive, from respect towards the person who comes. 

3. Mairas)e, uru, cause to enter solemnly, cause a thing to enter solemnly, 
i. e. to send a thing to a person in a high station, to offer a thing solemnly. 
iH h lUc- The giver humbles himself, and raises the receiver. 

Ati o 1 * o /ivlA 

4. Mairasar)e, uru vulg. Marase, (passive of Afot'rcm), to be admitted with 
solemnity. An excellent example from RODR. 105: S. Joam Baptuta Jt*u 
Christoni JBaptismawo sadzuke-mairasareta or Sadzuke-tatemateurareta, 8. J. B. 
was solemnly admitted to the administration of baptism to J. C. -- Here by 
Mairi the giver of the baptism is placed beneath the recipient, whereas the 
passive form mairasareta expresses the respect of the speaker towards the giver. 

5. Ide, Idzuru ( |fj ) to come out of, to appear, and 

1 ) Nippon o-dai tin-ran. II. page 4 r. 1) I*m*to N*-4ri. I. 2 T. 


6. Agar)i, u (_t#0, to come up, rise, are applied only to a person beyond 
the speaker. The former points to the beginning, the latter to the duration of 
the action. Fino ide is sun-rise, O ide (f^J^ HJ-r)' ^he rising, the appearing 
of persons beyond the speaker, His or Your coming, ide nasaru ( trjj j jpT ) , 
= Your or His rise takes place, i. e. you or he comes. Yoku ide nasare, 
or nasare-mase, or, abbreviated, Yoku ide! be welcome! ide nasarei 
kasi! oh that he came! Dokoni ide nasaritka? whither are you going? - 
A Kono mitsiwo ide nasare-mase , go this way. Idzuku ye (or Idzuku yon) 
ide nasare-masu? whither are you going (or whence are you coming)? Wa- 
tdkusi to 'issoni ( '^ p)y^ = ) ide nasare-mase, go with me. 

ide also takes the place of the auxiliary verb Ari, Ori or Iri ( 96, 97, 
98), in connection with a precedent gerund. Tastkdni strife' (site) ide nasare- 
mdsnka? *), do you, or does he know it certainly? -- kiwo tsukdte, mite ide 
nasare!*), fix your attention on it and see! Atsirani matte ide nasare! 3 ), 
wait there! Akariwo motte ide nasare, bring a light. agdri ($Q* \^ #*) 
nasare, i. e. may your coming take place, says a merchant for: come in! (Sh.- 
Dialogues 1). 

Taken in an ample sense, by another's coming the speaker understands a 
meeting, a concession to the speaker's wish, e. g. : Sake wo age-masooka? may I 
offer you sake? Ari gdtoo, no I thank you. Nazeni agari nasardnukd? 
= why do you not rise? for: why don't you concede, why do you refuse? 
(Shopping- Dialogues 21). 

Agarasar)e, u, uru, to be raised, from Agarasi, to make rise, and this from 
Agari, to rise. The passive form, for honor's sake used in deference instead of 
Agari; also Agaraserar)e , uru. 

7. Makar)i, u, evidently a continuative verb and as I think derived from 
Mak)i, u, = io leave off ( 106), means a continual leaving off of work, i.e. to 
have furlough (Hd. Urlaub) or vacation, to be out of service for a time; to 
go on furlough 4 ). It was formerly used for people in service, who left the capital 
to go elsewhere for a time, on a visit. It is expressed by ^ o j|| o ffi o -^ e 
1f 1*0 JH o ^i an( l must be distinguished from Makar)e, eru, to be sent 
away, the pass, of Mak)i, u. 

1) R. BROWN, CoU. Jap. N. 14. 2) Ibid. N. 34. 3; Ibid. N. 36. 

4) MAKARU to va koto sumile sono ba wo sirizoku koto nari. 


01 J&st 33L+, Yamdto firm mikotovi makari-mousi-tamamte ivaku l ), (prince 
9 W^ = "T^ 

JJK$ g Yamato take) paying a visit to (the priestess) Yamato fime 
TdP-Q. <[/ 

^.^ T-^ ( a ^ I se ) says... A Watakusiwa omaeno katani makarau, 
_Pf> I IT 

or makari-masoo , I shall come and visit you. 

When the chapman says : Sono ne de wa makdri-mastnu , = for that price I will 
not come to you, he declares that he is not willing to sell for that price. 
Aru tok6roni makdri-aru, to be somewhere on leave, to be somewhere; to be there 
for a time, but not definitely. Bu-zini makdri ari-mastl, = he finds himself 
for a time at ease, it is well with him. That Makari is, at the same time 
used for to die" will, our derivation considered, not appear strange. 

Placed before another verb it seems to unite with it the idea of furlough, 
on a visit only for a time." Mioo-nitsi makdri idzu beri, possibly I may just 
call on you to morrow. Makari therefore indicates discretion , politeness. 

8. Tsika-dzuk)i , u , j|t & > ^ come i n ^ t fle neighbourhood. tomoriini 
tsikd-dzuku, the night moth comes in contact with the lamp-light. Thence Tttkd- 
dztiki, an acquaintance, one known. tsikddzUkini nari-maail, I become your 
acquaintance, I make acquaintance with you. tstkddziikini nari-mastte yoro- 
kobi-mdstf,, it is agreeable to me to have become acquainted with you. 

The going out of the Mikado is called Mi-yuki-s)i, u, uru, or ^jv ^ 
Giao-gao-s)i, u, uru, or Giao-gcio-ari , = to spread happiness in going; on the 
other hand the going out of the Tai-kun was expressed by $|) *" J^ T } O nari. 

Ten-wau N. kunini giau-gau-su a ) , the emperor repairs to the country of N. - 
Ten-tsi Ten-wau aru-toki yama-sinaye giau-gau arite, kaheri tamavdzH. Tenni no- 
bori tamavu ni ya? s ), the emperor Ten-tsi once went into the mountains and 
did not return. Should he have gone to Heaven? 

1) Nippon-ki VII. 16. r. 2) Nippon o-rfai iiti-ran. II. 10. r. 3) Ibid. II. 4 T. 



121. As the relation indicated by conjunctions, in which propositions stand 
to one another, is either a coordination or a subordination, Grammar dis- 
tinguishes coordinative and subordinative conjunctions. Consequently we 
arrange the Japanese conjunctions as follows: 


I. Copulative conj. 

1. Mo,, 

2. Mata, mata. 

3. Katsu, Katsuva. 

4. Oyobi. 

5. Narabini. 

6. Kanete. 

II. Disjunctive conj. 

7. Aruiva. 

8. Matava. 

9. ..ka, ..ka. 
10. ..ya, ..ya. 

..yara, yaran. 

TV. Conclusive conj. 

16. Kono-yiieni. Sore-kara. Koreni yotte. 

17. Sorede, Soredewa, Soowa. 

18. So site, Sogote. 

19. Sate. 

20. Sunavatsi. 

III. Adversative conj. 

11. Mottomo. [tera. 

12. Nagara, Na (Nga), Ga- 

13. Slkasi-nagara, Slkasi. 


14. Sari- (San-) nagara. 

15. Yavari. 

V. Explanatory conj. 

21. Kedasi. 

22. Tadasi. 

23. Anzuruni. 



24. Tokoro, Baso. 

25. Tokoro ni, 

A Tokoro de. 

26. Toki. 

I. Conjunctions of place and time. 

27. Setsu. 

28. Migiri. 

29. Utsi, Hodo. 

30. Ma. 

35. Notst 

36. Yori. 

37. Kara, ..noni. 

38. Made. 

31. Ma-ma. 

32. Avida. Aida. 

33. Uye. 

34. Mave, Maye. 

II. Conjunctions of quality and manner. 
a. Comparative, b. Proportional conj. 

39. Toorini. 40. Yauni,Gani. 41. Got6)si, ki, ku. 42. Fodo, Fodoni. 

III. Conjunctions of causality, 

a. used in the notice of an actual cause. 

43. Yueni. 44. Kara. 45. Niyotte, Aida, Tsnki, Tsuite. 

b. Conjunctions used in the notice of a possible, '. e. a future and thug 
an uncertain cause (Conditional conjunctions). 

46. Naraba, Nara, in connection with Moslkuva, Mosiva, Mosi. 

IV. Conjunctions of the purpose. 
47. Tame*ni. 48. Tote. 

V. Conjunctions of concession. 


50. ..tomo. 

51. ..domo. 

52. .. 

53. Slkaredomo, Saredomo. 

54. Soredemo. 

55. Slkamo. 

56. Somo-8omo. 

57. Mamayo. 

The relative comparative of propositions. 58. ..yoriva musiro. 



I. Copulative or oodrdinative conjunctions. 

122. 1., 'fa*, adverbial suffix, = too, also, Lat. que, quoque, cha- 
racterizes {he word which precedes, either subject or object of the proposition, 
as added to, or made equivalent, to another subject or object already mentioned. 
Kore, this: Korem6, this too, even this. 

j this, him; KorewomA, him too. 


As suffix to an interrogative pronoun it contains all that is included in the 
interrogative, as individuals together. Dare, = who? (Lat. quist) Daremd, 
= whoever (Lat. quisque). See page 102. 

It characterizes the concessive proposition. See 131 n. 50. 

..m6, ..m6, = both., and.., as well., as also.., not alone or not only, 
but also.. Kazdmd namim6 sidzttmardzu, = both wind and waves do not 
abate, = neither wind nor waves become still. 

2 TT* 7 Avugi ( A Oogi) va , Ziyun tsukuri-tamdvu to m6 mata Bu-wau 


3S -| ^ ? tsukuri-tamdvu t6m6 iveri 1 ), - concerning the fan, it is said 

^ JEO' 7 ' f^ that (to) Schun has made it, as also that (to) Wu-wang has 

EE? made'it. 

2. Mata, ^# 5#i=twig, something that is double; as adverbial con- 
junction = too, and, moreover (sono uy<[), likewise, or also, unites both 
coordinate names, and equivalent propositions, and refers to the word or propo- 
sition, that follows it. Andtano kinu-mono mata momen-mono it-tan no naga 
fabawa ikura ari-mdsukd? 2 ), what is the length (and) breath of one piece of 
your silk- and cotton-goods? Ke-oriwa kane-zak mata kenwo motsii-mdsu 3 ) , 
for woolen goods the iron foot is used as also the ken (an ell of 6 feet). 

Mata (^f^fl) refers to the predicate in propositions like: 

*jL Mandnde tokini korewo narau mata yordkobasikardzuya? *), to learn 

_^y * ^ t 

^ v a thing (and) practise it continually, is this not agreeable too? 

># T 

..m6 mata, = likewise. If the subject as well as the predi- 

:p cate of a proposition is made equivalent to the subject and pre- 

7 ^ _, , j dicate of a precedent proposition , the sameness of the subject is 

t v ^ ^ 

expressed by the suffix mo, and that of the predicate by the 

adv. mata (^^); thence the formula mata.. 

Kono futd fasirano kamimb mata... mi-mi wo kdkusi tamdlki, also (mo) both 
these gods kept themselves likewise (matd) concealed. Compare page 225. 

At the beginning of a proposition Mata points to the equality of its contents 
with that expressed in the preceding proposition. Mata (^) andtano fooni 
sa-too ari-mdsu nard, sore wo kai-masoo s ), = and if you have sugar, I will buy it. 

1) Kasira-gaki. VIII. 2. r. 2) Mopping-lHaloffuet , p. 33. S) Ibid. p. 28. 

4) Lun-yu, Cap. 1. 5) p. 40. 


3. Katsu, H.ff, isolated by va or wa also Katsu va, Katsu wa,= and also, 
moreover, Lat. quoque, continuative conj., characterizes the proposition or the 
part of the proposition that follows it, as an addition to the precedent clause. 

^Hv TcS^-EL* P*l!f jftY* Kon-sin katsu Soo-fon' 1 ), friendship and trade. 
i^l f J|lt H.-y T&,> Fadzi artte kdtsU Ma'ru 2 ), people grow ashamed and 
come to perfection. 

Katsu mata, H. ^]>, moreover also, than so much the more. 

Katsii-katsu , = moreover and moreover , all and all. 


4. Oy6bi, 2fc *,> = reach to, as conj. to and with, inclusive, unites two 
objects removed from each other, comprising the series of similiar things between 
them. It is a synonym of . .ra itdru made or ..yuki-tsttkite, = coming to.., and 
of Made-m.6. (See 62. n. 26). 

The stipulation that Japan shall appoint consuls and commercial agents 
abroad, is expressed in the Treaty of 1858, Art. I al. 4, by: 

5. Narabini, l|fi 7 -, besides, also, from Narab)i, u, to place oneself next, 


joins substantives and propositions. - - Morokosi narabini Ban-goni dzuu-turu 
mono, a person versed in the Chinese as also in foreign languages. Nippon no 
kome narabini Nippon no mugi 3 ), Japanese rice and Japanese wheat. 

At the beginning of a proposition Narabini is met with e. g. in Art. Vll al. 2 
of the said Treaty, containing the stipulation: And these buildings shall not be 
injured," after the building of churches is conceded in the previous proposition. 

6. Kanete, ^^ ffi)^ 5J|^*> a * *^ e same time, gerund of Kane, to take 
with or together, to comprehend, comprise, embrace, characterizes an apposi- 
tion. N.N., Bungono kami kanete Nagasaki Go-Bu-gioo, N.N., prince of Bungo 
and governor of Nagasaki. 

II. Disjunctive conjunctions, 
between propositions that reciprocally exclude or may supersede each other. 

123. 1. Aruiva, Arttiwa, J^ ^ , contr. of dru ivu ca, = as someone says ), 
separates, with the signification of or, or also, substantives and propositions 

1) Netherl.-Jap. Treaty of 1858, in the beginning. ) &M*JW, II. 3. S) Tmty. 11. 19. 

4) 7 W 1 ' 


which may take the place of each other. Kono figiri aruiva sono i-zen nitemo J ), 
at this date or earlier. 

Aruiva repeated has the power of exclusion. Aruiva kono figiri, aruiva 
sono i-zen, either at this date, or earlier. 

7. Matava, Matawa, the mata isolated by va, = or also, then well. The 
or" in consul or consular agent" is expressed in the Treaty Art. I. al. 2 

^ X*- rnatava.-- ft j #* ^ WE^U"^ #"' #? Av, 

Nippon ki-kwan matava i-ninno yaku-nin 2 ), Japanese officers of rank or also 
commissioners. Andta wa Egeres mata va Oran-mo-zi wo kaki ka?, do you 
write English or Dutch? 

9. . . ka , ||ft * o Jfjf o ^ , as suffix and pronounced with emphasis , original 
characteristic of the direct question; e. g.: F$t6kd? a man? Arttka? is there? 
Aril there is! 

In alternative propositions repeated as a suffix, ..ka, ..ka, takes the place of 
our disjunctive either.., or.., Germ, entweder.., oder . . . Yamaka? Kumoka? 
to6ku-site siru-koto nasi, = whether mountain? or cloud? being far off I cannot 
know it. Soreka ardnuka? (^ JJJJ ^ Jj$)> ^ ^ s so ^ i g no ^ so ? A Sore 
ka, koreka koi to iye! tell that or this (one or the other) to come! 4 ). 

Remark. In my opinion, ka gets its disjunctive power from its original qua- 
lity of an interrogative particle. Sore and kore are thus characterized by ka as 
undetermined points of interrogation. Besides the alternative question: is it so 
or not? is expressed by two coordinate questions, of which one as well as the 
other closes with the interrogative particle ka, thus Sa-yoo de dri-masiikat Sa- 
yoode ari-masdnu ka? = is it so? is it not so? The question: Is it silk or woolen 
stuff? sounds in the spoken language: Kinu-monode dri-mdsUkdl ke-oride dri- 
mdstlka^ 5 ) = is it silk stuff? is it woolen stuff? If this alternative question is 
put, without any modification, dependent on the subsequent to 8m6u (= to think 
that), or of to tovu (= ask if), the expression is obtained: to think that, or 
ask if it is silk or woolen stuff. Thus, when ..ka, ..ka answers to our dis- 

1) Treaty. XT. 1. 2) Ibid. IX. 6. 

3) Shopping -Dialogues , p. 14. The original has Okakika for kaki-mdsuka. 

4) Compare COLLADO, p. 59 line 7 from the bottom. ,,Pedro ca luan ca coi to iye, die quod veniat 
Petrus vel Joannes." 

5) Shopping -Dialogues , p. 16. 


junctive either.., or.., it is because the questions themselves are disjunctive or 

Since OdTcata means for the most part, in general" (see page 175 n. 44), 
Odkata sayoode gozdri-masoo , odkata sayoode gozdri-mdsti-mai of course also means 
In general it may be so, in general it may not be so," for which we are used 
to say: It may be so, in general, or it may not." Consequently the disjunctive 
character in those two propositions is not expressed by Ookata, but by the mere 
antithesis of the propositions themselves 1 ). 

10. ..ya, *Y, disjunctive but not exclusive suffix 1 ), = or, and, Lai. t*/, w, 
et; Taya sonova fttrubitdri , garden or (and) field has become old, in the spo- 
ken language: Taya sonoga fitrubita. Dzu-kinyd kdsawo nu/ru, to take off 
kerchief or (and) hat. Stbayd 8d6rowo motte sekiwo tstkuru, to make mats of 
underwood or thorns. Fandsiyd wardu koye, noises of talking and laughing. 

Also ya is, just as ka, properly the closing particle of a question, it may be 
simple or disjunctive, and as that about which a question is put, is uncertain, 
this particle is also called ivayuru utagainoya, i. e. the so called ya of uncer- 
tainty. Ano fltowd kitdr&yd? is he coming? Slkdr&yd, inayd* is it so or 
not? Mikado fei-anni mdsttyd? inaydf 3 ), = is the Mikado at his ease or 
not? = how does the Mikado? 

Asa yuvuni oyani kau-kau (3$ ff$) " * fUowd 
Kamiya Fotokeno " megumi aru ben. 

He who early and late does his duty towards his parents, 
Shall have the grace of the gods and of Buddha. 

Yara, properly Yaran, = Ya -faran, = if there shall be? -- . . tamaga k*rude 
arau yara, watdkusiva uiagaute JrS, I doubt if Mr. N. will come. -- Idxurcno 
koto yara sirarezu, it is not known what matter it is. A Flt6 yara fnto-Joo 
yara iranu 4 ), whether it is a man or a brute I do not know. 

III. Adversative conjunctions. 

124. 11. Mottomo (improperly expressed by ^C^t), though, al- 
though, adversative or properly concessive conjunction, originally M6tUm6 

1) Compare R. WROWN, Coll. Jap. LV. line 3 from tbe bottom. 

2) ^ h ;> / Rfl 4h, Ti- raff** Sivori, under 7* 3) Xiffo*-**. XXVI. 9. 

Pf ft *~ '** T ^ 

4) Borrowed from COLLADO, pag. 60, 


^), = with (this) also, modified for vocal harmony Mottomo, is put, m 
my opinion, elliptically for Sore wo mdttemo, =. with all this.. , though, on the 
other hand. An example: 

O Gun-yoono so-butsv a Nippon yakft-sono fokdve urU-be- 
vl ^ /C \. w ? -IfL v kardzti,. Mottomo gwai-koku-zin tagaino tori-fikiva sasi- 

^ ^ fiJr- ^ ffl 3 

j&$- h\3? r/f z J\\V kamai-arw koto mm 1 ), munitions of war may be sold 
S.i/ >| ^ / 

HI * Jill ? 4f f* $ ^ ^ ^ ^ e J a P anese government exclusively. That fo- 
^ ^ - ' re ig ners * a ^ e sucn fr om On 6 another will not, how- 


^ * ' T?'^. ** ever be noticed. By Motte as it appears from this 

i- -=*- 1: * y ^ 

^L . . example, the contents of the previous proposition 

are resumed whereas the suffix mo stamps them as 

conceded. That the proposition following Mottomo contains an antithesis, is 
the logical consequence of the concessive character of the previous proposition. 
Compare 74. The Japanese are accustomed not to distinguish the conjunction 
Mottomo from the adverb Mottomo, according to the old manner of writing pro- 
perly M6tom6 and ideographically expressed by jg or ^Q , = utmost , by 
eminence" (see page 134) and also express the conjunction Mottomo by the cha- 
racter ^Q , by which it has become a stumbling-block for many a translator. 
As a proof it is necessary to cite the official Dutch translation of the above men- 
tioned article: Oorlogsbehoeften zullen alleen aan de Japansche regeering ver- 
kocht worden EN om dezelve aan vreemde natie'n te verkoopen is buiten deze be- 
paling." - Of another article 2 ) also , in which the description of the tedious 
manner of examining goods is followed by:^Q^(p|^'^^^[^^P B 55 ' 
.E7 *j- v ;ix - ;/, i. e. the examination, however, shall take place without any 
extraordinary waste of time, the Dutch translation drawn up by Japanese inter- 
preters has EN" (and) instead of however, whence it appears that they, misled by 
the Chinese character, have misconceived the force of the conjunction Mottomo. 
Remark. The Mottomo occurring in Go motto mode ari-mdsu (WI 3 *^ 5 '^^ 
^R^^^ X 3 ), You are right) of the everyday colloquial language, is evidently 
the adverb used as a substantive, and the phrase, which is elliptical, means: 
what you have said is incontestable. This expression is, by the by, also con- 

1) Treaty. II. 1 8. 

2) Art. III. al. 5 of the Ki-soku or Tariff belonging to the Treaty of the 18 Aug. 1859. 
8) Shopping-Dialogues , p. 13. 


nected with a particular shrewd hero of antiquity, one Mr. Mottomo (^ft), who 
had applied to himself the name of ^j$ ^g 1 ', Doo-ri, i. e. right, reason 1 ). 
We leave this as we find it. 

12. Nagara, vulg. Gatera, abbrev. Qa, = in the midst of, whilst, properly 
a word expressive of relation, arisen by syncope from Naka gara, which for the 
sake of euphony has taken the place of Naka kara ( ||| $ Ffl),= from the 
midst, and has a verb in its root- or attributive form before it Ne-nagdra, in 
the midst of sleep , not : as long as one sleeps. I-nagdra uru-mono is a person who 
sells, sitting; Motsi-yukite uru mono on the contrary, a hawker. Umare nagarard 
sonavareru mono, something inborn. Nagdra is to be distinguished from Nakara 

o Pjl), = the half. Fino nakara, noon. 

If the subsequent proposition is an antithesis to the antecedent, Nagdra is 
? $* y equivalent to: nevertheless, yet, e. g. So-fukuwo ki-nagdra ma- 

tstiri-kotowo kiki-tamavu 8 ) , though he wears mourning, yet he 


a -t ^ attends to affairs of government. Kono kuni Dai-Afinni twulzuki- 

=. ^ 

& nagdra, kisa ardzu, this country, though it borders on China, has (ne- 
vertheless) no elephants. .-1/vV-ga, = .-lr/V-nagara, though there was.. 

The antithesis is more emphatically expressed by Nagdramd. 

The spoken language, which contents itself with putting Nd in the place of 
Ndrit-ddke (if possible), also retains simply ga (at YeVlo nga) of Nagdra, to which 
the force of but has been justly attributed 3 ). It is put, like Nagdra, at the end 
of the concessive proposition. Ano katava kokfoozasiva yordgiugozari-mastag*, 
matsigai-masta 4 ) , though his intention was good , yet he has made a mistake. 

13. SlkasI nagara, = since it is so, mostly simple SUcasI, $f j. (0* 
= it is so, exhibits the previous proposition as conceded, and is followed by a 
sentence containing a statement , which must be of value equal to or more than the 
antecedent proposition. It is equivalent to: although, though, yet, howeTer 
nevertheless. Sinawo mirft-kotowa deki-mdg&ka? can I see your goods? 
Deki-mdsii. Sikasi (^^) kokoni te-hon-girega ari-md** kara , kordteo Go-ran na- 
sdre*), yes; however as I have patterns here, please see them. Ob-gain <<;i 
fikage yosi; slkasi ($) amdri sam&sava asiri; motion* do-ma w 

I} Wafftm Sivori, under Mottomo. 8) Niffom o^n tW-ri. IL T. 

3) R. BROWN, Coll. Jap. LV. LX1I. 9. *) IWd- P- *1- "* > 

B) Shopping-Dialogues, p 23. 


finatamo yosi 1 ), in the breeding (of silkworms) on tubs, shadow is good, but 
too much cold injurious, however as soon as (the silkworms) are brought out 
of doors and fed there, sunshine also is good. 

14. Sari-nagara or San-nagara ($$Y)rV9<> SIM' vul S ^$$)' bv 
syncope for Sikdri-nagdra , = since it is so, is put at the beginning of a propo- 
sition, which contains an antithesis, and therefore is equivalent to: although 
it is so, notwithstanding, nevertheless. The antithesis is more decidedly 
expressed by Sari-nagara md or Sikasi-nagaram6. San-nagdra is phonetically, 
but not ideographically , indicated by *^* 

15. Yavari, $jff f\ $f$ [||J , however, yet, nevertheless, still. A Nan- 
dziga sei-sitemo, sei-sdztt tomo, kareva yavari sore wo surudearau, whether you 
forbid him or not, he will do it nevertheless. 

IV. Conclusive conjunctions, 
preceding the proposition, which expresses a consequence. 

225. 16. The adverbial expressions formed with ..yueni, . .kara and ..niyotte: 

Kono yudni) Karuga yudni, Sore yue'ni, or also simply with Yudni, there- 

Sore-kara, kSoreda kara, Soostta kara vulgo Soosite kara, thence, then. 

Koreni ydtte, Soreni ydtte, therefore. Sikdruni ydtte, or Sdrfoni ydtte, since 
it is so, therefore. 

Further elucidation follows in 129, N. 43, 44, 45. 

17. A Sorede, ^ ^*, Soredewa, so, thus, then, = ni ydtte. A Watdkusi 
dai-zi na koto wo tdssu , sore de kike ! I communicate an affair of importance , 
thus listen! l^Soredewd kai-masoo 2 ), then (as it is so) I will buy it. 

ASoowa, a contraction of Stkdkuva, Sikauwa, so, or in the opinion of Ja- 
panese , of ~fa ^ ?JH ^ >7 , Sa-yau-wa. 

^f- ^ 7^ ' ? =?*') ^^55, Soowd makdri-mase'n& 3 ) , so I cannot consent to it, 
so it is not to be done. (For Makdri compare page 325, line 5.) 

18. Soo-slte, vulgo So-site, j^is also Z^L^ ffil r^ Sosste written, contr. 
from Stkau-site, = since it is so, thus, then. See Shopping-Dial, page 15. Comp. 
A Soo si-masoo , I shal do it. 

1) Yama-mayu kai-foo fi-den. I. I. iij Shopping '-Dialogues , p. 10. 3) Ibid. p. 3. 


19. Sate, Sateva, so, thus, a fusion of Sikdrtte, &&*, = (this) beingso, 
according to some, also of * $| * ft &- fljj T ^ (5oo) ^ which M faj . 
as the meaning goes, comes to the same thing, placed at the beginning of a 
proposition, expresses a consequence, even if the idea, from which the conse- 
quence flows, is not expressed as in: >So then the day approaches, on which" 
etc. Sate is expressed by ^^ , sometimes also by 4% . 

20. Siinavatsi, modified for vocal harmony from Sundvo-tfi (IP itf S& ) 

* 11 IF?. **U * 

= the right way; adverbially: right, directly (Germ, geradenvxgt) , conjunc- 
tively: consequently, is placed at the beginning of the subsequent proposition, 
which expresses the consequence. It is also used with the power of ritMicft, 


Sen-kou-stirti tok6row6 WZ>a, tfinavdtsi miuini fo&ari '), if one 
knows what precedes and what follows (if one knows the cause 
and effect), then one is near the path of wisdom. $r 

year of Ansei, consequently (or viz) the year 1858 s ). 

V. Explanatory conjunctions. 

226. 21. Kedasi, ^, = namely, for, though, Lat. warn, at the begin- 
ning of a sentence, which explains the proposition preceding, mostly giving a 
reason. Yun-dzukawo nigirito fvu. Kedasi tana-kok6roni nigiruno tok6ro nan, 
the hilt of a bow is called nigiri (hilt), it is the place at which it is held with 
the hand though. 

The shade of doubt ascribed to Kedasi by some philological Japanese is with 
justice, not admitted by others. 

22. Tadasi, ^9^*, = properly, devoid of other definitions, forsooth, ia 
placed at the beginning of a proposition, which explains a preceding assertion by 
a particular circumstance and generally confines it to that. It is to be distin- 
guished from the adv. Tada, - only (see p. 176 n. 66). Ygu-ginni MyaJiit tnot, 
taddsi gulden nari, European silver two hundred Jfot, i. e. guilders. 

23. Anzuruni, ^T^^^-, = in my opinion; Remark, precedes that, 
which the writer has to remark on the saying or another. 

1) Dai Gaku, $ 3. 2) Neth.-Jtp. Treaty. Art XL al. 6. 



I. Conjunctions of place and time. 

127. 24. Tok6ro, j^/f J ? or Ba-so, = place, it answers to our adverbial 
conjunction of place where (see page 97). &Andtano sinuru tokdrode watd- 
ktisimo mata asokoni sini-masoo, where thou diest, I too will die" 1 ). Mina 
mina nige-sarisi tokoronivd (or ba-sonivd) fitdri tatte-oru, alone to remain stand- 
ing, where all have fled. Kavi-tatento omdvu tokdrono do-ma?), a patch of 
ground, where people think of breeding (silkworms). 

25. Tok6ro ni , A Tok6ro de , characterizes the attributive proposition by which 
it is preceded, also as an adverbial definition of time, and is equivalent to: whilst, 
as. Mina mina yorokobu tokdroni, sonoyo nivakdni oo-kaze fuM-kitdri-keri , 
whilst everyone (on board) was full of gladness, in that night a storm suddenly 
arose, = every one was glad, as a storm arose etc. SikdrtL tokdroni, as it is 
so, it being such. 

26. Toki, B^:, time; Tokiva, Tokini, Tokiniva = Tokinva, at the time 
of, when. Mono-kuu tokini monogatdri sdzu, at the time of eating (when 
one is eating) one does not talk. Find kasd dru tokivd, fiddri; tsukino kasd 
dru tokivd, san nitsino utsi ame-furu to idri, people say that the weather becomes 
dry, when there is a sun-hood (a circle round the sun), and that it rains within 
three days , when there is a moon-hood. Sono tate-mono wo ... styu-fo nado 
sum koto aran tokiniva, Nippon ydku-nin korewo ken-bun sftru koto tau-zen taru 
bdsi s ), when it shall happen that people repair buildings... etc., Japanese officers 
will have to look after them. Sore wo sftrund; sayooni ndru tokiva semerareruzo, 
do not do that! if it happen so, then you will be blamed, = do not do it, other- 
wise you will be etc. E^Yedo e yukimasita toki RokU-go gawani midzuga masi- 
masita 4 ) , when I went to Yedo , the water in the river Rokugo was high. 

27. Setsii, |[[f |>, division of time. (See page 158). Taddsi idzureno kaze 
nitemo kiravu nari; mottomo no-gaino setsiiua kurusikarazu 5 ) , properly one must 
avoid every wind; at the time of the breeding (of wild silkworms) in the open 
fields however, it does not matter. 

1) R. BROWN. Cott. Jap. LVII. 2) Yama-mayu fi-den. III. 1. 3) Neth.-Jap. Treaty. II. 7. 

4) LVI. 5) .. I. 


The rest of the words expressive of relation, which define time are used in 
the same way as Toki, i. e. they are preceded by the proposition governed by 
them in its attributive form. If they occur with a gerund preceding, they then 
belong, adverbially, to the subsequent principal proposition. 

28. Migiri, 3fl|, = street-cutting 1 ), paving with flag-stones, also the 
stones of a staircase; fig. step, space of time. Synonym of Sfau (n. 27). 
Fund no tstydku-kanno migirini, on the arrival of the ship. 

29. Utsi, j^J |, Utsiwa, Utsini, within; while. See page 188. AF#om 
ori-masita utsi ni , [on-siro no] kwa-zi ga ari-mastta *) , there was a conflagration 
[in the palace], whilst I was at YeVlo. 

30. Ma, Rlj^, 1. space, interval; 2. opportunity. Ikariwo or6u ma mo 
naktl-site, kazeni makasete yuku, not even having had time to drop the anchor, 
they drifted before the wind. 

31. Ma-ma, f^^ V ^ > Ma-ma ni, 1. at every place, wherever; 2. on every 
occasion, as often as, every time that. Repetition of Ma (see page 54), sy- 
nonym of Aida-aida. Ko-tsi matava siya-tsiwo forite (fotte) 1 ma* mam ki-tekiwo 
uru koto an, at the digging up of old soils, or ground on which temples have 
stood, rare stones are frequently discovered. Kane wo titefl ma-mam', as often 
as the bell is struck. Mono wo t6r& ma-mam, as often as any thing is taken, 

Tabi-tabini, K ^ ^ \ = 


as often as. 


Goto ni , ?3 J: , 

Ya wo fandtsu tabi-gotoni (or Ya no tobu gotoni) koytwo o/*uru, to call out at 
every shot of an arrow (or so often as an arrow flies). 

32. Aida, |Hj, while. See page 189. 

33. Uye, _t5> above, upon, on. See page 186. 

34. Mave, Maye, ]|jf X, vulgo Mai, before. See p. 187. > Watdhuino katru 
maeni stte simae, get it done before I come back" 8 ). A > Watdktoiwa matron* 
maim sigotowo sit4 simai-maloo, I shall finish my business before I return" ), - 
properly: I don't come; I first shall have done my business. 

1) Mi-gin t contracted from Miitino kin, way-catting, or M wme y, from Mint-tin, = "tor- 
cutting , because the row of flag-stones laid at short distance* from one another to step on In rainj wmthcr 
is called Migiri. Wa-gvn Sitoori, under Migiri. . 

2) E. BROWN, CoU. Jap. LVI. 3) Ibid. K. 161. ) Ibid. LVI. 



35. Notsi, ^4> after. See page 187. 

36. Yori. f > since. Ame tsutsi firdkesi yori kono kata, since heaven 
and earth have developed themselves. A Mairi-masita (vulgo masite) yori, dno 
tokdrowa firake-masita 1 ), that place has been opened, since they came. 

37. Kara, Q |?, after, see page 72. Watakusi-niwa yomenu kara, tsuu-zi- 
f* XHI O katani tanonde. naosi-te morai-mastt . I cannot read it and thus 

^jgg -j- MB, \ -M* % 

*/ ^=1 ,* ^* ? I shall request the interpreter to translate it. A Age-mdsu 

^ PR) - ^ 

t -4r* ^ ^ ara uke-tori-gakiwo kudasdre, after delivery by me , please give 

^ ss Oil* a receipt. Vulgo also with a gerund preceding. -- A Tabdte 

*E^ix 7 (for tabeta) kara yuki-masita 2 ) , he went, after he had eaten. 

38. Made, J^f-, to, till. See page 192. 

II. Conjunctions of quality and manner. 

128. a. Comparative conjunctions, equivalent to: like, just as, so as. 

39. To6rini, ^$ ,1 > = in the way, on the passage of... (see page 191), 
according to , in the way that , properly a word expressive of relation. ffl % 
^' Ifii?? 15 ' R&ino to6rini, according to the law. Andtano osfyuru todrini 
itdsi-mdstta, I have acted according to your direction (as you prescribed). 

40. Yguni, AYooni, ^|^=, obsol. Gteni, in the manner of, in the way 
that, so that, as if 3 ). Omdvuyau, the meaning. Fltdno suku yauni surfc, 
to do as others would gladly have it. Kaviko kuvd ni fanarenit yau ni su-besi , 
people must go to work so, that the silkworm be not removed from its food. 
&Fit6-bit6no osoreru yooni okonai-masita, he behaved so, that people were afraid 
of him" 4). 

-t-l* 3* 3* 3* _t_^ 

41. Gk>t6)si, ki, ku, fij J- -to o $W5 ^ ^ e like... (see page 109 n. 7), is 

^9-i '2^ -^ ^/ 

equivalent to to be as if," when it, used without a subject, has a proposi- 
tion before it, as complement. Akuw6 kondmu monovd wazdvaiwo mandku; ta- 
toveba fibikind otdni o6-suruga got6si, whoever loves evil, draws upon himself 
adversity; it is, to use a comparison, as if the echo answered the sound. Mosi 
sa-yauni yomu-beku naraba, in case one must read so. Mosi sa-yauni yomu- 
bekiga gotdkti naraba, if one ought to read so (which the speaker doubts). 

R BROWN, Coll. Jap. LVII. 2) Ibid. LVI. 

3) Comp. page 85 Dono yau etc. and 131. 4) H. BROWN, LVII. 


b. Proportional conjunctions, which express a proportion as: in propor- 
tion to, how, so much the. 

42. Fodo (A Hodo), Podoni, jgf., = in proportion to, for so far as, so 
much as, so much that. Comp. page 131. Tsikarano oydbu fodoni, for BO far 
as my strength reaches. A Watdkusi va kiu-sdktl-m-tai fodo m tstkareU oru, 
I am so tired, that I long for rest. ivu fodono kotoba rum, .. is a 
word that says so much, as . . Ptsdstki fodo ooi (kHtodni hodo 001*), = much 
in proportion to the long lasting, i. e. the longer, the better. A Ooi hodo yoi 1 ), 
the more, the better. Flsdsi-kereba ftsdstki fodo 061, the longer, the more. 
Haydkerebd haydki fodo yoi, the sooner, the better. Areva nomeba, nomft fodo 
kavakiga tsuydku ndrti, the more he drinks, the more thirsty he is. Warera kono 
simani arisi fodo, as long as we were on this island. 

Saru fodoni, f||/t-^|* =, arisen by syncope from Stkdr&fodonij = for so far 
as it is so, is placed at the beginning of a sentence. Sari-fodoni is also met with. 

III. Conjunctions of causality. 

129. a. Conjunctions of propositions, which notice an actual, past or 
present cause. 

43. Yue, $fcz, now commonly written 2.-*., = cause; Yueni, for reason 
of, because, as, whereas, while, with an attributive definition preceding, 
which is sometimes qualified as a genitive by ga. Sore Nippon-gdkuva TVt'u- 
kwan6 tsiyori figdslni atdrti, ytidni Nit-t6ut6 t'rfi, the country of Japan, as it 
from the middle kingdom (China) lies towards the east, it bean the name there 
of the (country) to the east of the sun. Ten-kani kf da-mono cxU-u, den-fataw6 
sokondvu yiteni fitdni kariwd osive-tamdviki, as many animals were upon the earth 
and did damage to the lands, he (a certain prince) taught the people hunting. - 
Ten-kani midz& odsi ytteiii, as rivers are on the earth in great numbers. 3/iB- 
kdsiva kinuni mono wo kakisi yftdni, kamito ivu zi ito-fcnwo kakeru*)^ formerly 
people wrote on silk; thence the character indicating paper (|ft) ia combined 
with that indicating silk (j). Ydma takakigd yUeni tdttokardzu; ki <ir&tc6 m6tU 
tdttosito sii, on account of its height, a mountain does not deserve honor; thai 
it bears trees, that makes it deserving of honor. FtM koretdrugk yfem tdtto- 

1) H. BBOWM, LVII. 8) Kuira-gaki. VIII. 1 r. 


tsi ar&w6 mdtte tdttosi t6 su, a person is not respectable on account of acquired 
bulk; having understanding, that makes him respectable. 

Compounds with Yudni, placed as illative conjunctions at the beginning of a 

Kono yueni, ^/ Afc?' = there fore. Kono yudni kun-sivd mddzu tdkuni 
ts&tsusimu 1 ), therefore the philosopher applies himself particularly to virtue. - 
kSore yfte'ni, ^ $? = f r such reasons, therefore. 

Karttga yueni, by apheresis for Sikdrugd yueni, = on account of its being 
so, since it is so, therefore, thence, Lat. ergo, is placed at the beginning of a 
proposition, which contains the consequence of a series of propositions prece- 
ding. Kdr&gd yueni kuniw6 osdmuru kotovd the" wo totonouruni <m 2 ), therefore 
the management of a country depends upon the management of his own house. 

44. Kara, {Jj^ ||| 5 = from, Lat. ex (see page 71), as an illative conjunction 
peculiar to the spoken language of Yedo, it characterizes the proposition it go- 
verns as the cause, from which the subsequent proposition flows. The verb de- 
pendent on Kara is used as a substantive. Te-hon-girega dri-mdsukara, korewo 
Go-ran nasare 3 ), as patterns are at hand, please see them. &Kon-nitsiwa yo- 
hodo 6s6i kara , mtyau-nitsi kaheri-masiyoo 4 ) , as it is late to day, I shall return 
to morrow. Os6i stands for Os6ki of the written language. Fosiwa tai-soo to6% 
kara, tsiisdku miye-mdsu 5 ), the stars seem small, becauee they are more or less 
distant. Kara is also used with the signification of after, especially when it is 
preceded by a gerund. Kan-ben-si masiyoo kara, watdkusind sinamo kai ku- 
dasdre e ), = after you shall have thought of it, please buy my goods. A Tabete 
kara yuki-masita 7 ) , after having eaten , he went. Fane wa iwa ni atatte kara , 
sidzumi masita, the ship sunk after it struck on a rock. 

Compounds with Kara, placed as illative conjunctions at the beginning of 
a proposition: 

Sore kara, g -^ , vulgo Soreda kara, thence. 

ASoosite (properly Soo-sita) kara, thence, then. 

ASoosite, So site, H. , then. 

I) Dai Gaku. X. 6. 2) Ibid. IX. 5. 

8) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 23. 4) Ibid. p. 41. 5) B. BROWN, LVII. 

6) p. 39. 7) R. BROWN, LVI. 


45. ..niydrite, old-Jap. ..niyote, vulgo ..niydtte, & \ - I B9 ttt 4Ft 

*r* T T ^* P K J ' 

gerund of yon, = preceding from.., having its foundation on.., because 
of... It is preceded by the causal proposition, which it governs, in ite substan- 
tive form with or without the suffix ni. -- Kamin6 ktiddrind Avadzino gima 
y6ri Sadond sima made ya sima mddzu umi-maseru kuni ndrttni yortte Oo Ya- 
sima-kuni t6 {vu '), the eight isles mentioned in the preceding lines beginning 
with Avadzi and ending with Sado are called the > Great land of eight isles," 
as they constitute the land first produced. Fiydku-koTcUw6 uyuru kototco y6ki-tu 
yotte mono wo tsukuru mono wo Nou-nin to ivu a ) , with respect to his ability 
(y6kusu) in cultivating the hundred (- all) kinds of grain, the producer is called 
Nou-nin (husbandman). 

Compounds with ydtte, as illative conjunctions placed at the beginning 
of a proposition: 

Koreniy6tte, Sore ni ydtte, therefore, Lat. igitur. 

Slkarii ni y6tte , or Saruniy6tte, as it is so, for such reasons, therefore, 

Remark. ydtte is, in the official style, superseded by the words expressive 
of relation Aida, = between, while ( 62 n. 14), and Tsuki, Tsukito, Tsuite, 
= respecting ( 63. B. 3). At least, places have come under our notice, in which 
both words must have causal force. Compare page 320, line 14. 

b. Conjunctions of adverbial propositions, which indicate a future, possible 
cause (Conditional conjunctions). 

We may not pass them over in silence, because they are suggested by others 
although they do not really exist. We have alone to do with a time-defining 
local, and thus if, with a view to the spoken language, we confine ourselves to 
Nari, to be, with the form Naran-tokini , = when, it shall be, for which also 
simply Naru-tokini, - when it is, is used, or, instead of it, with the suppoaitiTe 
form explained in 76, thus, to stick to JVart, with 

,46. Naraba, ANara,= if it shall be; it is preceded by a substantive or by 
a verb in the substantive form. tSa-yoo ward, or Sort nara, kai-maloo J ), if 
it is so, then I shall buy it. If the speaker intends to say: as it is so, then he 
takes Nara for a contraction of Nareba. /try mayenivxi 

1) Ko-si kei-dzu. I. p. 4 r. ) Kanra-yM. IV. 4 r 

3) Shopping - Dialogues , p. 4. 


warn, firugoni" 1 ). I can't come before noon. In the afternoon then." 
,Nokordzu kai nasdru nara, ondzi nedande age-masoo 2 ) , if you will take all, 
I will sell them at (?*) the same price. l^Nokordzu fei-kin nedande kai- 
nasare. Yasui nara, tori-masoo" 3 ), = Buy all the pieces at one and the same 
price. If it is cheap, I will take it.". 

If the mere possibility or probability of the statement is insisted on, then, 
in addition to Naraba, use is made of the adverb: 

Mdsikiiva, or simply Mosiva, Mosi, = in case of, if. ^ $R ^*. = 
~7j ^ ^ Man-itsi , one against a thousand. Its place is at the beginning , or 
even after the subject of a subordinate proposition, whereas the predicate verb 
of that statement, if it is not attributively connected with toki (as Naru-toki), 
is put in the suppositive form (Naraba) or occurs as the gerund. Mosi stkdru toki 
t?a, in case it is so; ^^fflSjfrrti Mosi sikdrabd, if it might be so; Mosi stkd- 
ritej in case it is so. 

As Sikuva is evidently the adverbial form of Siki, = ..ish,, isolated by 
va (see page 109 n. 71), only mo of Mo-siktivd, remains as the nucleus of 
this compound. If this mo is a variation of the ma ( |j|f "*) , = actually , ex- 
plained at page 130, M6-s%kuvd is equivalent to the Latin veri-similiter ; if it 
is an abbreviation of timdi, = thought, then M6si-kuvd means probably, likely, 
peut-etre. Inuka nekoka? dog? or cat? Inukat mosikuva nekoka*? a dog? 
or perhaps a cat? Ni-nusi mosi korewo inamu tokiva*), in case the owner 
of the goods refuses such. Mosi ta no kdku-zin so-seino takawo gen-suxu toki 
va , Oranda-zin mo dou-yau ni siyo-seraru Msi 5 ) , if the amount of the import 
duty be lowered for another nation, the Dutchmen shall be placed on a like 
footing. Mosi gi-deu-(deo)si gdtaki tokiwa, sono zi-genwo ... sei-funi mesite styo- 
tsi-sesimu bdsi 6 ) , if such may be difficult to determine , this question shall be 
brought to the knowledge of the government and (by it) be settled. Nii- 
gata minato, mosi sono minatowo aki-gataki koto arava (read ar aba), Nippon nisi no 
kata nite betsuni fitdtsuno minato narabini mttrawo ... aku-be'si 7 ), the port of Nii- 
gata in case a difficulty might arise about opening this port, a harbor and 
town shall be opened elsewhere on the West-side of Nippon. Mosi siyau-zen 

1) Shopping-Dialogues, p. 17. 2) Ibid., p. 36. 3) Ibid. p. 37. 

4) Neth.-Jap. Treaty. III. al. 3. 5) Ibid. III. al. 7. 6) Ibid. II. al. 9. 

7) French-Jap. Treaty. III. al. 5. 


san kin i-ziyauwo motd-watarabd ), in case a merchant vessel might import more 
than three pounds (of opium). Mosi yo-gi naki si-sai arlte, kono Id-gen t*iu fon- 
siyo tori-kayesi sumazu domo, deu-ydkuno omJm&kiva kono ki-gen yori tori-okondvu- 
6&i 2 ), if there might be some trifling matter, which cannot be avoided, the 
spirit of the Treaty shall be acted upon, even if the ratification of the document 
(containing the Treaty) within the fixed term shall not have taken place. 

IV. Conjunctions of the purpose. 

130. 47. Tam6ni, Jj5 = , of Tam4, purpose, aim, end, for, on behalf 
of, is properly a word expressive of relation (see page 292 n. 24), and has, 
when it is used as a conjunction , the verb in its substantive form with or without 
ga, as suffix of the genitive, before it. Ki-sdkH wo siyun-riu-sesimuruga tamtni 
. . . siyo-riki-su best 3 ) , in order to have the rules followed , aid will be given. - 
Uru tamni, for sale. Tsutsi suna yeni fukaranu tam, kazdtco Krptw Wri, 
take care to shelter the place from wind, to the end that earth and sand be not 
blown on the food (of the silkworms). 

The verb dependent on Tamdni is put in the future with or without the ge- 
nitive termination r/, when the attainment of the object is considered as still 
belonging to the future. Kono okitewo katdkusen tameni, in order to carry out 
this clause, there shall etc. Kagamiva sttgdtano yori-asiwo mtruroo, kokorono 
ktyoku-tsiy6kuwo taddsi aratameng* tamd nart, = with regard to the mirror, its 
object is not alone to see if the countenance is beautiful or ugly, but also to 
rectify and reform the wrong and the right (i. e. the moral nature) of the heart. 

48. Tote, the syncopated t6 tite, of to, = to, and attrf, the gerund of *), u, urn, 
to do. 

Preceded by a verb in the future , ..ttsu means to be active to carry out 
the object, which still belongs to the future. (Compare 103, 6. 7. page 290). 
Motomen to su is thus = acguisitunu est, he is about to get; Motomen to tttt or 
Motomen to te, - being about to get, i. e. for the purpose of getting. ~ Siu-^/u 
to fou mono fu-zino gKsuriwo motomentote Nippon vf traf<frtt, a certain Siu-fu 
came to Japan to search for a remedy against death. 

1) Neth -Jap. Treaty. III. al. 5. ) TWd XT. at . 3) ""d. VIII. al f. 


The spoken language supersedes Motomen by Motomeo (see page 209), thence 
the expressions: Motomeo to sum tokoroni, on the point of acquiring; Motomeo to 
sum mono, some one who is on the point of acquiring; Motomeo to te, that he 
may acquire. 

V. Concessive conjunctions. 

131. 49. Mo, ^J;*, = also, properly an adverbial postposition (see 122), 
. when it is put after the predicate verb of a subordinate causal proposition, it cha- 
racterizes it, as one granting that something is real or possible, whilst the state- 
ment thus conceded is limited or revoked by a proposition immediately following 
it (adversative proposition). The verb dependent on mo, as it has been already 
noticed in 74, is put in the substantive form with the local termination m or 
also in the gerund. 

Akuruni mo, Miruni mo, Yukuni mo. 
Aketemo, Mite wo, YuTdte (A Yutte) mo. 

A Ika-yquni ndsitemd, however it be made. -- A koi nasaretemo, yame 
nasaretemo, kono uytwa deki-mastnu *) , you may buy it or not; I cannot go 
further. I don't care; take it or leave it. 

50. ..tomo, FE, also, with a verb preceding in its substantive form. Akuru- 
tomo, Miru-tomo, Yuku-tomo. Idzurdno kdtaydri mairu-tom 6 2 ) , it does not 
matter from which side he may come. 

51. . . dom6, K-t , = ndom6, contr. from ni, Local, and tornd. Comp. page 207. 
Opposed to Akeba J >r rt , the fusion of Akeniva, is Akedomo 7? K*, likewise 
a fusion of Akenitomo, and opposed to Arebd is Aredomd, = though there is. 
From Aranedomo, = though there is not, and Saranedomo, = though it is not so, 
come Arademo and Sarademo. Compare 258. 

52. ..ied6m6, = though it is said, though it is called, though.., with a pre- 
vious appositive definition characterized by to. See page 208. 

X TTV ffi&X T6mut6 Wd8m6, mddz%sikiwo wdsururu koto nakare! 

t ^ ^Cfr , ^IKp jj 

|> T ^-1.^ Tdttositd Udom6, iydsikiwo wdsururu koto nakare. 

^ ^^ t Though you are rich, do not forget the poor! 

r j?*. C . f 

J | ^^f * Though you are honorable, do not forget low people! 

1) Stopping Dialog , p. 39. 2 ) French-Jap. Treaty. III. 13 


f -J&ir Jg|^ en -^^ uno ko-ganew6 t*umfit6 Wom6, <t*i-,M no gdktniva 

, though gold is heaped up to the amount of a thousand 

^ i8 not ^^ to one ^'8 "tody- - .. kotowom6 

**' t0 *i dom Ai .-kotova bxsttt nazdr* btoi >), though 

5 this also be granted, it may not certainly happen that... 

53. Sikaredomo, #, syncopated Saredomo, = thongh it is 8O , the con- 
cessive form of Sttar)., u, = to be so, root (see page 109 no. 71). 

54. Soredemo, = also then, the modal of Sore, = such, followed by ,/u>, 
antithesis of the conclusive Soredewa (see page 334 n o. ]?). 

55. Sikam6, rfi}|, = but; abbreviation of SikarMomo. FWno gen-*# 
naru, slkamd kortni tagaute, twu-sezdrasimlt*), to oppose men, although they are 
accomplished and wise, and not allow their advancement. 

56. Somo-somo, ^jj ), ^ , = or , explained by the Japanese themselves 
as concessive *), concedes the antecedent statement, however introduces an adver- 
sative clause. It means properly so as so as," is a fusion of SUamo, and this 
of StkdkUmo (just as SoAte of SIMM *ltt, see page 334 no. 18) and stands with 
the adversative force of Taddsi (see page 335 no. 22) or of Sikd*i (see page 333 
no. 13). Some Japanese etymologists think Somo-somo an abbreviation of Sor*,no 
sore mo, others of Satemo satemo, which, so far as the meaning goes, approaches 
our derivation. 

In the beginning of a speech it serves to announce that which is to be said, 
as an opposition of other opinions. In this quality it is stamped as an intro- 
ductory word (f| fZf/ ^?, Fat-gono kotoba), and will approach most 
nearly to an expression like: However it may be" 5 ). 

g^ ^ Korewo motomurukaf Somo-somo korewo atavuru (atooru) 

-tui x - , ^ 

^ ^^ ^a? 6 ), does he strive for it? or does one give it to him? 

1) Neth.-Jap. Treaty. II. al. 6. 2) /) O^hi. X. U. 

3) y>^, a particle denoting or, either: also a commencing particle at moreover." MKDRUMT 
and English Dictionary. 4) lj ^ 3S. ^ / *& , 

5) The sense we assigu to Somo-umo does not agree with that attributed to it in ooKHKiwrncN 

Yaponsko-Eusskii Slowar. 

6) T.U.I- u u I $ 10. 


;ftjj^ 3.% 13 # Y ^ 

\ j? ... X v ' /Sfc'-ro kiyoo wo tovu. Si no no-tamavaku, Nan-foon6 ktyoo 

nil ir ^ E&t *^ ^ a ^ foku-fauno ktyoo ka? somo somo nandziga kiyoo 

3. . "i/^v^ 7 ^a? 1 ), Tsze-lu asked about energy. The Master said, 

^ ^r/ 5*R^ Do you mean the energy of the South? the energy 

^ *^ Hffiv -3P-^ of the North? or your own energy? 

(fct \7_j x^ 


57. Mamayo, in case it occurs with the meaning attributed to it of * en- 
core que, quoique" 2 ) for in Japanese writtings I have never yet met with this 
word, it must, to have a concessive force, be reduced to the form of Ma-ma mo 
(see page 337 n. 31) modified for the sake of euphony, and thus mean however 
often," being equivalent to Toki-tokimo or Tabi-tabimo. The expression: How- 
ever often he tries it, he does not succeed in it," would thus be equivalent to 
Kokoro-miru mamayo deki-masdnn. 

Remark. The suffix mo gives to all the conjunctions definitive of place and 
time, or properly words expressive of relation, cited in 127, a concessive force, 
i. e. it characterizes the antecedent proposition , which the word expressive of rela- 
tion governs, as concessive, while the subsequent proposition comes out with an 
adversative force 3 ). 

The relative comparative of propositions. 

132. 58. Musiro, ^*x, = in preference, rather, Lat. potius, as an ad- 
verb , it is put at the beginning of a subsequent proposition , to the contents of 
which preference is given above that expressed in the antecedent proposition. As 
starting point of the comparison the antecedent statement is characterized by yoriva. 
Next to Yuku yoriva yukdnuga mdsu, - it is better not to go than to go," cited 
in Remark, p. 131, is Yuku (or Yukan, Future) yoriva musiro yukunayo! rather 
do not go, than go! Whereas the state or action, to which the preference is 
given may be represented as one commanded or future, the state or action of 
the antecedent proposition may be a present, or likewise a future one, as appears 
from the following saying of Kung-tsze (Lun-yu, Cap. Ill, Pa-yi, 4), of which 
we give three Japanese translations, which lie before us. 

1) Tschung-ynng , X. 1,2. 2) RODRIGUEZ $ 83. 

3) According to OOSCHKEWITSCH Yap. -Ross, slowar, Mamayo signifies Wprotschem (besides). 




As 7 


* if 

A X 


I. l 2 3 II. i 2 3 As to festive ceremonies, be rather sparing than 

! extravagant; as to mourning, be rather grieved 
I than pay attention to observances." 

In the translation 1 and 2 the subsequent pro- 
position is taken as Imperative, in 3 as a wish, 
^ in the Future, whereas in 1 the antecedent pro- 


position is conceived as Present, in 2 and 3 as 


* In Mr. j. LBOOE'S excellent version of the 

\ Chinese text this passage runs: >In festive ce- 


iv m nines, it is better to be sparing than extra- 
vagant; in the ceremonies of mourning, it is 
better that there be deep sorrow than a minute attention to observances." 

Remark. 1. Japanese etymologists see in 3/uat'ro a variation of Mori (i., 
= in case of, see 129 n. 46), and explain ro as an auxiliary word" 1 ); an 
explanation that does not preposses us in its favor. Should not AAtriro much 
rather be equivalent to the syncopated form of Masu-siro (^j^-/ ^teaO, and thus 
mean >more price" or higher value" 2 ). Used as an adverb, a word with 
this signification, at least more than any other, would be equivalent to our >by 
preference." With regard to the so called auxiliary word ro, the Wa-gun SiWn 
teaches us, that in the eastern Japan it supersedes the termination tro. In Japa- 
nese Dictionaries the signification of A Sou-si-tai and Kau-ri-tai, i. e. to desire to 
do so or so (see 105), is given to Musiro and y (nt'ng, willingly); it is plain 
that the writer aims at the optative proposition, which is introduced by Afutiro. 

Remark 2. The spoken language supersedes Musiro with Naka-nakan\ , = almost, 
rather, and Nenyoroni, = willingly, rather; and makes use of other expedients 
too. Si-sen yoriwa naka-nakani nokoraau snte-oken^ I will rather give up all, 
than die. Watahmwa yuku yori yulri-masdnu fooga yororii to *on-n'-w4*i '), 
I think, that it is better not to go, than go. I would rather not go. Fttowo 
gai-suru yoriwa fitdni gai-seraruruga nidti to om6i~natare! Suffer wrong rather 
than do it" 4 ); literally: think, that it is better to be injured by others, than 
to injure others! 

1) Wa-gun Sitcori, under Afmiro. 
3) R. BROWN, Coll. Jap. N. 419. 

ft) Compare Naiya tiro, worth nothing, f 109. I. I. 
4) Ibid. NT 873. 




Aida ... No. 32. 
Anzuruni . . . 23. 
Aruiva .... 7. 
Baso 24. 


Mata. . . N. 
Matava. . . . 
Mave, Maye . 

[E CC 



Sdr&niyotteJS . 16. 
Sate.* 19. 


Tam{ni. . NO. 


Sdtevd .... 19. 
Sazo 44. 

Tokini . . . . 
Tokiniva . . . 
Tokinva .... 
Tokdro .... 
Tok6rode . . . 
Tok6roni . . . 
. . to mo . . . 
Todrini .... 
. . to te . . . . 
. . tsutite .... 

. . domo .... 51. 
Fodo 42. 
Fodom .... 42. 
, . qa . .12. 

Mtyiri .... 
. . mo 

. . mo , . . mo . 
. . mo mata . . 

Setsti 27. 

Stkdmd .... 55. 

Stkaredomo . . 53. 
StMruni yotte . 16. 


. . gatera . . . 12. 
Gotdni .... 21. 
Got6)si, ki, ku. 41. 
Hodoni .... 42. 
. . iddomd , . . 52. 
. . ka . . ka . . 9. 

Mosikuva . . . 
Mottomo. . . . 
Musiro .... 
Nagdra .... 
. . naTa .... 

S^kdsi-nagdra . 13. 
Sikdsi- nagdramo 1 4 . 
Somo*somo . . 56. 
Soo-sitdkara . 16. 
Soo-sitekara . . 16. 
Soowo, 17. 

Kanete .... 6. 
"ara. . 16, 37, 44. 
Kdr&ga yudni. 43. 
Katsu 3. 

. . narabd . . . 

Narabini . . . 

Utsiwa .... 
. . Hud . 

Soredakara. 16,44. 
Sorede .... 17. 
Soredemo . . . 54. 
Soredewa ... 17. 
Sore-kara . 16, 44. 
Soreni yotte. . 16. 
Sostte 18' 

..ya, ..ya. . 
. . yara .... 
. . yaran .... 
Yau ni. 

. . ni ydrite 16, 
. . ni yote . 16, 
. . ni yotte. 16, 

Katsuva. ... 3. 
Keddsi . . . . 21. 
Kono yudni . . 43. 
Koreni yotte . 16. 
Ma 3. 

Yavdri .... 


Sdn-nagdra . . 
Saredomo . . . 
Sdri-nagdra . . 
Sdn-nagdra m6. 
Sdru-fodo ni . . 

Sosite kara. 16, 44. 
Sunavatsi . . . 20. 
Tabi-gotoni . . 31. 
Tabi-tabini . . 31. 
Taddsi .... 22. 

Yori . . . . ; 

Made 33. 


Ma-ma .... 31. 

Ma-ma ni .. . . 31. 
Ma-mayo . . . 57. 


Y&ni . , 16, 

.A. 3D ID IE 3ST ID 


(After the Japanese Encyclopedia WA-ILAN SAN-ZAI DZU-E, VoL 15. 17 reno). 

A single complete sentence, a period is called ^J ? , Ku, chin. Riu\ clauses 
and sentences, which we are used to separate with commas are called gj , Tou, 

chin. Teu. 

The sign, which like our full-stop., indicates the close of a period ia the 
. or placed at the side, to the right of the last character, fa ' 

The same sign placed between two characters, but more or less to the right 
of the supposed diameter of the writing-column , supplies the place of our comma. fa 

A point * to the right of a character ( -& -) is used to mark it, to fix 
the attention on it. This mark corresponds to our underlining of a word - 

the spacing in print. 

In Japanese school-books a tube-shaped mark j] and a pin-shaped | are used 

at the side of, or between the Chinese characters. The former, the Ku,l,i-yu-l.;ti 

(&% ^ 5| ) or tube-shaped red stroke is placed on the left of Year- 

mes ( I*, Dai-hei), on the right of the names of functionaries ( ^ f| ) and 

jzp ttU 

as a coupling-sign between the characters of the names of books. 

The latter, the Bari-siyu-Uki or pin-shaped red stroke, appears on the left 


of the names of things, on the right of those of places and as a coupling- 
sign between names of persons of antiquity. 

To couple Chinese characters, the Chinese sign | (Kukn) is inserted as a 
coupling-sign. If these characters are to be read according to the Chinese 
pronunciation (Koyd), the coupling-sign has its place on the right of the cha- 
racters, or even between them, but somewhat to the right of the diameter of 
the writing-column. )\\ )\\ )\\ (Sen-tsiuni). ^| (Kan-won). 

On the contrary, if the translation (Yomi) of these characters is required 
or given, the coupling-sign is then placed to the left of the characters, or if 
it is inserted between them, to the left of the diameter of the writing-column. 
)\\ )\\ )\\ (Kava-nakani). qfy (Mono-gatari). 

$ iff $3 ! 

If, with such combinations transposition-signs (Kaydri-ten) are used besides, 
they unite with the coupling-stroke (-) =j =\ see page 32, 33). The distinction 
whether the coupling-stroke is to the right or to the left of the supposed 
diameter of the writing-column is for the reader of a Chinese text that is 
to be translated into Japanese, of much importance, as it makes known to him, 
where he has to use the Koyd, and where the Japanese word (Yomi). 

There are books for the use of schools, in which this difference is carefully 
attended to, whereas in other works not a single coupling-sign is to be found. 
The difference between the coupling-sign placed on the right, or on the left, of 
the supposed diameter has not been, to my knowledge, noticed by any student 
of the Japanese language, nor was it discovered by myself till late (1871). 
When, in 1864, I published the Chinese text of the Grand Study" (^ &jk, 
Td-hiti) with an interlinear Japanese translation, I was unacquainted with it 
and the coupling-signs have not always been placed in accordance with the rule 
here treated. Whoever could suppose, that a mark, apparently so insignificant, 
should have an underpart to play of so much importance. 


The quotation in Japanese writing is indicated by a rectangular hook placed 
above the words quoted. If the writer inserts the quotation in the midst 


of what he is relating, he closes the quotation with to (See 7, V) which is 
used instead of . . to ivu, = says that. (Compare 74 pag. 208.) If the sen- 
tence closes with a quotation, then to is omitted. 


\ J L. **- 

^ ^ y *> * 

^ > 

^ K > 

t C 

^ 71 

i'mz waravi Ima saran to hossu" to, tatgi-wakarekeri , the gentleman laughed: 
I will now go away" (said he) , arose and went away. 

II. [Page 21 line 12.] ON ACCENT. 

The accent in Japanese words is made by a slight elevation of the tone 
upon the accented syllable; as a general rule, in words of two syllables it falls 
on the first; in words of three syllables on the penult; in words of four syl- 
lables on the anti-penult. But the accent always falls upon the syllable that 
has a double or prolonged vowel sound; as Ikd (Ikoo), Yosatd, li-katem, /i-fou- 
keru, Yn-mesi (Yuu-mesi). In words of two and like syllables, the accent varies; 
thus Hdna, a flower, has the accent on the first syllable; and in Hand, the 
nose, it falls upon the last. In Has{, a bridge, the accent is on the final 
syllable, and in Hdsi, chop-sticks, it falls upon the first." j. c. HEPBURN, Ja- 
panese-English dictionary, 1872. p. XV. 

Additional remark. In polysyllabic words the accent falls on the penult, 
Ihetdka; is it an #, then it falls on the anti-penult, Musdtftne. In words of 
three syllables the accent falls on the penult, if it belong, bnt being short on 
the first, f. i. K6tabi, TdtsttgH, Ydsuri, Ydbtiri. In words of two syllables the 
accent falls on the first, if the last syllable is not long. If both are long, it is 
not pointed out, but in this case the first and principal rule is admitted. In 
dodri the accent falls on the penult. 


The three dialects, those of Hdn, U and Tang, mentioned and elucidated at 


pp. 30 and 31, are, according to a statement, since come to our knowledge, 
from a Japanese scholar 1 ), the dialect of Hang-chow (^ $\)i Capital of 
the province Che-keang , that of Fnh-chow ( jfig jty ) , Capital of Ffth-keen , and 
the Official language ( ^ -jlj', Kwan-yin), by others, also called Kwan-hwa, 
or the Mandarin. A correct instruction in the Official language is extremely 
rare, the more so, as both the other dialects are generally in use. 

As this statement furnishes a satisfactory answer to the question concerning 
the presumed historical value of the Chinese dialects extant in Japan, we con- 
sider . ourselves required to quote the original expressions of this statement also. 

"l T 1 -4r 

ffl r *H * 

'J * ma ; 



IV. [Page 107, 3 a.] REMARK ON -si. 

The predicative -si of the adjectives in -ki, if their root is monosyllabic, 
is also attributive used in compounds, if the quality expressed by them is to be 
considered as from the beginning in the object existent. 

Ne-nalsi-kusa , is a herb which the speaker finds, and declares to be rootless, 
whereas Ne-nasi-kusa is a herb which is generally stamped rootless. The 
same distinction is to be observed in compounds, as: 

Na-nasi-yubi, the nameless finger, the ring-finger. Me-nasi-tsigo , the eye- 
less child, viz. the child who plays blindman's buff. Ne-nasi-goto , a rootless 
word , a false rumour. Tosi-fito ( ^i|) < f"t ) , as a personal name. 

1) l/y jjji ylyl Jg> Si-iei kai-kwan, = a round to elucidate the four tones, by Kav-mon Sen-set, 
1804; reprinted in 1858. Preface, p. I verso. 


V. [Page 250, 92. 1 after line 10.] Remark. If zar)i, u, is preceded by 
a substantive in the Local, or by an adverb in hi, it stands as a substantive 
affirmative verb, and is a fusion of the emphatic particle zo and ar)t, u. Thus 
Fdnani zarikeri stands for Fdnani zo arikeri, - a flower has it been; SdmUku 
zarikeri, for Sdmukuzo arikeri, = cold has it been. 

VI. [Page 270.] REMABK ON kaya. 

To the term to nan, (it may be that), approaches to kaya, an expression, 
by which no categorical certainty on the part of the speaker, but a mere pri- 
vate opinion of his own is introduced. 

To kaya has a substantive, or a verb in its substantive form before it 

Aru-tokaya, Ari-si to kaya, Aran-to kaya, it may happen, it may have 
happened, it may be, that it will happen. Also here to is used elliptically for .... 
to ivu with which a quotation is designated, whereas the origin of kaya, the 
exponent of a facultative utterance, is to be traced in the interrogative particles 
ka ya ("Pf ^) may it (can it) or not, viz., it may be that 

Saka-dzukiwo toreba, sake wo omovuto kaya. In grasping a wine cup, one 
may as well think about wine. Motsiwo torite kuvi-keru to kaya. It may be, 
that he took this cakes and has eaten them. Takava Morokosi Go Teino tokiyori 
siyau-Cy^t) seri to kaya. Hawks for hunting have been presented, as it seems, 
since the period of the Five Emperors of China. 

Ogami-tamavite utsusi-tamavi-keru to kaya. Adoring, as it may be said, he 
copied (the godly being who made his appearance before him). - An other 
writer, who mentions the same fact, says categorically, Uttun-tamavcri, he 
has copied. 

VII. [Page 276, 315, 320.] EEMAKK ON Masi 

In the epistolary style Jf<u)t, w, is superseded by the old form MaosH, u, 
Maus)i, u, *t?^ -*vis ^7S^o pron. Moon, which is wrongly expressed by 
&. It has the complement of what a thing consist*, and this being a verb, 
the verb in the root-form before it. 

Bu-sa-ta (% T ty* jft*) watMtta, = Silence has been, via. I preserved 
silence, I have been slack (or negligent) in writing and visiting = Su-ao-ta Udri 



mdsita. tanomi mausi masu , there is a request to You , = tanomi masi-masu. 
Deki-masu ( pj ^ ), = DeJci-mausi soro , it shall happen , it goes , it is coming 
to an end (it will be finished, or be ready). Masi-besi, - Maosi-beku soro, it 
may be. hanasi mausi-mastta fitowo mi-masti, I see the man of whom you 
spoke, = hanasi mausi soro fttowo mi-masi soro. 

IR, ^ T 

Page 157 line 8 fr. bottom. For: \ | ifc A Read: \ I A ^ 
Page 158 line 7 fr. bottom. For: 1873 Read: 1875. 



A, adv. of place 79. 

-aba, (-eba, -iba), verb, terminations 215. 

A6)i, iru, verb 268. 

Ada, pronoun 84. 

Adzuma, = Aga-tsuma 88. 

Aga for Waga 83. 

Agarasar)e, uru, verb of courtesy 324. 

Agaraserar)e , uru, verb of courtesy 324. 

Agar)i, u, verb of courtesy 324. 

Ag)e, uru, verb of courtesy 321. 

Agimi, Agi, = Aga-kimi 83. 

Ago, = Aga-ko 83. 

Ah)e, Av)e, uru, Aete, Ahete, verb 295. 

Ahezu, Ahenu, neg. verb., = Fatasazu .... 296. 

Aida, word express, of relation . . . 189. 337. 341. 

Ai-tai, adverb 178. 

Akeno ton, adverb 180. 

-a-ku, -akuva, = -a-siku, -va, adv. term, of 

verbs 299. 

Akuru fi, adverb 180. 

Akuru ton, abverb 180. 

Amatuiku, adverb 178. 

Amari, adv. of degree 136. 140. 174. 

amasi, = -an-masi, form of the periphrastic 

future 213. 275. 

an, verb, termination of the future 209. 

Anata, = Ano-kata,, pronoun 88. 108. 

Ano, pronoun. 88. 104. 

Amur* ni, conjunction 886. 

-aran, -arame, verb, termination of the pe- 
riphr. future .................. 

Aranan, = Annan ............... 

aranan, neg. verb, termination ...... 213. 

Aranu (-niaranu for naran) .......... 

Arasar)e, torn, Araterar)e, /(= Inuerart), 
pass, of courtesy of A ran ........... 

-arasi (-an), derivative termination ....... 

Arnu, Aroo, future of An ........ 214. 

Ara:)i, u, neg. verb ................ 

Arazu (-niarasu for narasu) ......... 

Are, Arera, pronouns ......... 85. 80. 

Ar)e, *, em, passive verb ........... , 

Ar)i, , verb .......... 114 125. IBS. 

art, (-iri, -vri, -Nn), contiu. verbal trrniinatiou- 

Ari-teim, adverb ...... . 

Aru-fif6, pronoun .............. 9. 

Arnica, conjunction ....... 

Aru tokini, adverb ................ 

Asatte, adverb .................. 

an, (-en, -iti, -on, -tui), causative vrrb. ter- 
minations .................... 

anki, -oiiti, verb, terrain, forming adjetivi. 
AtobaMr)e, uru, pas*, of oourtoy of Jnttui . 
Atabat)i, M, the caus. form of AuM ...... 

Atdko, pronoun .................. 

At6k6*i, adverb ........ . . 

Art, adverb 










Asu-made, 180. 

Asuta, 180. 

Atavaz)i, , negat. vert 295. 

Ata)vi, u ==. ate -+- av)i, v, verb. . . . 215. 295. 

Ateni for dzutsu 146. 

Ato, ordinal numeral 143. 

Ato, Atoni, word express, of relation 187. 

Atsi, pron. of place 82. 

Atsira, adverb 178. 

Am, A Ai, Ai-tagai-ni, expression of reciprocity 95. 

Avida = Aida, word expr. of relation .... 189. 

Ayamatte, adverb 176. 

-dye, -oye, verb, terrain, indicating the passive. . 241. 


Ba, noun forming expr. of relation 190. 

-la, va, wa, isolating suifix 60. 

Bai, suffix to numerals 144. 

Bakdri, adverb 176. 

San, suffix to numerals 142. 

Sara, plural suffix 58. 

Ba-so, conjunction 336. 

-baya, =. -m(-n) -\-haya, suffixed to a future. 214. 

Be, mule, ube, time, = m -\- he 291. 

Be)Kt, M, si 127. 215. 291. 

Ben, = Kata, word express, of relation . . . 190. 

Betsuni, adverb 176. 

Bi, Chinese numerative (5) 151. 

Bi-gan, equinoctial feasts 158. 

Bo and Fin, prefixes expr. of gender 53. 

Bon-zi, the Brahmanical writing 7. 

Bu, negative prefix 129. 

Bu, 1 percent 147. 

Bun, a space of time 163. 

Bun, measure of length 167. 

Bun-siyau, epistolary style 42. 


Da, Ta, adv. of place, prefix to interr. pron. 79. 97. 
-da, = de am, for na (nda), genit. part. . . 67. 
-da, -fa, -tar)i, u, verb. term, of the past 

tense 220. 

Daga, toga, for Dare (tare)ga, interr. pron. 82. 88. 

Dai, prefix of numbers 142. 

Dai, Nai, = Utsi, word express, of relation 188. 

Dai-icsi ni va, adverb 177. 

Dai-ninivd, adverb 177. 

-daka, for de dru-kd 88. 

Dan, Tan, Chin, numerative (10) 152. 

Dan-dan ni, adverb 174. 

Dani, adverb 176. 

Dano, Tano, Dono, Tono, interr. jron 85. 

Dare, Tare, interr. pron 88. 

Dare-mo, pronoun 102. 

Dazo, =. Darezo, interr. pron 88. 

-de, (-nite), (-nde), suffix of relation. 61. 70. 173. 185. 

-de, -te, verb, termin. indie, the gerund. . . . 202. 

De-k)i, iru, verb 266. 

-do, do-me, suffix of iterative numerals. . 143. 144. 
Do, To, adv. of place, prefix to interr. pron. 79. 97. 

Doki, Toki, space of time 163. 

Doko, interr. pron 80. 

Dokoni, Dokoni mo, Doko ye, Doko yon, adverbs, 177. 

-domo, -tomo, conjunction 207. 344. 

-domo, -tomo, plural suffix 57. 

Donatd, = Dono + kdta, interr. pron. ... 85. 

Don bo-don, adverb 177. 

Donna, interr. pron 85. 

Dono, interr. pron 85. 

Dono-kurai ooki, adverb 174. 

Dono yau, A Doo, interr. pron 85. 

Doozo, adverb 182. 

Dore, interr. pron 88. 

Dore-dake, adverb 174. 

Dore fodo, adverb 174. 

Dotsi, interr. pron 82. 

Dotsira, adverb 178. 

Do-tsutsi, interr. pron 82. 

Doude (Ikade) , interr. pron 101. 

Dou-)si, site, sita, interr. pron 85. 

-dla, = tari 220. 

-dzu, -teu, gen. particle 67. 

-dzu, -tsu, suffix to numerals 145. 232. 


-e, u, em, uru; -y)e, u, era, uru, verb, 
termin. passive form 240. 241. 

-e, he, ve, ye, suffix of multiplying numerals. . 144. 

-e, he, ve, ye, dative and tenninative parti- 
cle 61. 67. 185. 

-e, ei, imperative form of verbs 199. 

-eba, (-iba, -aba), verb, termin. conditional. 206. 215. 

-en, (an, in, on), verb term, future 209. 

-er)i, u, eba, verb, termin. praet. praesens . . 222. 

-eru, (uru, iru), verb, termin. substantive form. 201. 

-eri, = ar)i, u, continuative form 107. 

-esi, (isi, osi, usi, asi), causat. form of verbs. 234. 235. 

-esi, etaru, end, form of the past tense . . . 



P , or in the dialect of Tedo , H. 

Fa, Wa, Jap. and Chin, numerative 149(6). 151(4). 

Fadz)i, uru, verb . , 266. 

Fai, Hai, Chin, numerative (7) 151. 

Fai, Hai, Ha, Hei, adverh 181. 

Fai- (Hai-) ken, verh of courtesy 319. 

Fami, Jap. numerative (4) 149. 

Fana-fdda, Hana-Mda, adverh 134. 

Fanber)i, u, Famber)i, u, verb of courtesy . . 317. 

Fasira, Jap. numerative (1) 148. 

Fatsu, Fazime-no 143. 

Faydku, Faydu, Fay 60, adverb 174. 179. 

Fei, Hei, Chin, numerative (12) 152. 

Fei, Hei, adverb , 181. 

Fete, word express of relation 193. 

Fi, neg. prefix 129. 

Fi, adverb 181. 

F)i, iru, verb 266. 

Fidari ni, adverb 178. 

Fiki, Hiki, Chin, numerative (3) 151. 

Fin, So, prefixes express, of gender 53. 

Fira, Jap. numerative (10) 149. 

Fira-gdna-gaJci , Firo-gdna , a form of writing. 6. 22. 

Firuni, adverb 180. 

Fisa-bisa, adverb 179. 

Fisdsii ato, adverb 179. 

Fisdsikii , adverb 179. 

Fit-dziyoo, adverb 181. 

Fito, (Aru-fito), pron. indef. 96. 

Fito, numeral 53. 137. 

Fitori, numeral 139. 

Fitotsu, numeral 133. 

Fitotsti ni, adverb 176. 

Fit-zen, adverb 181. 

-fo, -ho, -vo, suffix of numerals 139. 

Fodo, Fodo ni, adv. of degree, conjunction 131. 339. 

Fodo-fodo, adverb 175. 

Fokd, word express, of relation 188. 

Fokd-ni, adverb 178. 

Fokorofyi, uru, verb 267. 

Fan, Hon, Chin, numerative (9) 152. 

Too, H6o (for kata) 190. 

Forob)i, u, verb 267. 

Fotob)i, iru, uru, verb 267. 

Fotondo, adverb 175. 

Fotori, word express, of relation 190. 

Fots, Hots, a silverweight 170. 

Fu, neg. prefix 128. 

Fu-do site, adverb 182. 

Fu-i t, adverb. 177. 

Fuiii, Chin, numerative (20) 153. 

Fun, a silverweight 1"0. 

Ftiri, Jap. numerative (16) 149. 

Furub)i, iru, uru, verb 267. 

FitrH-koto; Yamdto-kotobd , = old Japanese . 85. 

FXru-koto-bumi ; Ko-si-ki, a Jap. book 88. 

FVru-kotono ban, a Jap. book 88. 

Fu-sinni, adverb ls_>. 

Fu totum, adverb 176. 

Futari, numeral 139. 

Fit-torite, adverb 181. 

Fuu, Chin, numerative (25) 153. 

Fuu-to-ki, a Jap. book 87. 


-go,, (nga, na), gen. particle 61. 83. 

-ffa, no index of the subject 84. 188. 

-go, (for tiagara), conjunction 888. 

Ga-gen lea-si kdktt, a Jap. book 88. 

Ga-gen siyu ran, or Miydci-koto-alstimc , a Jap. 
book 3S. 

-gana -kasi , exclamation expressing the optative. 900. 

-gara, plural suffix . . 57. 

-gara (kara) koso, = yori va 184. 

-yarii, = ga -\- aru, addition to Chin, substan- 
tives to form adjectives 363. 

-gata, plural suffix 59. 

Gattira, conjunction 888. 

Ge, = Si/a, word express, of relation .... 180. 

Gc- (ziyoo, (tin, ge) 148. 

G<--d:i no kotobd, Imperative mood. . . . 199. 

Gcki-tokit-suru, transposition of Ch incur words 
in reading 

Gen, Kan, = A\da, word expr. of relation . 189. 

Gen, Geni-geni, adverb 1M. 

Oat-sat, Present tense 198. 

Gttstt, Grata, TtilJki, month, notation of tune. 159. 

Qiao-gao-t)i, uru (-art), verb of courtesy . . . 836. 

Go, honorary prefix to Chinese words 75. 

Go, Sat, after and before 143. 

Go, = Notti, word express, of relation . . . 187. 

G6kH, a measure of capacity 189. 

Goo, a measure of length . 167. 

Goo, a measure of capn> 168. 

Goo, a weight 169. 

Go-ra*-a)i, u, uru, verb of courtesy 819. 

Gotoni, conjunrtinn 887. 

Gotti/)ki, ku, ', conjunction 888. 

Go-won, a Chin, dialect 80. 



Gozdri, Gozari-mas)i , u for Ar)i, u 263. 

Gu, pron. of the 1st person 74. 

Guru-guru, adverb 178. 

Gururito, adverb . 178. 

Gwai, =. Foka, word express, of relation . . 188. 

Gyoo-sio, a form of writing 5. 

H See F. 

I, Wi, verb, roots of the contin. verbs, An, In, 

Ori . 106. 217. 260. 263. 

4 for -Jd and -si, adject, forms of the spoken 

language 112. 

/, Iru, auxiliary verb 264. 

I, Iru, verb 268. 

-iba, (aba, eba), verb, termin 215. 206. 

Ide, Idzuru, verb of courtesy 323. 

-ide for -zite, in the dialect of Miyako .... 249. 

-ide an, form of the spoken language for 

-zi-de-ari 250. 

Idzu, Itsu, interr. pron 79. 97. 

Idzuku, Idzuko, Idzuko ni zo (Idzttkunzo), Idzuku 

ni kd (Idzukunkd) 81. 

Idzukun zo, adverb 178. 

Idzure, Itsure, interr. pron 89. 

-iedomo (to), = to ivu domo, conjunction, suf- 
fix 208. 344. 

liya, liya-iiya, liye, adverb 182. 

tta, Ikade, Ikaga, interr. pron 101. 102. 

Ikan for Ikani, interr. pron 101. 

Ikani-mo, adverb 130. 

Ika-yau, Ika-sama, interr. pron 101. 

Ik)i, iru, verb 266. 

Ikka, ikkdno, numeral 53. 

Ikkoo, adverb 179. 

Ikura, adverb 174. 

IkX-tari 139. 

Ima, Ma, noun, adverb 274. 178. 

Imdda, adverb 178. 

.Ima, made, adverb 178. 

Ima ni, Ima yon, adverbs 178. 

Imdsi, qualifying pron. of the 2th person ... 74. 

-in, (-an, -en, -on), verb, termin. of the future. 209. 

Inisiye, adverb 179. 

Ippai ni, Ippan ni, adverbs 175. 

I-raiva, adverb 179. 

Irar)e, uru, verb pass, of courtesy 313. 

Irasar)e, uru , Iraserar)e , uru, verb pass, of 

courtesy 313. 314. 

-iri, (-ari, -ori, -uri), contin. verbal termin. . 217. 

Iro-irono, expression indicating the plural ... 55. 

Irovd, the Jap. alphabeth 9. 

-iru, (-erii, -uru), verb. term, of the substan- 
tive form 201. 

Isasaka , adverb 181. 

-isi, (-asi, -esi, -osi, -usi), verb, termin. of the 

causat. form 235. 

Issai-no, expression indicating the plural .... 56. 

V V 

Is-siu, Is-su-gin, a silver coin 172. 

Is-soni, adverb 175. 178. 

Itarite, = Itatte, word express, of relation . 195. 

Itds)i, u, verb Itdsi-mdsi 284. 318. 

Itatte, word express, of the superlative .... 134. 

Ito, Ito-ito, word express, of the superlative . 134. 

Itsi-ban. Itsino, words express, of the superla- 
tive 135. 

Itsi-bunva, adverb 175. 

Itsi-dan, adverb of degree 130. 

Itsi-dziyoo, adverb 181. 

Itsi-pu, Itsi bu-gin, a silver coin 162. 

Itsu de mo, adverb 178. 

Itsu Tea, adverb 178. 

Itsu mo', adverb 178. 

Itsuni, adverb 176. 

Itsuniva, adverb 177. 

Itsu zo, adverb 178. 

lv)i, u, I)i, u, Iimas)i, u, verb 319. 

lyd, lyo, Ya, Yo, lya-iya, adverbs express, the 

comparative 131. 

lya-nagara mo, adverb 176. 

lydsiku mo, adverb 175. 


Ka, adverb of place 79. 

Ka, Chin, numerative 142. 150(2) 160. 

Ka, Nitsi (Zitsit) 161. 

-ka, interr. suffix 89. 98. 202. 330. 

Ka, = Sita, word express, of relation .... 186. 

-ka, in Nagasaki-dialect for Jd termin. of the 

attrib. adject 106. 

-ka, term of adjective derivated from nouns 

subst 116. 

-ka, improperly used for -ga 61. 82. 

Kab)i, iru, verb 267. 

Kaherim)i, iru, verb 269. 

Kai, a Chinese numerative (14) 152. 

Kai-sio, Sin-zi, Sei-zi, a form of writing ... 5. 

Kak)e, uru; Kakan (Ome ni), verb of courtesy. 319. 

Kamdsiki, = Sikd-mdsi-siki , termin. of adjec- 
tives. . . 124. 125. 




Kan, = Aida, word express, of relation . . . 189. 

-kan for ken, kemu, suffix 225. 

Kana, Kana-monzi, Kana-gaki, Japanese writing- 
form 5. 

Kanarazu, adverb 181. 

Kanete, conjunction 329. 

Kangam)i, iru, verb 269. 

Kano, pronoun 84. 

Kan-wx>n , a Chin, dialect 80. 

-Tcara , suffix express, of relation. 61. 71. 185. 334. 

338. 340. 

Karab)i, iru, verb . 267. 

-kara (gara) koso, =. yoriva 134. 

Kara-koto, Chin, dialect 30. 

Kare, pronoun 86. 

-kar)i, a, = -ku + ar)i, u, terrain, of adjec- 
tives 107. 113. 262. 

-kari for -keri in the spoken language of Yedo. 227. 

Kdru-gd yueni, for Sikdr&ga ytieni 340. 

Kasanete, adverb 177. 

-kasi, -gana, exclamation expressing the opta- 
tive 200. 252. 

-kasi, = -kasiki, termin. of adject 124. 

Kdsikd 81. 

Kdnkoni, adverb l'78. 

Kasira , Jap. numerative (3) 148. 

Kdsoko = Kdsiko 81. 

Kata, word express, of relation 190. 

Kata-gata, adverb 177. 

Kata-kana, k k.-gaki, k. k.-momi, a form of 
writing 6. 

KdtakH, Katdv, Kdtoo, adverb 174. 

Katani, Katawarard, adverb 178. 

Katsu, Katsv va, conjunction 829. 

Kdtsti-gdtsu, adverb 176. 

Kdtsii-mata, adverb 176. 

KdtsH-te, Katie, adverb 175. 

Kau-si,Kdo-si, = Ka-yau-ri 85. 

o o 
Kavd for Karevd, pron. demonstr 88 

Kavari, word express, of relation 192. 

Kaya (-/'o) 863. 

Kaytri-ten, marks of going backwards X2. 

Kdzti-kdzil-no , expression of the plural .... 65. 
Ke, = Sita, word express, of relation .... 181. 

Kedari, conjunction 885. 

-keki, -koki, (-ke, -ko), terrain, of adject. . . . 119. 

Ken, a measure of length 167. 

-ken, kemtt, verbal termination 225. 

Keo , adverb 180. 

-ke)ri, ru, , form of the past tcnie . . 222. 227. 

Keta, adverb 180. 

Ketnte, adverb 181. 

Ki, honorary prefix 76. 

-*i, termin. of adjectives 105. 110. 

-*', -ri, verbal termin 284 

t, in., verb 72. 2M. 27. 

Ki and Mi, for Ko and Me, word* fxpra*. of 

gender 53. 

Kikat)e ,er*,ime, KHotim)e, MTU . Kiionmafc , 

verbs of courtesy 820. 

Kimi, pron. qualifying the person spoken to. . 74. 

Kin, a weight 169. 

Ki/niu, adverb 180. 

Kioo, adverb 180. 

Kitsid-M, Ktint*, adverb expreanng the mptrUtire. 1S5. 

Kitto, adverb 18L 

h'iu/ii, adverb 179. 

Kiyatu, Kiak, Chin, numerative (15) 153. 

Ko, adv. of place 79. 

Ko, noun 80. 

:. '. 

A", Me, sufliies express, of gender 

Koban, a gold coin 

Ko6)i, int, urn, verb 

Koto, pronoun 

Kokomi, adverb 


Kokn, space of time 

KOHO, KoMO-kafa, pron 84. 

Kou-nitti, adverb 

KOHO, for Koreao 

Kono aida , adverb 

KOHO fforo, adverb 

Kama hodo, adverb 

KOHO i-ffo, adverb 

Kumnuff, adverb 

Ktmo tok6ro*i, adverb. . . . . 

KOHO yueni, conjunction . . 

Kore, pronoun 

Kore kara, adverb 

K <>r<- ni yottf , rnnjunrlioii 

Korv6)i, urn, verb 

Kot , a measure of length 

Kofooa, = verb 

Koto-f6tok* , rxprcttion of thr plum) 
Koto-gttok* , adverb . 
Knfitmi yoftmni, adverb 

Kotti, pronoun 

Kitfjtira , adverb ... 

Kova, for Korftra, pronoun 

Koc)i, iru, *r, verb .... 










Koye, = Won 4. 29. 

Ko-zi-ki, Furu-koto-bumi , a Jap. book 36. 

Ku, a Chin, numerative (6) 151. 

-ku, adverbial termin. 106. 173. 

Kudasar)e, uru, passiv. of Kudasi, verb of cour- 
tesy 321. 322. 

Kun, Toku, Yomi 4. 30. 

Kutsi, a Jap. numerative (2) 148. 

Kuts)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

Kuvd-si)ku, u, adverb 174. 

Kwa-ko, =. Praeteritum 198. 220. 

Kwan, a Chin, numerative (19) 153. 

Kwan-me, a silverweigth 170. 


Ma, = Ima, noun 253. 274. 337. 

Ma, a Jap. numerative (12) 149. 

Ma, = Me, noun 187. 

Ma, Man, prefix 130. 

Mabarani, adverb 175. 

Mada, adverb 178. 

Made, word express, of relation. 71. 192. 329. 338. 

Madzu, adverb 179. 

Mai, a silver coin 171. 

Mai, a Chinese numerative (8) 152. 

Mai, conjunction 337. 

Mai, = Mave, Maye, word express, of relation. 187. 

Mai = Mavi 38. 

-mai = -mazi 253. 

Mairar)e, uru, Mairasar)e, uru, verbs of courtesy. 323. 

Mair)i, u, verb 323. 

Makar)i, u, verb 324. 

Mak)i, u, verb 297. 

Makotom, adverb 181. 

Makotordsiku , "adverb 182. 

Mama, Mamani, conjunction 337. 

Mamayo, conjunction 346. 

v-kdna, a form of writing 6. 

yov-siu, a Jap. book 6. 

li, adverb 181. 

n, = Amari 140. 

Maro , Tsin, pronouns 86. 

Maru, little ring indicating a modification of sound. 9. 

Masdni, adverb 182. 212. 

Masi, = Jww,!pron^indicating the person spo- 
ken to 74. 

Mas)i, u, auxiliary verb 213. 274. 353. 

Masi, Masdri, Masdreri, verb 133. 

Masi, inaccurate form for Mazi 254. 

Mdsu-mdsu, adverb expressing the comparative. 131. 


Mata, adverb and conjunction. 133. 177. 328. 330. 

Mata itsuniva, adverb 177. 

Matsi, Mdtsuri, verbs of courtesy 316. 

Mattaku, adverb 175. 

Maus)i, u, A Moos)i, u, verb of courtesy. 317. 320. 353. 

Mavari, word expressive of relation 190. 

Mavarini, adverb 178. 

Mave, Maye, word expressive of relation. . . . 187. 

Mavi, Mai, Melodramatic and Epic poems. . . 38. 

Maye-kata, adverb 179. 

Maye-ni, adverb 178. 

-mazi, mai, neg. verbal termin. of the future. 253. 

-mazi (A -mai), -mazikiivd, -mazikini (A -mai 
kini, maini) -mai-toki, -mai tomo, -maziki 
nari, negat. verbal terminations 254. 

Me, suffix of ordinal numbers 144. 162. 

Me, = Monme 170. 

Me and Ko, suffixes^ express, of gender .... 52. 

Mei, instead of Bd (Sesi, Sekf) 292. 

Mei- (Eei-~)site, = Simete 240. 

Men, instead of Meno 52. 

Men, Chin, numerative (22) 153. 

Meo, a^space of time 163. 

Meppoo, adv. expressing the superlative 135. 

-meri, verb, termination 300. 

Mi, honorary prefix 75. 

Mi, pronoun 89. 91. 

Mi, instead of Ma, prefix 130. 

Mi and TLi, instead of Me and Ko 52. 

M^i, iru, verb 268. 319. 

Midzukara, reflective pron 89. 92. 

Migini, adverb 178. 

Migiri, conjunction 337. 

Mi-mi, pron 92. 

Mina, adverb express, of the plural . . . .59. 174. 

Mi-rai, Future tense 198. 208. 

Mis)e, uru, verb of courtesy 319. 

Mitari, triad . . 139. 

Mits)i, uru, verb 266. 

Miyavi-koto-at same , or Ga-gen siyu-ran, a Jap. 

book 38. 

Miyoo-dsa, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-tan, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-getsti, , adverb 180. 

Miyoo-go-nitsi, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-nen, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-nifsi, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-nitsino dsa, adverb 180. 

Miyoo-nitsino firu, adverb 180. 

Mi-yuki s)i, uru, verb, of courtesy 325. 

D K X. 



Mo, instead of Ma, (page 130) 342. 

-mo, -mo -mo, -mo-mata, suffix, conjunction. I 

102. 133. 206. 254. 302. 327. 328. 344. 346. 

Mo, prefix 130. 

Mo-haya. Mo-hayau, adverb 179. 

Momo (Tsi, Yorodzu), numeral 139. 140. 

Mon, Sen (Zeni), a copper coin 171. 

Mon-me, a silverweight 169. 

Mono, pron. indefinite 96. 

Mono-gatan, historical narrative 38. 

Moo, a silverweight 170. 

Moo, adverb 179. 

Moppara, adverb 175. 

Moro-morono, expression of the plural 56. 

Mori, Mosiva, MonkHvd, conjunction. . . 215. 342. 

Moto, a Jap. numerative (5) 149. 

Motri)i, iru, yuru, verb 267. 

Motsi-ron, adverb 181. 

Motte 192. 289. 

Mottomo, Motomo, adv. expressive of the su- 
perlative 134. 

Mottomo, conjunction 331. 

-ma, verbal tennin. of the future 208. 

Mitte, tibe, time 291. 

MMdni, adverb 176. 

MuK)ai, -am, -aft, Mukoo, word express, of re- 
lation 189. 

Mukaini, adverb 178. 

Mukaite, Mukavite, word express, of relation . 195. 

Mvkarite, Mukatte, Mukavte, MQkoote, word 

express, of relation 195. 

mkdri, MWcdsiyori, adverb 179. 

Mukite, Mvite, word express, of relation. . . . 195. 

Muku)i, yuru, verb 268. 

Munariku, adverb 176. 

Mtine, a Jap. numerative (2) 148. 

Muron, adverb 181. 

Mtua-miisdto, M&idto, adverb 174. 

Musiro, conjunction 346. 

Mu-ydk&ni, adverb 176. 


N, negative element 247. 

Na, noun, (nomen) 42. 

Na, a negative prefix 128. 301. 

Na, a negative interr. suffix 301. 

Na, instead of Naru, terrain, of adjectiv. 114. 270. 

Na, variation of No 61. 67. 

Nd, instead of Ndril-ddke 838. 

-tta, -mayo, -ma... to, forming the forbidding 
imperative 251. 801. 

Nado, expressing the plural 59. 

Nagdra, conjunction 282. 888. 

Nagare, a Jap. numerative (19) 149. 

Na/iai, Nafidri, NaAerri, instead of N**drt . 278. 

Nat, noun substantive 96. 

Not, = Utti, word exprew. of relation . . . 188. 

Naka, word express of relation 189. 

Ndkabdva, adverb 177. 

Naka-naka-ni, =r Mtuiro, conjunction 847. 

Naka-naka, adverb-. 175. 

Nakani, adverb 178. 

Nakdre, imperative form, continual! ve forbid- 
ding 252. 

-nakari, -nakeri, neg. auxiliary verb. 251. 

Nakar)i, , verb, = Nakm -f- ari 806. 

Na)ki, km, ri, A Nai, verb 127. 808806. 

-naki, A-JKIJ, -makm, instead of Nm 250. 

Naku-nar)i, m, Nakm )e, torn, verbs, 806. 

Nami, expression of the plural 58. 

-nan (-zu to mam), negat verbal, termin .... SIS. 

-nan (-mi mam, -to mam) 259. 269. 

Nana-meni, adverb 178. 

-nanda, negat. verbal termin 252. 

Nandoo instead of Nami to w* 99. 

Nando, interr. pron 99. 

Nandote, Nami to te, instead of Nami to JUi, 
interr. pron 99. 

Nand:i (Nammdn, Na-mot*i), pronoun expreae. 
the person spoken to .74. 

Nani, Nam, Nam, interr. pronoun*. . 98. 99. 101. 

Nami-fodo, adverb 174. 

Nani-gari, Namt-kmre, Nami-kon, interr. prooou. 100. 

Nani mar*, Nami mato, etc. interr. proa. . . 100. 

-nanmeri, -mamtri 69, 

Nanno, instead of Nami-mo, interr. proa. . . . 100. 

Na* ton to, = Sam nm to, Namto, interr. 
pronoun 99. 

Nao, Now, adverb expreat. the comparative. . 181. 

-nara for -marata and -mania. . . . 215. 270. 841. 

-naraba, conjunction 

Narabi, noun sobitantive . 191. 

Narabini, conjunction 829. 

naramit, maram , marami, verbal termin. . . . 218. 

NaraM)i, m, verb ... 27L 

Nar)e, m, mm, verb . . 271. 

Nar)i. m, verb 270. 

Nar)i, m, used instead of Nar)t, m 271. 

(Oymari, verb of courtesy ***. 



-naru, termination of adjectives 114. 270. 

Ndni-dake, adverb 177. 

Naru,toki-ni, .==. Naran toJcini 341. 

Nas)i, u, verb, ==_ni + si, causat. verb. 236. 273. 

Nausi, Noosi, Naute, A Noote, =. Naku-si, 
o o 

Nakusite 305. 

Nazeni instead of Nan-se-ni 99. 

Nazo, = Nanzo 100. 

-ne, neg. verbal termination 248. 

-neianaranu, expression of necessity 260. 

Negavdkuvd, adverb 182. 

Nen, Tod, Tose, year 154. 

Nen-goo, yearnames 157. 

Nengoroni, Naka naka-ni, = Musiro . . 176. 347. 

-nga, conjunction 333. 

-ni, -nu from iri)i, u, auxiliary verb of time 229. 230. 
Ni (ni + i), Nife, Nan, verb, to be in ... 269. 

-ni, -nu, neg. verbal termin 247. 

-ni, suffix express, of relation. 61. 68. 173. 185. 193. 

N)i, iru, verb 266. 

Nigoreru koye, impure sounds 9. 

Nigori , the points indicating tbe impure sounds. 9. 

Nin, a Chinese numerative (1) 150. 

Ning , Chinese, = Musiro 347. 

Nippon sio ki or Yamdto bumi, a Japanese book. 5. 29. 36. 

Nipu, Nisu, gold coins 172. 

-nite, -de, suffix express, of relation. . 61. 70. 185. 

Nite and Ni-Ate, = Narite 270. 

Nite, = Ni site. 285. 

Nitsi (Zitsu), Ka, day 160. 

-ni yorite , -ni yote, -ni yotte, conjunction. 

334. 341. 
-no, suffix express, of the genitive. 61. 66. 135. 142. 

No, a Japanese numerative (11) 149. 

Nob)i, iru, verb 267. 

Nokordzu, adverb expressing the plural . . 59. 175. 

Nori-tamav)i , u, verb of courtesy 320. 

Notsi, word express, of relation. . . 187. 

Notsi, conjunction 338. 

Notsi-hodo , adverb 180. 

Notsini, adverb 178. 

Notsi-notsi, adverb 180. 

Nozokite, Nozotte, word express, of relation. . 193. 

-ns)i, u, uru . . 285. 

-nu instead of -no 294. 

-nu, -nan, -nuru, verbal termin. 229. 

-nu de ar)i, u, negat. verb, termin 250. 

-nva, = ni + va, suffix , 69. 

-nzi, == nis)i , u, uru, to do, to be 285. 


0, On, honorary prefix 75. 198. 311. 

0, a. Japanese, numerative (7) 149. 

and Me, suffixes express, of gender ... 51. 53. 

-oba , -woba , (wo + va) , suffix indicating the 
accusative 62. 

Obitaddsiku , adverb 181. 

Odore, a variation of Onore, determin. pron. . 90. 

Odz)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

Oite(-ni dite), word express, of relation. . . . 193. 

Okeru, verb 194. 

Ok)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

Oki-zi, Teniwova, Teniwa, Sutegana, Jap. de- 
nominations for particle 43. 

0-mdye, 0-mde, 0-mdi, honorary pron. indicat- 
ing the person spoken to 76. 103. 

0-meni-kak)e, eru, ar)i, u, verb of courtesy . 319. 

Omote, word express, of relation 187. 

On, instead of Ono 52. 

-on, (-an, -en, -in), verbal termin. of the future. 209. 

Onari, verb of courtesy 325. 

Onaziki, adjective 91. 

Ono, Ono-ono, pronoun 89. 91. 

Onodziikdrd, pronoun. 89. 93. 

Onore, pronoun 89. 90. 

Oo-kata, adverb . . . 175. 

Ookini, adverb expressing a comparative. 131. 175. 

Ooki tokiva, adverb 181. 

Ookuno, Ohokuno, expression indicating the plural. 55. 

06s)e, uru, verb of courtesy 320. 

Ooserar}e, uru, honorary pass, of 06se 320. 

Ore, Ora, variation of Are, subst. pron. 86. 91. 103. 

Ori, a Jap. numerative (8) 149. 

Or)i, u, verb 193. 263. 

Or)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

-on, (-ari, -iri,-un), contin. verbal termination. 217. 

Ori-fuzi, adverb 181. 

Ori-ori, adverb 181. 

Oi)i, u, verb. 264. 

-osi, (-asi, -esi, -isi, -usi), caus. verb, termin. 235. 

-osiki, -asiki, verb, termin. forming adjectives . 121. 

Osi-ndbate, adverb 174. 

Osiy)e, uru, verb of courtesy 320. 

Os6kii, Ostiu, Osdo, adverb 174. 179. 

Ottir)i, u, Otdveri, verbs . 133. 

Ots)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

Otte, adverb 179. 

Otts'ke, adverb 179. 

Owannuno nu . . 230. 



, !** 

-dye, -aye, verb, terrain, indicat. the passive. . 241. 

Qytibi, conjunction 329. 

Oydso, $y6sxo, adverbial expression .... 142. 151. 
Oydso, adverb 175. 


Pioo, Tawdra, a measnre of capacity 168. 

Pu, Tsubo, a superficial measure 168. 

Pu (Itsi-pu, Ni-pu), gold coins. ........ 172. 


-ra, suffix expressing the plural 56. 

Rai-getsu, adverb of time 180. 

Rai-nen, adverb of time 180. 

-ran, -aran, -arame, verb. term, expressing 

the periphrastic future 212. 

-rasiki, = aranki, rdtka, term, of adject . . 125. 

Rei- (Mei-)rite, = nte, nmete 240. 

Ri, measure of length 168. 

Rin, a space of time 164. 

Rin, a measure of length 167. 

Rin, a silverweight 170. 

Rin, Wari, Bu 147. 

Riyoo, a Chinese numerative (18) 153. 

Riyoo, unit of old gold coins 172. 

-ro, = -yo, an exclamation 199. 

Ron-ndku, Ron-nau, adverb 181. 


-to,, substantive form of w (ki, ku) 107. 

SaV)i, uru, verb 267. 

Sai, adverb, prefix expressing the superlative. . 135. 

Sai, a measure of capacity 168. 

-Sat, a weigth 169. 

Sai-tiyoniva, adverb 177. 

Sai-zen, adverb 179. 

Saki, Tsugi (Ato, Usiro) 148. 

Saki, word express, of relation 187. 

Saki-goro, adverb 180. 

Saki-hodo, adverb 180. 

Saki ni, adverb 178. 180. 

SdkU-geftH, adverb 180. 

Sdlril-nen, adverb 180. 

SdkK-ziti, adverb 180. 

Santa, pron. expressing the person spoken to. . 74. 
Sama-samano, expression indicating the plural. 55. 
Samtiravfi, , Savilrao)i, , Sored, Son, auxi- 
liary verb 276279. 

Sa-ttdku-tomo , adverb 177. 

San-bu fon-nyo, a Japanese book 36. 

San-dai kdlm-nki, a Japanese book 

Sdn-nagara, conjunction 


Sao, Soo, anit of the measure* of capacity. . . 

Sappari, adverb 

Sara ni , adverb 

Sore domo, conjunction 

Sari-nagdra , Sart-nayara nuf, conjunction. . . . 

Sard fodoni 

SdrHni yotte 

Satdg}^, uru, verb of courtesy 

SattLka, adverb 

Sate, Sdtecd, conjunction 

Safin, a Chinese numeraire (23> 

Saye, adverb 

Sayoo, adverb 

Sazo, conjunction 

-*<?, -tttrtt, -ten; -nm)c, ttrm, t, verb, ter- 
mination 885. 

Se, a superficial measure 

Stti and Siyo, notation of time . . 

Sei-zi, Sin-si, a form of writing .... 

Sekki, a space of time. 

Sen (Zeni, Man), a copper coin 171. 

Sen, Go, before and after 

Sen-dai Jku-xi fon-ki, a Japanew book . 

teri (causal, n -f- erf) to dutinguish from 
the derivative form ter)i, w (a fusion of the 
kwa-kono and m) 

Seftit, division of time . . 158. 

Sttfstt-tettit, adverb 

-tt, -tn t -tan (-J0), termination of eaont verb*. 

S)i, M, KTM, verb 270 Ml. 

-tt, = -tut 

Si, }', Chinese exprcMinn* indicating the gem- 

der of birds 

Si, = Ifa/fe, expreoive of the superlative. . 
-', (Oen-sai no ), termin of the praedkatire 

adjective ... .. 106. 107. 884. 

-ti (Jfirm no n) . . . 818. 

-, ki, (KtM-tono ) 888. 884. 

Si, a muare of length 
Sf)i, in, tan, verb . 
, adverb 
, adverb 

Si-dai, word exprett. of relation 

SidsiUMni, adverb . . 
Stta wJ, conjunction 

SiJttre domo, conjunction 

SHar* ni yotte, conjunction 

Sikati , conjunction 






































-sikd-siki, terrain, of adject 124. 

Slkdsi-nagdra , conjunction 333. 

Sikasi-naffdramd, conjunction 334. 

Sikdto, adverb 181. 

-siJci, terrain, of adject 110. 119. 

Sikirini, adverb 179. 

-siku, adv. terrain 299. 

Simav)i, u, Sima)i, u, verb 298. 

Sim)e, uru, verb, terrain 235. 238. 

Sin, reflect, pronoun 93. 

Sina-zinano , expression indicating the plural . 55. 

Sin-zi, Sei-zi, Kai-sto, a form of writing ... 5. 

Sita, word express, of relation 186. 

Sitagdtte, Sitagaute, Sitagoote, word express. 

of relation 195. 

Sitdni, adverb 178. 

-site, = simete 240. 

-site (*'-) and nite, =r narite 270. 


-stu, siyu, sit, su, siu-dzyu, suffix expressing 

the plural 58. 

Siu-i,- word express, of relation 190. 

Siv)i, = Sf)i, iru, yuru 265. 

Sty a feu, Sdku, a measure of length 166. 

Slydkii, saint, a measure of capacity 168. 

Siydku, sdk', a weigth 169. 

Siyo and Set, notation of time 163. 

Siyo-siyo, adverb 178. 

Siyo, expression of the plural 56. 

-siyu, su, suffix for sort-numbers 144. 

Siyu, siyu no, expression indicating the plural. 55. 

So, adverb of place 79. 

-so, emphatic suffix 199. 252. 301. 

-so, -so-dzi, terrain, of numerals 139. 

Soba, word express, of relation 190. 

Sobani, adverb 178. 

SoJco, pronoun 80. 

Solco-moto, = Asoko-moto, pronoun 81. 

So&ti, a Chinese numerative (26) 154. 

SokH-zini, adverb 179. 

Somo-somo , conjunction 345. 

Son, pron., honorary prefix 76. 

Sdndta, =. Sono + kata, pronoun 84. 

Sono, Sono-moto, pronoun 84. 

Sono fokdni, adverb 177. 

Sono notsi, adverb 180. 

Sono told, adverb 179. 

Sono tokdroni, adverb 178. 

Sono iie ni adverb 178. 

Soo, a Chinese numerative (17) 153. 

Soo, adverb 181. 

Soo-sitd Tear a, Soo site kara, conjunctions . . 334. 

Soo wa, conjunction 334. 

Soo-zi, a form of writing 6. 

Sore, pron 87. 

Sore da kara, conjunction 334. 340. 

Sore de, conjunction 334. 

Soredemd, conjunction 345. 

Soredewa, conjunction 334. 

Soregdsi, pronoun 88. 

Sore kara, conjunction 334. 340. 

Soreni yotte, conjunction 334. 

Soro-soro, Soro-soroto, adverbs 174. 

Sosite, Sosite kara, conjunctions 334. 

So-so, adverb 178. 

Soto, word express, of relation 189. 

Sotoni, adverb 178. 

Sotsi, pronoun 82. 

Sowo poetically for Soreioo 87. 

Su, expression of the plural 56. 

-su, -zu, = tsu . . 67. 

Subete, adverb 174. 

Sudani , adverb 179. 

Sudzi, a Japanese numerative (9 1 ) 149. 

Sudzi-makdvini, adverb 178. 

Suff*)i, iru, uru, verb 266. 

Suguni, adverb , 179. 

Siigurete, adv. expressing the superlative . . . 135. 

Sui-bun, adverb 175. 

Sukdburu, adverb 175. 

Sukdsi, adv. expressing the comparative . 131. 175. 

Suku-nald told, adverb 181. 

Suku-ndku md, adverb 175. 

Suku ndku tdmo, adverb 177. 

Sumdvi, r=r Simavi, verb 298. 

Sumiyakdni, adverb 174. 

Sun, a measure of length 167. 

Sunavatsi, conjunction 335. 

Surd, adverb 177. 

Sutegdna, Teniwova, Teniva, Oki-zi, Jap. deno- 
minations for particle 43. 

Suzi-kaini, adverb 178. 


To,, Da, adv. of place, prefix to interr. pron. 79. 97 

-/a, -ta)ki, ku, si, desiderative verb 296. 

Tabi, an obsolete verb 314. 

Tabi, Tabi-me, suffix to numerals .... 143. 144. 

Tabi gotoni, conjunction 337. 

Tabi-tabi, adverb 181. 

Tabi tabini, conjunction 337. 



Ta-lun, adverb 182. 

Tada, adverb 176. 

Tada ima, adverb 179. 

Tadasi, conjunction 335. 

Toga, Daga, interr. pron 82. 

Tagamni, Ai-tagaini, expression of reciprocity. 95. 

Tai-gai, adverb 175. 

Taino kotoba, Jap. denom. for noun 43. 

Tai-sauno, Tai-teino, expressions indicating the 

plural 55. 

Tai site, word express, of relation 195. 

Tai-soo, adverb 175. 

Tai-tei, adverb 175. 

Takari = Taku-ari, Too-art, contin. verb. . . 297. 

Tak&dnni, adverb 175. 

Takv.-ta.nno, expression indicating the plural. . 55. 

Takusi (Tain), verb 80. 

Tamasakani, adverb 174. 

Tama-tama, adverb 177. 

Tamavdr)i, v., ATamauri, Tam6r)i, u, verb of 

courtesy 315. 

Tamavfi, u, A Tama)i, v., Tamoo, verb of cour- 
tesy 314. 

Tame, word express, of relation 195. 

Tameni, conjunction 843. 

Tan, Dan, a Chinese numerative (10) 152. 

Tan, a superficial measure 168. 

Tdno (Tono), Dd-no (Dono), Donna, interr. 

pronouns 85. 

Tare, Dare, Dore, interr. pronouns 88. 

-tar)i, u, =. te + ari, terrain, of adjec- 
tives 114. 116. 219. 

-tar)i, u, A ta , da, dla, verbal terrain., 

auxiliary verb of the past tense 220. 

tan)ki, si, ken, verb, terrain, of the past tense. 228. 

Tankdni, adverb 174. 181. 

Tasinde, adverb 176. 

Ta-siyo, Ta-lo, adverb 178. 

Tate-mdttitrar)e, urn, honorary passive of Tate- 

mdMlru 817. 

Ta(e-mdtitir)i, , verb of courtesy 816. 

Tatri, suffix expressing the plural 58. 

Tatsi-matri, adverb 179. 

Tail-sen, adverb 181. 

Tawdra, Pioo, a measure of capacity 168. 

-te, suffix express, of relation 61. 178. 185. 

-to, -de, verb, terrain, of the gerund 208. 

-te ari, -te on, -te in, verb, terrain 218. 

Te-dzti-ltara, pronoun 98. 

-te)ki t -si, ken, = tan)ki, ri, ten 228. 

Te-mdye, Te-mai A Te-mee, Temae-tama, Temat- 
sama-gata, pron. indicating the person spo- 
ken to 75. 103. 

-te-mo, =r Site-mo, mo 102. 

Temtoova, Tenita, Stttegana, Oki-si, Japanese 
denominations for Particle 42. 

To, Do, adverb of place 79. 97. 

To and Ye, distinction of the names of the ten- 
series cycle 165. 

To, Tomdtti, a measure of capacity 168. 

-to -to 191. 

-to, suffix express, of relation . . 61. 70. 185. 190. 

-to, tote, = to nte 289. 290. 291. 343. 

To-kakH, adverb 177. 

T6ki, Doki, a space of time 168. 

Told, Tokini, Tokittiva, 7Wuw, conjunctions. S36. 

Toki MI yotte va, adverb 189. 

Toicitoo tit tutu, the changing of the hoars . . 166. 

Tofcdro, Tokorode, Tokdromi, conjunctions . . 886. 

Tokoro, noun substantive 97. 

TokV, Kttn, Yomi 4. 80. 

Tomdya, Tomai, a Jap. numeratire (18) . . . 149. 

-fdmd, -vuf, concessive suffix, conjunetion. 206. 844 

-tomo, -domo, expression of the plural 57. 

Tomo kakumo, adverb 177. 

Tomom, adverb 176. 

Tonari, word express, of relation . 190. 

Tono, DOMO, (Tamo Da HO), interr. pronoun . 88. 

Tonto, adverb 174. 

Tbo-M, Kara-Mo, a Chin, dialect 80. 

Tookn, adverb 178. 

Todri, word express, of relation 19L 

Todrini, conjunction 888. 

Too-tcn-tar)i , , verb 215. 296. 

Todte, = Tomrite, word express, of relation. 198. 

Tootcva, word express, of relation 194. 

Too-st*, adverb 181. 

Tordnm^, HTM, Torat)a, tarm, verb of courtesy 822. 

Ton, Tote, JVM, year 154. 

-tote, conjunction 848. 

to tt mo, = -to SM t* mo; -fota, = to 
UWM 70. 10S. 

Ttttewa, tattoo* = tooteta 198. 

Totont, word express, of relation 198. 

Tti (Homo, Y6rddtm), numeral 140. 

tti, -tm t (dsi), termtn. of numerals. 189. 

Tti, ttira noon, suffix of pronouns . . 80. 88. 187. 

Ttikd-dtikami, TJU*~foro t adverbs 179. 

lnka-dt*k)i, , verb of courtesy 825. 

adverb 178. 



Tsin, Maro, pronouns 186. 

Tsito, Tsitto, adverb 176. 

Tsiu, Setsu 158. 

Tsiu, Ziyoo, Ge, numerals 143. 

Tsiu, = Naka 189. 

Tsiu, adverb 178. 

Tsiyau, Ttoo, a measure of length 167. 

Tsiyau, Tsoo, a superficial measure 168. 

Tfiyao,Tsoo, a Chinese numerative (11). . . . 152. 

Tsiyau-do, Two-do, adverb 175. 

Tsiyoto, Tsiotto, Tsdito, adverb . 179. 

Tso, a Chinese numerative (16) 153. 

-tsu, a suffix express, of relation ... 61. 67. 294. 

-tsu, termin. of numerals 138. 

-tsu, -tsutsii; tsur}i, u, variation of n)i, u. 231. 232. 

Tsubo, Pu, a superficial measure. , 168. 

Tsudzuru, verb 231. 

Tsugi, Saki (Ato , Utiro) 143. 

Tsuini, adverb 179. 

Twite, Tsukite, word express, of relation . . . 194. 

Tsuk}e, uru, verb of courtesy 322. 

Tsuki, Tsukite, Tsuite, = Aida, = -ni yottek\. 

Tsuki, Getsu, Gwats\ month 159. 

TsuK)i, iru, verb 266. 

Tsukti or Tsukd-matsuri, = tsukai- or tsukae- 

mdtsiiri, verb of courtesy . , , , . . 316. 

TjtH#fo'ra&i,. adverb 174. 

Tsune-dzune, Tsuneni, adverb 181. 

Tsusima-won , a dialect (Go-won) . 30. 

Tsutdite, Ts'tatte, word express, of relation. . 193. 

Tsutsi, noun 80. 82. 

-tsutsu, improperly nsed for dzutsu 232. 

Tsuu, a Chinese numerative (24) 153. 


-it, verbal termin 200. 201. 

-M for ku, termin. of adject . 113. 

me, Ume, Mule, Be, = m + he 291. 

Ukegatte, adverb s .. ^ , . 176. 

TJke-tamavar)i , M, A Uke.-tam6ri , verb of courtesy. 315. 

TJra, word express, of relation 187. 

Uram)i, uru, verb ...................... 269. 

Urdni, adverb 178. 

-uri, (-an, -iri, -on), contin. verb, termin. . . 217. 
-uru, (-eru, -iru\ verb, termin. of the aubst. form. 201. 

"Uruu-dzuki , intercalary month 160. 

-usi, (-asi, -esi, -isi, -osi), causat. verb, termin. 235. 

Usiro (Ato), Saki, Tsugi 143. 

TJsiro, word express, of relation 187. 

Usironi, adverb 178. 

TJtd, lyric poems 38. 

Utdgavurakiiva, adverb ' . . 182. 

Utsi, word expressive of relation 188. 

TJtn, Tltsini, Utsiwa, conjunction 337. 

Utrini, adverb 178. 

Uve, Uye, word express, of relation 186. 

Uye, conjunction 337. 

Uyeni, adverb 178. 


-vet, -wa, -la, isolating suffix. 60. 61. 106. 131. 254. 302. 
-ve, -e, -he, -ye, suffix expressing the dative and 

terminative 61. 67. 185. 

-ve, -e, -he, -ye, suffix of multiplying numerals. 144. 


Wa, adverb of place 79. 

-wa, -va, -la, isolating suffix. 60. 61. 131. 254. 302. 

Wa, Fa, a Japanese numerative (6) 149. 

Wa, Fa, a Chinese numerative (4) 151. 

Wab)i, iru, uru, verb 267. 

Wa-dono, pronoun 80. 

WadzuTcani, adverb 175. 

Wdga, pronoun 83. 

Waga-mi, pronoun 91. 

Wagi-m6ko, = Waga-lmo'ko 83. 

Wa-gunno siwori, a Jap. book 38. 

Wa-mei-seo, a Jap. book 38. 

Wa-nami, pronoun 80. 

Wa-nusi, pronoun 80. 

Ware, pronoun 86. 103. 

Wari, Bu, Ein 147. 

Waruku, Waruu, adverb 174. 

Watdkusi, pronoun 80. 103. 

Wi, I, noun substantive 217. 263. 

-wo, emphatic suffix 62. 

-wo, suffix expressing the accusative 61. 62. 

Wokiy , improperly used for Oki-zi, Jap. deno- 
mination for particle 43. 

Won, Koye 4. 29. 


Ta, lya, To, lyo, adverbs expressing the com- 
parative 131. 

ya . . .ya, -yara . . .yaran, conjunctions .... 331. 

Ta-bunni, adverb 180. 

Yagate, adverb 179. 

yaka, termin. of adjectives 117. 

Yamdto-lumi , Nippon-sto-ki , a Jap. book. 5. 29. 36. 

Yamdto-kdna , a form of writing 6. 



Yamdto-kotobd, Furu-koto, old Japanese. . . 35. 36. 

Yam)i, u, a verb 298. 

-yara, -yaran, -ya, conjunctions 331. 

Tara-yara, adverb 174. 

Yar)i, u, verb of courtesy 323. 

Ydsiiku, Ydsuu, adverb 174. 

Ya-tiiu, adverb 180. 

Ydtsu-k6, A Ydkko, Ydtsii-kdre, Ydtsii-bdra, 

pronouns 74. 

Yau-ni, Yoo-ni, adverb and conjunction. . 181. 338. 

Yau-yaku, Yoo-yaku, adverb 179. 

Yau-yau site, Yoo-yoo site, adverb 176. 

Yavdri, conjunction 334. 

ye, -e,-he t -ve, suffix expressing the dative and 

terminative 61. 67. 185. 

-ye, -e, -he, -ve, suffix of multiplying numerals. 144. 

Ye and To , distinction of the names of the ten- 
series cycle 155. 

-y)e, urn; e, uru, verb, termin. of the passive 

form 240. 241. 

Yeda, a Jap. numerative (151 149. 

Yen, = dollar 172. 

Yen-fooni, adverb 178. 

Yi, verb, root of -yori 72. 

Yo, adverb of place 79. 

-yo, an exclamation 62. 199. 

Yo (Maro, Tsin), pronoun 86. 

Yo/odo, adverb 175. 

Yo-fodo, adverb 136. 174. 

Yo-keini, adverb 17B. 

Yokoni, Yoko-samani, adverb 178. 

Y6ku, 7<fo, adverb 174. 

Ydkui)i, u, uru, a verb 294. 

Yomi, Kun, Tdkti 4. 80. 

Yono, pronoun 84. 

Yoo, a Chinese numerative (18) 152. 

yori, suffix express, of relation. 61. 71. 182. 185. 838. 

-yorite, = -yotte, word express, of relation . 194. 

-yori-yori, adverb 181. 

Yorddzu (Homo, Tn), numeral 140. 

YoronkH, Yordnu, adverb 174. 

Yoso for Yoko, pronoun 81. 


Yoto Icara, Yoioni, Yatoye, adverbs 178. 

-yotte, = -yonte, word express, of relation . 194. 

yotte, conjunction 334. 

You, adverb 174. 

Youno kotobd, Jap. denomin for verb. . . . 43. 

YUe, Ytieni, conjunctions S34. S39. 

Yuu and Si, Chinese expressions indicating the 

gender of birds 53. 


-zaran, -zu to nan, -z* mo arena*, neg. verb 

termin 253. 

-zar)i, v, neg. verb, termin 250. 353. 

-zari)ki, ', ken, neg. verb, termin 253. 

Ze-hi, adverb 177. 

Zen, = Move, word express, of relation . . . 194. 

Zeni (Sen, Man), a copper coin 171. 

Zen-zenni, adverb 174. 

Z}i, u, urn, = $)', , nrn 283. 

-)', M, neg. verb, termin. = nti 947. 

Zi (Itti-zi), a silverweigth 171. 

Zi-bun, pronoun 94. 

-zide ari, neg. verb, termin 260. 

Zi-gini yottara, Zi-gini yotte, adverbs 188. 

-ziki, = -nti, termin. of adjectives. 119. 

Zikini, adverb 179. 

Ziku, Chinese Numerative (21) 153. 

Zi-rin, pronoun 93. 

Zifst (Nitn), Ka, day 160. 

Zittuni, adverb 181. 

Ztyao, = Uye, word express, of reUtion . . . 180. 

Ziyoo, Tnu, Oe (Kami, Naka, Simo) 143. 

Ziyoo, Zoo, a measure of length 167. 

Ziyu-bunni, adverb 176. 

Zi-zen, pronoun 94. 

-zo, cmphat. suffix 89. 98. 

so, = -to, emphatic suffix 301. 

Zon-bttnnd n-dai, adverb 188. 

foro, = nn + ton 877. 

-tu, in = ttn 67. 

tn, turn, znran, snnba, verb. term. . . 813. 814. 

, adverb 180. 171. 

Hoffmann, Johann Joseph 

A Japanese grammar. Second